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Microsoft word - ajso syllabus

Aims of the Syllabus
The syllabus of ASEAN Plus Three Junior Science Odyssey (APT JSO) lists the skills and
areas of knowledge the participants should be familiar with for this competition.

It thus serves as a guideline for developing tasks to the Local Scientific Committee of the
hosting country as well as help the leaders of the participating countries to effectively train
their students for this competition.
In order to keep the syllabus up to date, it should be revalidated every three years and if
necessary shortened or expanded.
Structure and Content of the Syllabus
APT JSO is a general Science competition. Its syllabus is therefore, not strictly divided into the disciplines of Biology, Chemistry and Physics and aims to highlight basic general concepts in Science. This conceptual approach is also meant to encourage the development of problems of interdisciplinary content and relevance. The content of the syllabus is based on: ㆍ the former syllabus of APT JSO; and, ㆍ the syllabi for middle school students in the participating countries. Omissions and additions were made if considered suitable. Remark about problems given at APT JSO
More complex or additional topics may be investigated in the problems provided sufficient information to work on the questions is given in the problems themselves. This may include topics in Science that are not listed below as well as the use of sophisticated apparatus in the experiments. All problems should be given using SI-units. If other units are used the conversion to SI-units should be explained. The experimental problems at the APT JSO should only employ equipment that most of the students are familiar with and that may be found at schools. Furthermore, they should not involve dissection of animals. A. General Science Skills
As a general prerequisite, the students should be familiar with and be able to: ㆍ employ and explain scientific methods ㆍ devise and accurately describe methods/experiments to test hypotheses ㆍ assess the validity of different sources of information and be aware that data might be inaccurate or even wrong ㆍ adequately represent data in tables, diagrams and graphs ㆍ interpret data and write up reports
B. Content Knowledge in Natural Sciences and Mathematics
1. Particles, Waves and Matter

Matter is structured from the smallest particle to the size of the universe. The microscopic structure of matter is responsible for the features we observe macroscopically. The students should be aware of this structure and be familiar with the following concepts: (neutrons, protons, electrons, nature of bonding, concept of electron shells) • Isotopes • Elements and compounds • Composition of molecules, chemical substances, polymers and fibers • Mixture, colloids and suspensions • Organization and structure of periodic table • Solids, liquids, gases and plasmas - characteristics and differences • Lattices as a special form of solid matter • Properties of matter density, volume, electrical conductivity, insulators and conductors, elastic behaviour, thermal expansion, (specific) heat capacity, defining properties of metals, non-metals, alloys and ores • Phase transitions and their influence on the properties of matter (latent heat, phase diagrams, change of volume and density) • (structural lsomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, compounds of up to five carbon atoms(alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, carboxylic acids, esters, amides)) • Frequency, wavelength, speed of propagation and its relation • Difference between transversal and longitudinal waves • Superposition of waves • Classical Doppler effect • Sound as longitudinal pressure wave, perception of sound • Wave and particle interpretation of light • Propagation and speed of light in vacuum and media, refractive index • Connection between wavelength and coulour, electromagnetic spectrum • Reflection and refraction of light at mirrors and lenses (angle of incident and reflected beams, snell's law, total internal reflection) • Formation of images with mirrors and lenses (focal length, thin lens formula, magnification, magnifying glasses, microscopes, telescopes, glasses) • Nature of α-, β-, γ- decay • Exponential decay law and Half-life time 2. Energy
Energy is essential in our everyday life as energy conversion is the reason for many dynamical phenomena in our world. Energy is therefore one of the main concepts in Science. The students are expected to know about the following topics. ㆍ Nature of energy and energy conservation ㆍ Various forms of energy (bonding energy, kinetic energy, potential energy, heat, activation energy, energy stored ㆍ Transfer of energy (e.g. mechanisms of heat transfer, transfer of energy via waves) ㆍ Energy conversion/Transformation and its efficiency (e.g. conversion between potential and kinetic energy, bonding energy and temperature or the loss of energy to the environment by radiation) ㆍ Sources of energy (e.g. for animals, plants, societies and engines. Fossil and renewable energy source) ㆍ Power (e.g. muscular power, power output of engines or stars, power dissipation in resistors) 3. Interactions
Conversion of energy and our perception of the world around us are only possible due to interactions. The students should know about and be able to work with the following concepts: • Nature of forces and types of forces (gravitation force, electrostatic force, magnetic force, static and dynamic friction forces, buoyancy, Van-der-Waals force) • Mass and weight, centre of mass • Newton's laws, inertial systems • Kinematics of a point mass: linear and circular motion (position, speed, acceleration, angular frequency, centripetal force, Kepler's law, Movement of the earth around the sun) (liner and angular momentum, elastic and inelastic collisions, conservation of momentum in closed systems) • Levers • Elastic forces, Hooke's law and harmonic motions • Pressure (atmospheric pressure, pressure in liquids) ㆍ Electric, magnetic and gravitation fields ㆍ Type of chemical bonding-nature, structure and strength (covalent and ionic bonds, hydrogen bonding and van-der waals interaction) • Chemical equations-balancing and stoichiometry • Types of chemical reactions (acid/base neutralisations, redox reactions, thermal decompositions) • Basic and most common reactions for determination of unknown substances • Rate of reactions, factors affecting reaction rate like catalysts, temperature and • Dynamic equilibrium and Le Chatelier's principle • Common ion effect ㆍ Diffusion, osmosis and surface tension ㆍ Principle of thin layer and paper chromatography ㆍ Effects of radioactivity and light on organisms ㆍ Function of the different human senses (Haptic perception, perception of light, sound, taste, odour, signal transmission along nerves) ㆍ Forms of communication (e.g. function of hormones and pheromones in living organisms) ㆍ Behavioural concepts in animals and humans 4. Structure, properties and functions
The different constituents of a system usually have specific properties which allow then to fulfill their function in the intended way. The students should know the structure of the following components and understand in which way they fulfill their functions. • Basic structure of cells and its constituents • Differences between animal, plant cells and bacteria • Biochemistry of molecules-carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids • Anatomy and function of main organs and tissues in animals and humans (lung, heart, kidney, liver, digestive system, sensory organs, skin, blood) ㆍ Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts • Properties of acids and bases • pH values and neutralisation • indicators • Formation and effect of acidic rain • Electrolysis (migration of ions, Faraday constant, electrochemical cells) 5. Systems
Things in life are organized in open or closed systems. It is therefore, important to not only look at the components of a system and its interdependencies but also at the system as a whole. The students should be able to employ the concepts of: ㆍ Continuity principles in closed systems/cycles ㆍ Equilibriums (e.g of forces, chemical/ionic equilibrium, thermodynamical equilibrium, ecosystems in equilibrium) ㆍ Scales of nature (e.g. in biological systems, astrophysics) ㆍ Cycles in nature (carbon cycle, water cycle, Nitrogen cycle, oxygen cycle, ozone cycle, renewable and non- renewable natural resources, earth's climate) • Levels of organization in the biosphere • Factors affecting ecosystems(abiotic and biotic) • How organisms live together-insect states, symbiosis, parasitism • Food chains • Scavengers/decomposers ㆍ Awareness of the pollution effects of different modes of power generation • Transformation of matter and energy in organisms • Digestive an circulatory systems • Basic Knowledge of integumentary, respiratory, excretory, nervous, immune and • Respiration and exchange of gases • Absorption by roots, diffusion, osmosis • Photosynthesis • Tropism of plants (resistors and wires, bulbs, voltage sources, Ammeters, Voltmeters, capacitors) • Ohm's law, charge, current, voltage • Series and parallel circuits Kirchhoff's laws • Difference between AC and DC currents/voltages • Qualitative knowledge of electromagnetic induction and Lenz's law • Basic principles of generators and motors ㆍ Thermodynamical systems (absolute) temperature, ideal gas law, isothermal, isochoric and isobaric processes, Hess's law, combustion cycles ㆍ Astrophysical systems (main characteristics of stars, planets, moons, comets, asteroids, solar system, galaxies) 6. Development and Evolution
Living organisms are not static and undergo constant change and adaption. The students are expected to show proficiency in the following areas: ㆍ Strategies of environmental adaptation (characteristics of adaptation, structural and behavioural adaptation) ㆍ Theory of evolution (biodiversity, natural selection, neo-Darwinian revolution, evidence of evolution) ㆍ Cell cycle and cell division (meiosis, mitosis, haploidy and polyploidy) ㆍ Reproduction in humans, animals and plants • principles of creation of new life • human reproductive organs and sex cells • changes that take place in boy's and girl's bodies during puberty • development of babies during pregnancy ㆍ Genes, chromosomes and genetics (Mendel's laws, mutations, genetic disorders, pedigree analysis) (microorganisms causing common diseases, viruses, genetic defects) • immune systems • principles of vaccination • antibiotics such as the penicillin group 7. Mathematics skills
The emphasis of the tests should be in natural Sciences. Nevertheless mathematics is an indispensable tool to the natural Sciences. The students should therefore know about and be able to make use of: • fractions • logarithms and exponential functions • powers and roots • polynomials (e.g. solving quadratic equations) • trigonometric functions ㆍ transformations of equations to obtain linear relations ㆍ simple geometry (geometry of triangles and circles, area and volumes of basic palnar forms and solids) ㆍ basic vector calculus (decomposition and addition of vectors) ㆍ simple statistics (mean values, standard deviations, basic notion of probabilities) ㆍ error estimation (by means of standard deviation or Min-Max analysis, difference between accuracy and precision) ㆍ rounding of numbers and representing data with the proper number of digits/significant figures C. Laboratory Skills
The content knowledge and general Science skills part of the Syllabus provide the basis for all the experimental problems. In addition, the students should be familiar with laboratory work. They should in particular, be able to: ㆍ work in the laboratory following safety regulations ㆍ employ basic techniques for measuring the quantities mentioned in part B ㆍ make observations using the five senses ㆍ identify and use basic laboratory equipment ㆍ use more sophisticated equipment if proper instructions are given ㆍ collect data from an experiment being aware that instruments affect measurements ㆍ Identify error sources and estimate their effects


Contribution to the guidelines regarding the content of a new strategy to attract and encourage female students to careers in set/technology

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