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Microsoft word - bcg instructions.docBCG Oncology, PC 16620 N 40th St., Suite E Patient Instructions for BCG Immunotherapy
BCG stands for Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, a living but weakened tuberculosis vaccine developed
by Drs. Calmette and Guerin in France in 1921. It has been and continues to be used as a vaccine
to protect against TB and has been given to over one billion infants. Based on studies directed by
Dr. Lamm, BCG was first approved by the FDA in 1990 to treat bladder cancer. It is currently
the most effective treatment for CIS (carcinoma in situ) and high grade, non muscle invasive
Risks of BCG therapy are significant, but the benefits of treatment far outweigh the risks for most
patients. Like aspirin and almost every medicine, BCG treatment can be fatal. (Many more
people have died from aspirin than BCG.) The living bacteria can cause serious infection and
allergic reactions if it is taken up in the blood stream. Serious reactions can include infection of
the liver, lungs, kidneys, testes, bone and blood vessels. BCG is sensitive to antibiotics, but only
certain antibiotics such as Cipro, Levaquin, Ofloxacin, isoniazid, rifampin and ethambutol. The
most serious BCG reaction is sepsis- blood stream infection associated with hypotension (low
blood pressure or shock). When this occurs steroid treatment is also required.
What to expect with BCG: You should not expect to have any serious reaction- these are quite
rare and can be avoided by reducing the dose of BCG. With the first and second of the 6 initial
weekly BCG instillations most people have no symptoms other than the irritation associated with
passing the catheter. Beginning with the second or third instillation you may have some mild
burning and increased frequency of urination, and occasionally some bleeding occurs. These
symptoms often increase with later treatments, but if they are bothersome the dose of BCG can be
reduced. Burning and frequency generally last for 1 to 3 days and may be associated with
malaise or mild “flu-like” symptoms typical of many vaccinations. Sometimes nausea may
occur, along with low grade fever or a mild chilling sensation. Dr. Lamm will give you a
prescription for two antibiotics to take should shaking chills, temperature above 101, or severe,
prolonged burning and frequency occur. These antibiotics (usually Cipro or Ofloxacin twice
daily and isoniazid once daily) are specific for BCG. Please call before taking the antibiotics, but
if you cannot connect, go ahead and take as directed.
The BCG Schedule generally used is my 3 week maintenance program that was found in the
Southwest Oncology Group study to markedly reduce not only tumor recurrence but also disease
progression when compared to 6 week induction BCG alone. I have modified the regimen as
follows: Full strength BCG is used for the initial 6 instillations, often with the addition of skin
vaccination as used in my original studies. The dose is reduced if needed to avoid side effects.
Maintenance BCG (once a week for 3 weeks) is begun at 3 months using 1/3 dose BCG, unless
no side effects were noted during induction. 3 week maintenance is repeated at 6, 12, 18 and 24
months, and then at years 3, 4, 5 and 6 followed by every other year for years 8, 10 and 12. The
extended maintenance beyond 3 years is used only for patients who are at increased risk for
progression due to high grade tumor, CIS, or lamina propria invasion.
Call for high fever, shaking chills, flank pain, or other serious side effects. Rarely a reaction to
BCG may occur many months after BCG has been given. Night sweats, weight loss, or chronic
illness can occur.
Questions? Most questions have already been asked and answered on my website:
BCGOncology.com. Just click “Ask Dr. Lamm” if you have a new one!
BCG Oncology, PC 16620 N 40th St., Suite E
2013: Alt A, Hilgers R-D, Tura A, Nassar K, Schneider T, Hüber A, Januschowski K, Grisanti S, Lüke J, Lüke M (2013) The Neuroprotective Potential of Rho-Kinase Inhibitioin in Promoting Cell Survival and Reducing Reactive Gliosis in Response to Hypoxia in Isolated Bovine Retina. Cell Physiol Biochem 32: in press. Rassaei M, Thelen M, Abumuaileq R, Hescheler J, Luke M, Schneider T (2013) Ef