J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000, 122, 11212-11218 Highly Enantioselective 1,2-Addition of Lithium Acetylide-EphedrateComplexes: Spectroscopic Evidence for Reaction Proceeding via a2:2 Tetramer, and X-ray Characterization of Related Complexes Feng Xu,* Robert A. Reamer,* Richard Tillyer, Jordan M. Cummins, Edward J. J. Grabowski, Paul J. Reider, David B. Collum,† and John C. Huffman‡ Cont
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THE SOUTH AFRICAN SQUID MANAGEMENT INDUSTRIAL ASSOCIATION
DIE SUID- AFRIKAANSE PYLINKVIS BESTUURSNYWERHEIDVERENINGING
MINUTES OF THE RESEARCH COMMITTEE MEETING
DATE: 23 APRIL 2013
VENUE: TALHADO FISHING ENTERPRISE PTY (LTD)
The chairman welcomed all present members and presented the financial status of SASMIA. He indicated that SASMIA currently has R386 000 available for project funding, while the total cost of the five submitted 1. PROJECT COMMENTS
Due to the limited funding this year, SASMIA will only fund existing projects for 2013 with highest priority 2. PROJECTS PRESENTATION – PROF. TRIS WOOLRIDGE
2.1 PROJECT #6: CLOSED SEASON RESEARCH SUPPORT
Technical and logistical support for students conducting squid research in South Technical and logistical support for active South African squid scientists conducting Technical and logistical support for visiting scientists (e.g. from the UK, Brazil and Canada) conducting squid research in South Africa Service and maintain long-term environmental network of instruments on the south Does the use of anchor chains by commercial squid fishing vessels damage squid egg beds? If so, does this damage (2) break egg pods free from the egg beds, and (2) influence the hatching success Does a genetic break point in the squid population exist in the areas between St Francis Bay, Plettenberg Bay and the Western Agulhas Bank? Is the assessment of the squid resource on an area disaggregated basis feasible? The Tsistikamma ADCP current meter shows clearly that the most prevalent current along this coast is eastward (70% of the year). This implies paralarvae are transported toward the Port Alfred divergent upwelling zone in which they will be lost to the Agulhas Current. Will this really happen How often are the temperature and turbidity thresholds exceeded on the inshore and offshore spawning grounds (Kromme Bay L-T monitoring buoy, L-T south coast instrumental network and For morphometrics and genetics see Sauer and Shaw application. The environment on the south coast is continuously monitored by an instrumental network of stations which measure wind and currents at Storms River, and temperatures at 10 stations (Mossel Bay, Knysna, Tsitsikamma, St Francis Bay, Thyspunt, Mosterts Hoek, Mangolds Pool) both inshore and offshore. This network will be serviced and data for the past 6 months will be down-loaded and placed on the websitThis network also collects the greater environmental conditions for the November closed season experiments. Diving surveys will be conducted towards the end of the closed season-beginning of open season, to monitor the damage caused to squid egg beds by commercial vessel anchor chains. The effect of double anchors vs. single anchors will also be investigated. Damaged egg pods will then be collected and transported to Cape Town where hatching success and paralarval abnormalities will be investigated. Undamaged egg pods will also be collected during the squid fishery closed season for paralarval Samples will be collected for morphological, genetic and (possibly). Determination of where genetic breaks exist in the west and south coast squid population and the The transport and distribution of paralarvae on the south coast has been studied and initial results published. However, the eastwards transport of paralarvae towards the Port Alfred upwelling cell and the consequent advection of paralarvae off the narrow shelf need to be investigated further. paralarvae to be lost during periods where the majority of spawning occurs east of St Francis Bay. It is expected that the use of double chains causes significant damage to squid egg beds. It has been suggested this damage could reduce hatching success and so result in recruitment failure. However, this needs to be confirmed by determining the total percentage of eggs damaged by double and single anchor chains on a spawning site, damaged egg incubation studies and rearing studies. BENEFITS TO SASMIA/SQUID FISHING INDUSTRY All of the research mentioned in this proposal is geared towards the increased understanding of this species and hence improved management of the fishery. The project title must be changed to “Closed Season Research Support Project”. The project is approved for R80 000 funding for 2013. 1.2 PROJECT #19A: INVESTIGATING AREA-DISAGGREGATED MODELS FOR MANAGEMENT OF THE
CHOKKA SQUID RESOURCE.
The project builds on the success of the genetic and morphological studies carried out between 2008 and 2010. Test for a genetic break point among squid populations in the area between St Francis Bay, Plettenberg Bay and the Western Agulhas Bank. Contribute to validation of catch and effort in the jig fishery. Evaluate the feasibility of assessments of the resource on an area disaggregated basis. Additionally we hope to be able to complete the study on the analysis of the level of paternity bias among L. reynaudi males through genetic analysis The lack of spawning squid inshore between 2008 and 2010 hindered the completion of this work. Do the results of this study confirm the previous results? Is there a distinct genetic breakpoint somewhere along the southern Cape coast, suggesting that we manage the resource as separate stocks on the South East Coast and the Western Agulhas Bank / How accurate is the jig catch and effort data? Can the resource to be assessed on an area disaggregated basis? Sampling trips ans 3 trips (two weeks each) to DAFF Information which will assist in developing future management plans for this species, particularly with BENEFITS TO SASMIA/SQUID FISHING INDUSTRY Better understanding of current catch and effort data and information on the stock structure The project leaders need to identify the MSc student. The project is supported for R65 000 funding for 2013. 1.3 PROJECT #18 (CONTINUATION): ASSESSING THE IMPORTANCE OF DEEP SPAWNING GROUNDS (DSGs)
FOR FISHERY MANAGEMENT.
Duration: 4 years – final year of a revised project (2013) To assess the importance of deep spawning and why it occurs. To determine whether deep spawning is a separate process from that which occurs To assess whether deep spawning could be disturbed by parachute squid fishing. To assess the potential recruitment of deep spawned larvae vs. inshore spawned Provide the first description of the offshore reef environment off the EC coast. We know spawning on the mid shelf occurs but are the large acoustic “mushroom” targets observed by Roberts et al. (2002) indeed aggregations of spawning squid? When does spawning occur on the DSGs? Is it seasonal? Could the “parachute” deep fishing fleet target/ remove animals from the deep spawning aggregations as does fishing inshore? Or are they removing feeding squid in the upper mixed layer implying the spawning animals near the seabed are protected? Do spawners move between the DSGs and those inshore? i.e. do they use both areas normally despite the different environments, or are we dealing with different spawning populations with shown to lower catches i.e. disturb spawning. It has been hypothesized that in such cases, inshore spawning squid move onto the DSGs to clearer bottom water. But is this deeper water free of Is spawning on the DSGs natural or is it forced i.e. turbidity events on the inshore spawning grounds force spawning squid to deeper cold but clear waters? How do the inshore and offshore spawning grounds differ in terms of substrate type, environmental conditions, macrobenthic organisms and benthic and pelagic fish communities? Oosthuisen and Roberts (2010) showed that in general bottom temperatures are lower on the DSGs which will prolong egg incubation. But their data did indicate a “warming” of the bottom layer. Is this seasonal and do spawning squid make use of this warming to then spawn in the deep? Are paralarvae hatched on the DSG successfully recruited? External hard drive (hydrodynamic models & model output Supervisor meetings x2Flights x2 (CT to PE) Car hire (x4 days) Fuel (Uitenhage – Grahamstown x4) Free Thesis printing, ring binding (6 examination copies, 4 final copies) That benthic turbidity events are commonly found on the inshore spawning grounds but do not occur on the DSGs, and hence are attractive for spawning. There is seasonal warming in the deep bottom water which corresponds with spawning i.e. spawning squid (determined by histological analyses) are using the warming to decrease the egg As with inshore spawning, offshore spawning is seasonal and peaks in summer. A large percentage of the benthic mid-shelf habitat is ideal as spawning habitat in terms of bottom morphology and environmental conditions. successfully recruited (by way of IBMs). BENEFITS TO SASMIA/SQUID FISHING INDUSTRY Understanding and quantifying mid-shelf spawning will assist in improving existing management Deep spawning is a phenomenon common to a number of loliginid species. However, this phenomenon has yet to be studied in detail. This work is therefore a valuable contribution to The work from 2012 has had to be redone pushing the project over the 3 year time frame. This was no fault of the student Also, identification of the paralarvae required specialist skill only available in Duration of this project needs to be clarification. The project is approved for R75 000 funding for 2013. 1.4. PROJECT #29: IMPLEMENTATION OF A LONG-TERM ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAMME
TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF THE THYSPUNT NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ON THE SOUTH AFRICAN SQUID
Duration: 2012 to 2014 (possibly more depending on duration of construction) Establish and implement a preliminary long-term environmental monitoring
temperature recorders-UTR, and turbidity recorders-OBS) Develop an action plan to refine and expand the LEMP from 2014 onwards. In order to implement
an extensive monitoring programme that not only covers as large an area as possible, but also addresses critical biological and life history aspects of the chokka squid, collaboration between various squid researchers is required. The initial LEMP (2013) will be implemented by BCRE and deployments, maintenance and data collection done by BCRE, DEA and Rhodes University personal and vessels. Expansion of this programme (2014) however is only possible with the support of DAFF (vessels, expertise, facilities) and the DAFF squid scientific working group. During 2013, the principal investigator for this project will, together with DAFF, DEA and Rhodes university squid scientists develop an action plan for the expansion of the monitoring programme from 2014 onwards. Implement a preliminary environmental monitoring programme specifically addressing temperature, turbidity, salinity and currents in Thys Baai and adjacent areas. Not only does this form the basis for a long-term monitoring programme, but also enables the collection of more area May-December: Ships CTD, ADCP and bathymetric surveys whenever the FRS Algoa sails past Thys Baai. There are a number of south coast oceanographic cruises throughout the year and it is possible to include this survey on all research cruises. Once DAFF vessels are operational, the Thys Baai survey can also be completed during demersal hake biomass and pelagic biomass surveys Equipment (railways lines, batteries, ropes, buoys, N.B. Five UTRs and two OBSs have already been purchased using SASMIA funding (Deep Spawning project) and these will be reused. The number of deep mooring deployed (>30m) will be dependent on the number of acoustic release costs R52 370.46; it is not BENEFITS TO SASMIA/SQUID FISHING INDUSTRY A long-term environmental monitoring programme will enable potential impacts of the Nuclear Power Plant on the marine environment and the SA squid fishery to be monitored and documented. It is essential to implement such monitoring studies before the construction phase Need clarification on the duration of the project. As a first phase this project has been given a Should further funding be required from SASMIA, a strong motivation will be required for Turbidity is an important issue and therefore there must be an emphasis on these data. The project is recommended for funding by SASMIA for R75 000. 1.5. PROJECT #33: TO PAY FOR OUTSTANDING REGISTRATION FEES TO THE UNIVERSITY OF CAPE TOWN,
PERMITTING THE APPLICANT TO GRADUATE ON MONDAY 17TH NOVEMBER 2012.
To pay for outstanding registration fees to the University of Cape Town, permitting the applicant to graduate on Monday 17th November 2012. Jean Mwicigi (PhD) was the first black female student for SASMIA to support. SASMIA is committed to dedress and therefore strongly supports her obtaining a PhD. She now works in DAFF managing the South African squid resource. This is very beneficial to SASMIA. The application has been approved for 2013 funding for R23 460.
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