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Diabetes medication-oral agents

DIABETES MEDICATION-ORAL AGENTS
AND OTHER HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS

This section will:

Describe oral agents (pills) are specific for treating type 2 diabetes.
Describe other hypoglycemic agents used for treating diabetes
Describe the different ways that hypoglycemic agents work to help
DIABETES PILLS
Diabetes pills are used by people with type 2 diabetes. Some people with type 2 diabetes can control their diabetes with exercise and diet alone, while others may take diabetes pills and/or insulin. Diabetes pills may be added to the treatment plan when meal planning and exercise don’t control the blood glucose. The only way to know if your blood glucose is within your target range is to check your blood glucose with your monitor. This way you will also know if the medication you are on is working. Your physician may stop your medication if you lose weight and no Diabetes pills are not insulin. Insulin cannot be given as a pill.
Diabetes pills are classified into 6 different classes. Each class of pills Oral agents may be combined with each other or combined with insulin if necessary to control your blood glucose. Pregnant women should not take most diabetes pills. This product was developed by the Jordan Valley Community Health Center’s Better Self Management of Diabetes Program, with grant support from the Missouri Foundation for Health.
(See the medication chart for more detail at end of section)
1. Sulfonylureas – stimulate the pancreas to make and release more

insulin (these drugs can cause low blood sugar)
A. First Generation Sulfonylureas (older agents)
B. Second Generation Sulfonylureas (less side effects than first

2. Meglitinide – stimulates pancreas to produce more insulin (can cause

low blood sugar but the risk is lower than sulfonlylureas)

3. Biguanide – helps body to better use insulin and helps limit the
release of glucose that has been stored by the body in the liver
This class of diabetes pills should not be used if you have kidney failure.
Talk with your doctor before taking this pill, if you have:
Kidney disease Liver disease Congestive heart failure A history of alcohol abuse Been scheduled for dye studies or for surgery
4. Thiazolidinediones – Helps your muscles to make better use of the
insulin you release
This class of pills should not be used if you have liver problems. A lab
test to check your liver function should be done prior to taking this type
of medication and periodically for as long as you stay on this pill.
5. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors –increases insulin production
from the pancreas, lowers glucagon secretion
This class of pills is usually used along with other medications. It can
cause low blood sugar, especially when used with a sulfonlyurea. This
medicine may help protect beta-cell function in the pancreas (the cells in
the pancreas that make insulin).

6. Combination Pills –a combination of 2 drug classes.

This product was developed by the Jordan Valley Community Health Center’s Better Self Management of Diabetes Program, with grant support from the Missouri Foundation for Health. Other Hypoglycemic Agents
7. Incretin Mimetic (Byetta®)
A class of type 2 diabetes drugs that "mimic" the effects of naturally occurring hormones from the intestines and can help the body make more of its own insulin.
8. Synthetic Amylin (Symlin®)

A neuroendocrine hormone that is co-secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas in response to food intake.

What you need to know about your diabetes medication:

The name of your diabetes pills (what) _______________________ _______________________________________________________ The dose of your diabetes pills (how much) ____________________ _______________________________________________________ The time of day to take your diabetes pills (when) _______________ _______________________________________________________ Side effect of your diabetes pills _____________________________ ________________________________________________________ Whether or not they can be combined with other medications you usually take ____________________________________________________ What to do if you become ill ________________________________ This product was developed by the Jordan Valley Community Health Center’s Better Self Management of Diabetes Program, with grant support from the Missouri Foundation for Health. ORAL HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS
Medication
Primary Use
Targeted
Side effects/
Starting dose
Organ(s)
indications
concerns
This product was developed by the Jordan Valley Community Health Center’s Better Self Management of Diabetes Program, with grant support from the Medication
Primary Use
Targeted
effects/Special Starting Dose
indications
concerns
This product was developed by the Jordan Valley Community Health Center’s Better Self Management of Diabetes Program, with grant support from the Medication
Targeted
Side effects/
Starting
Organ(s)
indications
concerns
This product was developed by the Jordan Valley Community Health Center’s Better Self Management of Diabetes Program, with grant support from the Medication
Targeted
Side effects/
Starting
Organ(s)
indications
concerns
This product was developed by the Jordan Valley Community Health Center’s Better Self Management of Diabetes Program, with grant support from the This product was developed by the Jordan Valley Community Health Center’s Better Self Management of Diabetes Program, with grant support from the

Source: http://bsmod.dom.wustl.edu/documents/2DMMedsOralAgents.pdf

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