Projekt zur Entwicklung, Umsetzung und Evaluation von Leitlinien zum adaptiven Management von Datenqualität in Ergebnisse der Literatursichtung Dorothea Weiland Institut für Medizinische Informatik, Biometrie und Epidemiologie Übersicht • Vorstellung der Recherche-Strategie• Recherche-Ergebnis (quantitativ)• Recherche-Ergebnis (inhaltlich)– Datenqualität– Monitoring /
2005-masterBarbara Heath / Malcolm Enright - Gem stock 2004 Studio Stock - Page One Garnet, (Birthstone for January) Large family of gemstones
Ð Flawless Sky blues Ð Cushion cuts, brilliant cuts and step which occur in every shade except blue. The most popular varieties are in the pyrope (red), almandine (brownish-red), Ð Flawless Sky blues Ð Faceted and carved briolettes and rhodolite (pink-violet). Rarer varities include grossular- hessonite (green and yellow) spessartite (yellow orange to brownish red) and malaya (golden orange to flame red).
Physical properties: hardness = 7.5 Specific gravity = 4 Ð Pale blue Ð Large square cut cabochons Optical: Refractive Indices = 1.76 Ð 1.83 Birefringence = Folklore: Garnet, believed from olden times to strengthen,
Ð Flawless green Ð Faceted ovals, set of six purify, vitalise and regenerate bodily systems especially the
bloodstream. Has strong affinity with the root chakra helping
to harmonise the potent forces of the kundalini. Stimulating
the pituitary gland and thus aligning the subtle bodies.
Ð Light Green (and completely clean) Ð Brilliant cut ovals Chakra(s): root, heart.
Morganite, another variety of Beryl that is (thankfully) coloured
by Manganese impurities, the pink, rose, peach and violet Named after the American Banker and gem enthusiast, J.
Physical properties: hardness = 7.5 Specific gravity = 2.69 Optical: Refractive Indices = 1.58 Ð 1.59 Birefringence = Amethyst, (Birthstone of February) crystaline quartz in shades
Ð Flawless pinks Ð Set of 3 drop trillion cuts of purple, lilac or mauve is called amethyst, the name is Ð Flawless Pink Ð Large square step cut originally from the greek 'amethustos' which means to prevent Ð Flawless Pink Ð Set of 5 Baguette cuts drunkenness. The stone was traditionally worn to guard against drunkenness and to instil a sober and serious mind. No wonder Golden Beryl, takes in the colour varieties between lemon,
the ancients loved to drink from an amethyst cup! yellow and golden yellow. The pigment present is probably iron and is mostly flawless. New experimentation with faceting and carving is taking place with the younger contemporary cutters Physical properties: hardness = 7 Specific gravity = 2.65 and we have embraced these new developments, see below.
Optical: Refractive Indices = 1.54 Ð 1.55 Birefringence = Physical properties: hardness = 7.5 Specific gravity = 2.8 Folklore: Says it aids mental disorders, used in purification
Optical: Refractive Indices = 1.58 Ð 1.59 Birefringence = and regeneration on all levels of consciousness. Transmutes
one's lower nature into the more highly refined aspects of higher
potentials. Physical representive of the violet ray of alchemy
Ð Lemon Ð High voluminous cabochon (multiple) pairs and transformation. Cuts through illusion and enhances psychic
Ð Lemon Ð Matched scissor cuts in fours & pairs abilities. Excellent for meditation and aids channeling
Ð Yellow Ð Pair of new triangular faceted cushions capabilities. Chakra(s): third eye and crown.
Ð Golden yellow Ð Pair of new Triangular faceted cushions Ð Golden yellow Ð Large eight sided carved and faceted stone Ð Golden yellow Ð Lozenge shaped carved and faceted stone Ð Golden yellow Ð Pair large pear shaped buff tops Ð Calibrated group Ð Seven 2mm round brilliant cuts Diamond, (Birthstone for April) The hardest mineral on earth
Ð Double cabochons Ð Pillow cuts (pair) and most the revered/remembered of gem stones probably because from olden times it was known as the thought amplifier.
Beryl, is the gemstone family that includes Emerald and . . .
All types are used from marriage bonds (pure and colourless) Aquamarine, (Birthstone for March) a variety of Beryl that
to industrial grades. Diamonds are graded by colour, cut, clarity enjoys a romance with travellers (given and worn as good luck) and meditators use it for purpose and clarity. As the name implys it refers to water hence its long association with the tranquility of the sea. In the 19th century the preferred colour Physical properties: hardness = 10 Specific gravity = 3.52 was sea-green as the name itself means sea water but today Optical: Refractive Indices = 2.42 Birefringence = none the most sought after colour is that of sky-blue and dark blue.
Found mainly in Brazil, Nigeria and Zambia.
Folklore: Enhances brain function and aids the alignment of
cranial bones. Breaks up blockages in crown chakra and in the
personality. Master healer. Dispels negativity and reflects the
Physical properties: hardness = 5.5 Specific gravity = 2.80 will and power of God. Enhances the full spectrum of energies
Optical: Refractive Indices = 1.57 Ð 1.58 Birefringence = in mind/body/spirit. Chakra(s): all
Folklore: known as a nerve calmer, and aids the reduction of
fluid retention. Known to strengthen kidneys, liver, spleen,
Ð Brown Ð Brilliant cuts (parcel of twenty) thyroid thus purifying the body.
Enhances clarity of mind and aids creative self expression.
Ð Cubic habit Ð uncommon (multiples) and sliced crystals Chakra(s): throat and solar plexus.
Ð Sky blue Ð Unusual high cabochons all carved Emerald, (Birthstone for May) derives its beautiful green colour
from the presence of chromium and vanadium. Emeralds are rarely flawless and usually have either cloudy inclusions or Barbara Heath / Malcolm Enright - Gem stock 2004 Studio Stock - Page Two tremolite inclusions that are usually seen as short rods or long Physical properties: hardness = 7.25, Specific gravity = 2.71 Physical properties: hardness = 8 Specific gravity = 3.60 Optical: Refractive Indices = 1.57 Ð 1.58 Birefringence = Optical: Refractive Indices = 1.71 Ð 1.73 Birefringence = Folklore: Historically it was one of the most valuable stones
Folklore: Mostly covered by the Ruby detail. The name may
and used for curing a wide range of aliments. Cleopatra's mine
derive from the Latin word spina, meaning little thorn, referring
near the Red Sea has been mined since 2,000 BC. Aids alignment
to the sharp points on some crystals.
of subtle bodies and is a dream enhancer and used to aid deeper
spiritual insight. A strong emotional balancer Chakra(s): heart,
Ð Mauve & Blue Ð Brilliant cuts round Ð Bright deep green Ð Octagonal step cut Peridot, (Birthstone of August) is mineral olivine but we see
the gem quality specimens cut for use. The bottle green colour is due to the presence of iron, it has a distinctive oily or greasy lustre. Good quality crystals are rare.
The Crusaders brought peridot to Europe in the middle ages, Moonstone, (Birthstone for June) is the opalescent variety of
transporting stones from St JohnÕs Island in the RedSea where orthoclase with a blue or white sheen (or schiller), rather like it hs been mined for over 3,500 years.
a shine of the moon after which it is named. This is caused by the reflection of light from the internal structure, made up of altenating layers of albite and orthoclase feldspar. Stones of Physical properties: hardness = 6.5 Specific gravity = 3.34 large size and fine quality are rare, we also have beautiful Optical: Refractive Indices = 1.64Ð1.69 Birefringence = 0.036 Folk lore: Strengthens heart and eyes, Aids tissue regeneration, reduces stress and helps personal disorders.
Physical properties: hardness = 6 Specific gravity = 2.56 Chakra(s): navel solar plexus and heart.
Optical: Refractive Indices = 1.51 Ð 1.54 Birefringence = Sapphire, (Birthstone for September) one of the hardest and
most durable gemstones, they have been most revered throughout Folklore: Said to align emotions with the higher self. Has
the ages. The Persians believed the world rested on a sapphire, healing affinity with the stomach, spleen, pancreas and lymphatic
thus producing the blue colour of the sky. Many ancients system. Relieves anxiety and stress and aids the birthing process.
believed that the Ten Commandments were written on a sapphire Emotional balancer, helps lessen the tendency to over-react
tablet. Sapphire is found mainly in Sri Lanka, Thailand, emotionally. Chakra(s): heart.
Ð Rainbow Moonstone Ð Cabochon high round Physical properties: hardness = 9 Specific gravity = 4.00 Ð Rainbow Moonstone Ð Carved round (multiples) Optical: Refractive Indices = 1.76Ð1.77 Birefringence = 0.008 Ð Rainbow Moonstone Ð Cabochon high round catÕs eye Folklore: Strengthens heart & kidneys, Activates pituitary
Ð Rainbow Moonstone Ð Faceted round (pair) gland thereby aiding entire glandular system. Aligns
body/mind/spirit, stimulating psychic abilities, clarity and
Ruby, (Birthstone for July) One of the hardest and most durable
inspiration. Excellent for meditation. Chakra(s): throat and
gemstones, Corundum enjoys a preeminence amongst gems.
The finest specimens command the highest prices of any precious stones. Depending on the Chromium and Iron content of the stone, Rubies run shades of red, from pinkish to purplish or Ð Padparasha - Numerous colours all faceted brownish red. Ruby is found mainly in Thailand, Burma and Physical properties: hardness = 9 Specific gravity = 4.00 Optical: Refractive Indices = 1.76Ð1.77 Birefringence = 0.008 Folk lore: Aids regeneration of physical/spiritual heart. Enhances
Ð Yellow Ð Cabochon pair & large oval cab circulation and vitalises the blood. Strengthens immunity. Helps
Ð Chrome Yellow Ð Large brilliant cut oval to refine lower passions. Helps banish sense of limitation.
Ð Greens Ð Princess cuts Ð Trillion cuts Chakra(s): root and heart
Spinel, occurs in a wide range of colours, it is a tribute to this
usual red or pink gem that many of the world's celebrated Ð Blue Grey to Greens with Pinks Ð Seven graduated strands 'Rubies' (including several in the Crown Jewels of England ) were found to be Spinels. Even after they were correctly Opal, (Birthstone of October) up until the 1800s the Opal was
identified as Spinels, these gems were still referred to as 'Balas a gemstone symbolising hope. However in 1817 with the Rubies' or 'Ruby Spinels'. The red is coloured by chromium, the production of Sir Walter Scott's book, Ann of Geierstein, in blue is coloured by the presence of iron. They are found mainly which the Opal was used as a symbol of mis-fortune, the Barbara Heath / Malcolm Enright - Gem stock 2004 Studio Stock - Page Three gemstone lost its popularity. It later regained favor when Queen Victoria, a devotee who presented her daughters with wedding gifts of Opals. The name is derived from the Indian name for Physical properties: hardness = 8 Specific gravity = 3.54 'stone'. Found mainly in Australia, Brazil and Mexico.
Optical: Refractive Indices = 1.62 Ð 1.63 Birefringence = Physical properties: hardness = 6 Specific gravity = 2.10 Folklore: (Gold topaz) Big on tissue regeneration and
Optical: Refractive Indices = 1.37 Ð 1.47 Birefringence = detoxification processes. Warming and awakening are
descriptions of its powers. Chakra(s) navel, crown.
Folklore: Pretty well covered in the above, it is a hardened
silica gel usually containing a small percentage of water. It is
therefore non-crystaline, unlike most other gems and may
Ð Imperial gold Ð Brilliant cuts round (pairs) eventually dry out and crack. Known to stimulate the pineal
and pituitary glands, thus enhancing intuition and is an emotional
balancer. Chakra(s): heart (and depending on colour), is said
Turquoise, (Birthstone for December) is found as to assist others as well.
mircochrystalline, massive form usually as encrustations, as veins or as nodules. It is opaque to semi-translucent, light and very fragile. Wax or resign maintains its appearance. Funny Ð Oregon Fire opal Ð Hexagonal with buff top that the Persian Blue colour is found in Arizona hey? ( I have Ð Mexican Fire opal Ð Lighter, base faceted buff top oval two palm-sized specimens from a famous 19th Century USA Ð Mexican Fire opal Ð Darker, base faceted buff top oval Ð Mexican Fire opal Ð Two transitionals, square and round Ð Mexican Fire opal Ð Fantastic orange faceted bead strands Physical properties: hardness = 6 Specific gravity = 2.80 Ð Australian Boulder opal Ð Pairs and singles, twenty doublets Optical: Refractive Indices = 1.61 Ð 1.65 Birefringence = Ð Australian opal Ð Tube bead drilled strands Ð Australian Lambina opal Ð Graduated drilled orange strand Ð Australian opal Ð Button shaped drilled bracelet beads Folklore: Strengthens the entire body. Aligns chakras. creative
Ð Australian Free forms Ð all unusual Hong Kong cuts expression and peace of mind. Chakra(s) throat
Ð Peruvian Blues Ð High cabochon, round & smaller pair Ð Peruvian Blue-Green Ð Cabochons, three shapes Ð Peruvian Blues Ð Spheres drilled as strands Ð Stablised Blue Ð Perfect Chinese square cabochons Ð Stablised Blue Ð Perfect Chinese pear shapes Tourmaline, (also October) occurs in the widest array of colours
of any gemstone species. It has only been recognised as a separate gemstone family in the last 250 years. Green and red Iolite, is a beautiful violet-blue gemstone, whose name is derived
were long mistaken for emeralds and ruby. Emerald green is from 'ios' the greek word for purple. Because of its soft, almost the most rare with the colourless Achronite (a variety of liquid colour it is often mistaken for Sapphire. Iolite is found Elbanite) being particularly scarce. Found mainly in Brazil, mainly in East Africa and India. Recently it has become Mozambique, Madagascar, Nigeria and the United States. We supremely fashionable and in Tucson is highly sought after. It have friends from San Diego, California who mine and cut them can be recognised by its strong pleochroism, visible without in newer contemporary cuts you'll love to own.
equipment, which gives the gem its other name of dichroite.
Physical properties: hardness = 7.5 Specific gravity = 3.6 Physical properties: hardness = 7 Specific gravity = 2.63 Optical: Refractive Indices = 1.62Ð1.64 Birefringence = 0.018 Optical: Refractive Indices = 1.53 Ð 1.55 Birefringence = Folklore: All colours aid in the balance of the endocrine system,
and help to fight sleeplessness. Activates and enhances the
Folklore: Nothing gleaned of interest to pass on.
crystaline properties of the body/mind. Chakra(s): Black
tourmaline (schorl) root, Watermelon (red/green) root, Green
heart, Blue (indicolite) throat, third eye Red/Pink (rubelite)
Ð Purple gem quality Ð Checkerboard cut root & heart.
Ð Purple gem quality Ð Checkerboard cut Ð Purple gem quality Ð Buff tops (multiples) Ð Purple gem quality Ð Newer faceted cut strand Ð Green to Black Ð Hand drilled beads and drops (multiples) Ð Purple gem quality Ð Faceted smaller cut strand Ð Emerald Green African Ð Brilliant cut Ð Emerald Green Brazilian Ð Pear cut (large) Sunstone, is a species of plagioclase feldspar and the variety
used in jewellery is the aventurine feldspar named sunstone.
We remember seeing it first at Tucson in 1999 where it was voted the gemstone of the show and research shows it was only Ð Raspberry Rhodolite Ð Ovals, both brilliant cuts discovered in 1980 in Oregon, USA. Our stocks come from friends who mine and cut this unusual gem, all have been sold Ð Pinks Ð Cabochons in ovals, squares, triangles and pairs Ð Pink to Purple Ð Double cushions (large) Ð Bi and Tri-coloured Ð antique carved tops (multiples) Ð Pink & Green matching Ð Brilliants with buff tops (several Physical properties: hardness = 6 Specific gravity = 2.64 Optical: Refractive Indices = 1.54 Ð 1.55 Birefringence = Ð Smokytrines Ð Newer cuts, lozenge and pairs Ð Brown Ð Dravites in single drilled beads and faceted stones Folklore: Nothing found.
Ð Himalayan Achronite Ð Steped flats (pair) Ð Tourmaline & Amethyst Ð Cabochon beans (pairs) Ð Orange Lozenge - Faceted base, checkerboard cut top Topaz, (Birthstone of November) All colours have the distinction
of being curative. Among other things it apparently cools Kunzite, is a member of the Spodumene family and is named
temperatures, restores sanity, has cured asthma & relieved after George Frederick Kunz, who in the latter part of the 19th insomnia AND even warded off sudden death! Topaz is found Century was the chief gem buyer for Tiffany & Co New York.
mainly in Brazil, Nigeria and Sri Lanka.
He was a pioneer of the science known as Gemmology. His most significant book is ÔThe curious lore of precious stonesÕ; Barbara Heath / Malcolm Enright - Gem stock 2004 Studio Stock - Page Four an illustrated guide to the History and Powers of Gemstones from seawater cultivation without man-made nucleus and as published by Bell Publishing Company NYC USA. The two gem such is a special pearl appreciated by true pearl lovers worldwide.
varieties- lilac pink (coloured by manganese) and bright emerald- Reshi; a special pearl we have sourced from Hong Kong green called Hiddenite (coloured by Chromium) are very popular merchants which has an unusual gold lustre and has become with collectors. (ThatÕs why I wonÕt sell the Johnson Fong Physical properties: hardness = 3 Specific gravity = 2.71 Physical properties: hardness = 7 Specific gravity = 3.18 Optical: Refractive Indices = 1.53 Ð 1.68 Birefringence = Optical: Refractive Indices = 1.66 Ð 1.67 Birefringence = Folklore: Once thought to be the tears of Gods. The gem of the
Folklore: Very high lithium content used for manic depression
Moon and of Venus. They have a history going a far back as
and mental disorders. Aids in longevity and is used as an
records exist. Mainly coveted by Kings and Princes of the
emotional balancer. Soothing and calming qualities.
Church, the nobility and found in significant collections
throughout the ancient world. Sensitive to acids, dryness and
humidity and so are less durable than most gemstones.
Ð Large faceted sample 13.55ct from Johnson Fong (Hong Ð Mabe Ð Three sided different coloured Jadeite (Jade) and Nephrite (Jade), are recognised separately
Ð Natural freshwater Ð Myriad shapes and colours since 1863. Nephrite is found as aggregates of fibrous amphibole Ð Natural freshwater Ð Winged and baroque specials crystals. These form an interlocking structure tougher than steel. Hence it was first used as weapons and now used as ornament. Jadeite is made up of interlocking, granular pyroexene crystals and occurs in a wide range of colours, we seek the lilac Ð Natural freshwater Ð Mississippi purple-pimpleback tints and the most prized variety being the imperial jade colour, Ð Natural freshwater Ð Numerous strands rich emerald-green, due to the presence of chromium. Also seeking the black nephrite found in Australia.
Zircon, (Birthstone for December) has been known since
antiquity. The intense fire and great brilliance comes from its Physical properties: hardness = 6 Specific gravity = 3.33 high refractive index and its strong dispersion. Although 6.5Ð7.5 Optical: Refractive Indices = 1.66 Ð 1.68 Birefringence = on MohÕs hardness scale the stone is never the less eassilly damaged at the edges and can be sensitive to pressuer and Folklore: One of the few gemstones to have retained its ancient
All Zircons (except the rare Grees colour ) have strong double association with medicine and magic and is often worn as an
refractionwhich can be seen under the loupe at the facet edge, amulet. Strengthens heart, kidneys,immune system. helps
an important identification mark as Zircon has always been cleanse blood. One of the toughest known minerals. Known (of
old) to cure hip and kidney complaints.
The yellow-Red and Red-Brown colour is called Hyacinth.
The Blue variety is called Starlite and is usually heat enhansed.
The Green variety is rare to the trade and are sought by Ð Pi disc Ð Timeless style (we use a bracelet enhancer) Ð Burmese Jadeite Ð Unusual cuts, polished forms, by Janis Ð Burmese Jadeite Ð Go-Go loops (copied from the Hmong Physical properties: hardness = 6.5Ð7.5 Specific gravity Ð Burmese Jadeite beads Ð all unusual necklace shapes; cones, Optical: Refractive Indices = 1.77Ð1.98 Translucent Ð Antique Jadeite Ð Bracelet flats and beads We have a couple of beautiful faceted stones to view Ð Antique Nephrite Ð Collection of amulets to be recycled Ð Antique Serpentine pieces Ð Four esoteric shapes to be Ð A single synthetic round brilliant cut for the collection Pearl, (also June) is formed in shellfish - especially oysters and
Folklore: Nothing, but in his tract in ÔThe curious lore of
mussels as a natural defence against irritants. Layers of precious stonesÕ, Frederick Kunz mentions on page 238 that
aragonite, known as nacre, are secreted around the irritant the Kalpa Tree; the symbolic offering to the Gods, in the Hindu
and gradually build up to form the pearl. Every cultured pearl religion has the foliage (except the young leaves) entirely formed
should be examined using the following four judgements; Lustre, of Zircons. Remember that Zircon also can have relatively high
content of radioactive elements; Uraniun and Thorium which
Various types abound; Akoya are saltwater pearls from the cause large variations of the physical properties of these gems.
(Pinctada imbricata) oyster, generally round but they come in shapes called baroque, button, oval and drop. Primarily white, cream and yellow, they do come with greenish overtones and sometimes grey. But seldom pinkish to rose. White South sea cultured pearls are harvested from a type of mollusc called (Pinctada maxima). This is the biggest of all species and includes the (gold-lipped or yellow-lipped) shell and the (white-lipped Sources: ÔSolid FriendsÕ notes, DaddowÕs Rock Shop notes, and the silver-lipped) shell we know of here in Australia. Tahiti Michael GatesÕ Santa Rosa notes, Cally HallÕs ÔGem StonesÕ; cultured pearls come from the (black-lipped) oyster found in a Collins Eyewitness Handbook, George KunzÕs book mentioned that terrirory. Fresh water pearls are mainly from the (Hyriopsis earlier, Jewellery WorldÕs Pearl Issue January 2003, my buyers schlegeli) freshwater mussel. The Japenese started cultivation in the Lake Biwa region in 1946 and strangely all good white Help from R, WebsterÕs 5th Edition ÔGems, their sources, freshwater pearls are called after this regionÕs high quality descriptions and identificationÕ. And my fave rave; Walter lustreous stock and the extraordinary natural colours of their SchumannÕs ÔGemstones of the worldÕ.
nacre. The Mabe cultured pearl is a half pearl from the (Pinctada margaritifera) or abalone shell and are known as blister pearls.
Malcolm Enright <email@example.com>
Keshi; a Japanese word meaning ÔpoppyÕ is probably the hardest Barbara Heath - Jeweller to the Lost
to distinguish from all pearls as it is the only pearl resulting
Almost everyone will suffer with a sore throat at some stage in their lives. In fact a sore throat can mean different things to different people, ranging from a mild irritation to dryness to severe acute pain. In more severe cases, this may cause difficulties in swallowing or even airway problems depending on the cause. The majority of sore throats are caused by a viral infection, usually associa