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Microsoft word - m.sc. bio che.docM.SC BIO CHEMISTRY
Syllabus & Regulations Governing ‘M.SC BIO CHEMISTRY 1. Title of the Program: M.SC BIO CHEMISTRY 3. Nature of the Program: SEMESTER System 5. Allocation of Credits – Total --79--- Credits The distribution of marks for evaluation in each subject shall be as follows – Internal assessment ( for each practical) Minimum for pass :32 marks per course in theory and aggregate 40% including assessment Course exemption : 40% marks and above in each course SUBJECT CODE1.1 BASIC BIOLOGY
Total no. of lectures: 50
1. Adaptation, biorhythms- Circardian and annual 2. Concept of tissue, organ and systems – General anatomical interrelationship of organs. Muscles – Different types of structures- organization of thick and thin filamentsmechanism of muscle contraction and relaxation. 3. Overview of the nutritional aspects in animals and plants. Autotrophy and heterotrophy. Digestion and absorption of different co moments of food. 4. Excretion-Nephron- Mechanism of urine formation. Electrolyte and water balance of body, plant 5. Blood – Composition and function, mechanism of clotting; formation and maturation of RBC and WBC; different hematological parameters; immune system (outline) 6. Respiration – Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood; regulation of acid base balance. 7. Cardiovascular system – Outline of cardiovascular system. 8. Endocrine glands and their functions (overview) 9. Development and reproduction- Cell division cycle, outlines of reproduction and reproductive tract. Development of male and female gonads. Fertility control. Embryo transfer. 10. Nervous system – Generalized view. 11. Genetics and heredity – Genes, Chromosome and Mendelian Genetics
1. Biology – A Fundamental Approach – D. Roberts 2. Medical Physiology-Ganong 3. Text Book of Medical physiology – Guyton 4. Principles of Genetics – Gardner 5. Outlines of Medical Physiology – S.C. Chaudhuri 6. Introduction to Medical Physiology – A.K.Das SUBJECT CODE1.2
BIOMOLECULES AND ENZYMOLOGY
Total no. of lectures: 50
1. Carbohydrates: Structure and biological functions of mono and oligosaccharides, polysaccharides (glycogen, starch, cellulose), hetero polysaccharides and glycoproteins. 2. Lipids: Fatty acids, Fats and oils, phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids, cholesterol, gangliosides, lipoproteins, rancidity, acid value, saponification value, iodine number, acetyl number, R.M. number. 3. Proteins: Amino acids and their & their physical & chemical properties, titration of amino
acids, separation and identification of amino acids, classification of proteins based on chemical nature and conformation, ionic status, peptides, primary structure, determination of amino acid sequencing, Ramachandran plot, secondary structure (α-helix, β-strand, β-sheet, turns and loops), tertiary structure (ion-ion, ion-dipole and dipole-dipole interactions), quaternary structure globular and fibrous proteins, structure of heamoglobin and myoglobin. 4. Nucleic acids: Purine and pyrimidine bases, nucleosides and nucleotides, double helical structure of DNA, polymorphism of DNA (A, B, Z forms), RNA structure (primary, secondary, tertiary), ribozyme, denaturation and renaturation of DNA, cot value, DNA supercoiling, chromatin structure. 6. Vitamins: Classification, coenzyme forms and biological functions. 1. Enzymology
7. Classification-nomenclature-properties-cofactors-units-turnover of enzymes, free energy and
enzyme-substrate reaction, Michaelis-Menten equation, activators, inhibitors, inhibition reactions and their kinetics, allosteric and feed-back inhibition competitive, uncompetitive, non competitive inhibition, Hill and Scatchard plot, regulation of enzyme activity, flexibility and conformational mobility of enzymes, immobilized enzymes, multisubstrate reaction (kinetics, ping-pong and ordered bi-bi reactions), multi-enzyme systems. Books Recommended:
1. Principles of Biochemistry - L. Stryer (W.H. Freeman & Co.) 2. Principles of Biochemistry - A.L.Lehninger, D.W.Nelson & M.M.Cox (Macmillan) 3. Biochemistry - D.Voet & J.G.Voet (John Willey) 4. Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry - R.K.Murray et al. (McGraw Hill) 5. Outline of Biochemistry - Conn & Stump (John Willey & Sons) 6. Protein Science - A.M. Lesk (Oxford Univ. Press) 7. DNA Structure & Function - R.R. Sinden (Academic Press) 8. The Enzyme – Dixan & Webb SUBJECT CODE1.3
CELL BIOLOGY AND BIOENERGETICS
1. Molecular logic of cells (Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes)
2. Subcellular organelles and their organization. Gross functions and ultrastructure of tissues and
3. Molecular architecture of cell: Cell and subcellular membrane (structure and composition). Biogenesis
4. Function of cell and subcellular membranes: Transport and cellular recognition processes. Symport and
antiport processes. Unicellular, homocellular and transcellular transport processes. Active and passive transport. Transport of glucose and aminoacids into cells, mitochondrial and lysosomal transfer system. 5. Eukaryotic cell cycle and its regulation. Phases of cell cycle. Mitosis and its control
mechanisms.Microtubule organization center and control. Cell cycle control in mammalian cells. Meiosis and its stages, crossing over, segregation of chromosomes, cell cycle in relation to cancer and apoptosis. 6. Concept of extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules. Cytoskeletal proteins and their functions. The
cytoskeleton, myofibrillar and their junction in cell shape and contraction. Details of the mechanism of muscle contraction. Role of sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle contraction. 7. Targeting and processing of proteins. Coated vesicles, transport of proteins via endoplasmic reticulum
and golgi apparatus, post translation processing of proteins, quality control of proteins in endoplasmic reticulum, synthesis and sorting of plasma membrane, secretary, lysosomal and membrane proteins, protein glycosylation in endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus, subcellular network of enzymes considering calpain systems (calpain and calpastatin) as an example. 8. Bioenergetics. TCA cycle and glycolitic cycle (outline), biological order and energy, coupled reaction,
electrochemical potential and redox reaction,. osmosis, dialysis, Donnan equilibrium, membrane transport, Mitochondrial electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation, chemical coupling, conformation coupling and chemiostatic theories for oxidative phosphorylation, uncouplers and inhibitors of respiratory chain.
1. Molecular and Cell Biology – Baltimore
2. Molecular Cell Biology – Darnell et al.
3. Biochemistry – Lehninger, Cox, Nelson
4. Biochemistry – Cohn and Stump;
5. Biochemistry - D.Voet & J.G.Voet (John Willey)
6. Cell biology – Bruce Alberts
PHYSICOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES, STATISTICS
Total no. of lectures: 50
1. Water and pH: Physical properties and structure of water, ionization of water, pH scale, acidsbases,
Handersen-Haselbalch equation, buffers, measurement of pH. 2. Chromatography: Paper, TLC, adsorption, partition, ion-exchange, reverse phase, gel filtration, affinity,
3. Electrophoresis: Theory of electrophoresis and electrical parameters in electrophoresis, paper
electrophoresis, gel electrophoresis- SDS-PAGE, Disc gel, gradient gel, isoelectric focussing, gel electrophoresis of nucleic acids, applications, pulse field gel electrophoresis. 4. Radioisotope Techniques: Types of radiation used in biochemistry, properties of α, β and γ rays,
radioisotope tracer techniques, Measurement of radio activity (GM and scintillation counters), autoradiography, radiation protection - safety measures, radiation dose measurements – ionizing and non-ionising radiation. 5. Viscosity and Sedimentation: Viscosity of macromolecules, measurement of viscosity, velocity and
equilibrium sedimentation of macromolecules, diffusion of macromolecules, centrifugation techniques and their applications, ultracentrifugation (analytical and preparative), boundary and band sedimentation, estimation of mol. Wt.
6. Significance of Statistical Methods in Biological Investigation
7. General Statistical Methods: Frequency distribution, measures of central tendency, measures of
dispersion, theoretical distributions (binomial, Poisson, and normal), sampling variation. 8. Statistical evaluation of results: Estimation of standard error, confidence limits, significance tests,
simple tests based on normal distribution, normal approximation to binomial and Poisson distribution, one and two-tailed tests, use of t-test for small samples, X2-test of goodness of fit, method of least squares for graphical representation of data.
9. Biological Thermodynamics: Laws of Thermodynamics as applied to conformational changes of
bimolecular, concept of entropy and its calculation.
1. Physical Biochemistry – D. Freifelder (W.H. Freeman & Co.) 2. Physical Biochemistry – K.E. Van Holde (Prentice Hall) 3. Biophysical Chemistry – C.R. Cantor & P.R. Schimmel 4. Principles of Biochemistry - L. Stryer (W.H. Freeman & Co.) 5. Biological Thermodynamics – D.T. Haynie (Cambridge Univ. Press.) 6. Fundamentals of Statitics (Vol. 1) – Goon-Gupta-Dasgupta 7. Statistical Methods in Biology – N.T.J. Bailey SUBJECT CODE 1.5 PRACTICAL
1. pH meters : Use of pH meter : determination of pKa. 2. Use of pH meter: titration of amino acids. 3. Conductometry: Estimation of Cl- or SO4 -- by conductometric precipitation titration. 4. Spectrophotometry: Verification of Beer’s law, use of least square method for drawing the graph, estimation of molar absorbance, unknown concentrations. 5. Absorption spectrum of hemoglobin isolated from whole blood. 6. Dosimetry: measurement of exposure dose- rate due to UV- irradiation by ferrioxalate actinometry. 7. Radioactivity: to draw the characteristic curve of a GM counter and to find out the plateau 8. To test that the radioactive counts (low) follow Poisson’s distribution law. 9. Viscometric study of DNA and protein denaturation. 10. Gel chromatography for separation of a mixture of molecules. SUBJECT CODE 1.6 PRACTICAL
1. Estimation of protein by Biuret, Lowry’s methods and UV- absorption. 2. Kinetic characteristics of alkaline phosphatase: (i) Pro gress curve; (ii) pH optima; (iii) temperature optima (iv) Km and Vmax ; (v) specific activity. 3. Effect of Mg2+ ion on the activity of alkaline phosphatase 4. Effect of F- ion on the activity of alkaline phosphatase 5. Assay of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).
1. Experimental Biochemistry- R.W. Switzer & L.F. Garrity (W.H.Freeman & Co.) 2. Modern Experimental Biochemistry - R. Boyer (Pearson Education) 3. Practical Biochemistry - K. Wilson & J. Walker (Cambridge Univ. Press) 4. Laboratory Manual in Biochemistry - J. Jayaraman (Narosa Publishing House) 5. Practical Biochemistry - D.T. Plummer (TATA McGraw-Hill) 6. Practical Biochemistry - R.C.Gupta & S. Bhargava 7. Experimental Physiology and Biochemistry - P.V.Chadha 8. Experiments in Microbiology - Gilstrap-Kleyn-Nester 9. Experimental Biochemistry – A Student Companion - B.S. Rao & V. Deshpande, I.K. Interational Pvt. Ltd. (N. Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore) 2005. Semester II
SUBJECT CODE 2.1
MICROBIOLOGY & VIROLOGY
1. Classical microbes and their distinctive characteristics; criteria used in the classification of microbes. 2. Bacterial nutrition – Growth- kinetics growth curve and phases of growth, culture media. 3. Bacterial motility and chemo taxis. Gram positive Gram negative organisms. Structure and function of peptidoglycans. Function of components in outer membrane. 4. Bacterial endospore formation, their properties and germination. 5. Bacteriology of water, dairy products and soil. 6. Major microbial pathogens of animals and plants (general outline with specific examples). Water- 7. Biogeochemical roles of microbes:Carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycles; Nitrogen fixation and its 8. Extreme environment microbes; anaerobes, halophiles, thermophiles and acidophiles. 9. Interaction between microbes, symbiosis, antibiosis and commensulism. 10. Antibiotics and chemotherapy (basic idea). 1. VIROLOGY
11 Nature and classification: The viral particles: capsid, envelope, other Virion components, complex
12. Assay of viruses, bacterial, animal and plant viruses. 13. Multiplication of bacteriophages from infection to maturation and release. 14. Multiplication of animal viruses. Synthesis of DNA and RNA containing viruses, their maturation and release. Abortive infection. 17. General outline with specific examples of common plant pathogenic viruses.
1. Microbiology - M.J.Pelczar, E.C.S.Chan & N.R.Kreig (Tata McGraw Hill) 2. General Microbiology - R.Y.Stanier, J.L.Ingraham, M.L.Wheelis & P.R.Painter (McMillan) 3. Microbiology - L.M.Prescott, J.P.Harley & D.A.Klein (Mcgraw Hill) 4. Fundamental Principles of Bacteriology - A.J. Salle (TATA McGRAW-HILL) 5. Virology - R. Dulbecco and H.S.Gensberg 6. Molecular Biology - D. Freifelder (Narosa Publishing House) SUBJECT CODE 2.2
1. Basic concept of Molecular Biology- chemical nature of gene, central dogma, genetic code, ribosome,
2. DNA replication - Energetics of DNA replication, replicon, prokaryotic DNA polymerases, functions
of other replicating enzymes and proteins (primase, helicase, SSB protein, ligase, Rnase H, topoismerases, sliding clamp, sliding clamp loader), simultaneous synthesis of leading and lagging strands, eukaryotic DNA polymerases, initiation of DNA replication (origin of replication, initiation from oriC, regulation of initiation of E.coli, eukaryotic initiation), termination of replication, problem of end completion of linear DNA, telomeres and telomerase. 3. Transcription -Prokaryotic transcription, transcription cycle (initiation, elongation and termination),
bacterial promoters, different factors, abortive initiation, processivity and editing functions of elongating polymerase, Rho-dependent and Rho-independent terminations. Eukaryotic transcription- RNA polymerases, transcription factors, processing of mRNA in eukaryotes. 4. Translation- Initiation, elongation and termination of translation (both pro- and eukaryotic).
5. Gene Mutation-Spontaneous mutation, Luria-Delbruck fluctuation test, origin of spontaneous
mutation, different types of mutants, induced mutation, physical and chemical mutagens, mutator gene, mutational hot spots, selection-screening-enrichment of mutants (auxotroph, ts etc.), reversion, Ames test, suppression, hyper-mutation and programmed mutation. 6. DNA Repair-Different types of DNA damages, Repair processes- damage reversal –
photoreactivation, repair of alkylation damage, damage removal- nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, mismatch repair, inducible repair pathways. 7. Regulation of gene expression - Principles of transcriptional regulation, different operons and their
regulation. Gene regulation at steps after transcription, Regulation in phage. Eukaryotic gene regulation, Control of transcriptional regulators, Gene silencing, RNA in gene regulation, translational control of gene expression. 8. Recombination-Generalized homologous recombination, models (Holliday, Meselson-Radding,
doublestranded break), proteins involved in homologous recombination in E.coli, homologous recombination of circular DNAs, site-specific recombination, transposition, IS and Tn elements, replicative and non-replicative transposition, composite transposons. 9. Cancer-Immortalization and transformation of cells, Nomenclature of different types of cancer and
stages of cancer, Transforming virus, protooncogene, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, apoptosis. 5
1. “Molecular Biology of the Gene” by Watson-Baker-Bell-Gann-Levine-Losick, 5th Edn., Pearson 2. “Molecular Biology” by D. Freifelder, Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi 3. “Genome” by T.A. Brown, John Wiley & Sons 4. “Microbial Genetics” by D. Freifelder, Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi 5. “Gene VII” by Lewin Benjamin (Oxford) 6. “Molecular Cell Biology” by J.Darnell, H.Lodhis & D.Baltimore (W.H.Freeman & Co.) 7. “DNA Repair & Mutagenesis” by E.C.Friedberg, G.C.Walker and W. Seide (ASM Publisher) SUBJECT CODE 2.3
1. Introduction to immunology General properties of immune responses: Natural and acquired
immunity, types, features and phases of immune responses, clonal selection hypothesis. Cells and
tissues of the immune system: Development and activation of lymphocytes, macrophages,
granulocytes. Primary and secondary lymphoid tissues and organs. 5
2. Lymphocyte specificity and acti vation: Antigens, antibody (structure and function), antibody
mediated effector functions, antibody classes and biological activities, antigenic determinants on
antibody molecules, Immunoglobulin superfamily, monoclonal antibody, immunotoxins, abzymes.
Generation, activation and differentiation of B-lymphocyte, Expression of immunoglobulin genes
(Genetic model compatible with immunoglobulin structure, Antibody diversity, class switching of Ig)
Antigen-antibody interaction (Principles and applications, RIA, ELISA, Westent blot,
Immunofluorescence, Flow cytometry ). Major Histocompatibility Complex, T-cell receptor, Antigen
presentation and T-cell antigen recognition. T-cell maturation, activation and differentiation.
3. Immune Effector mechanism: Cytokines that mediate natural immunity, inflammation,
hematopoeisis: interferons, interleukins, tumor necrosis factors, Transforming Growth Factor. Complement system, cell-mediated effector responses, leukocyte activation and migration, hypersensitive reaction. 4. Immune system in health and disease: Immunity to extracellular and intracellular microbes –
bacteria, virus, fungi, parasites; Vaccines, Primary immunodefficiencies (Lymphoid and myeloid lineages), AIDS and secondary immunodefficiencies, Autoimmunity, Transplantation immunology – graft rejection, immunosuppressive therapy, immune -tolerance, clinical transplantation. Cancer and immune system - tumor antigens, tumor evasion of the immune system, immunotherapy of cancer. 15
1. Immunology - Goldsby-Kindt-Osborne –Kuby, W.H Freeman & Co. 2. Cellular and Molecular Immunology - Abbas-Lichtman-Pober, W.B SAUDERS 3. Immunology - Roitt 4. Immunology and Immunotechnology - A.K Chakraborty, Oxford University Press, 2006 5. Annual Review of Immunology SUBJECT CODE 2.4
1. Energy exchange, energy rich compounds. 2 2. Carbohydrate metabolisms: Glycolysis, citric acid cycle, pentose phosphate pathways, glycogenesis
and glycogenolysis and their regulation, glyoxylate pathway, uronic acid pathway, R.L. cycle, metabolism of fructose, galactose etc, Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Gluconeogenesis, Futile cycle. Regulation of blood glucose homeostasis. Hormonal regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. 3. Lipids: Lipid biosynthesis- biosynthesis of Triglycerides, phosphoglycerides and sphingolopids. Fatty
acid synthesis, desaturase and elongase. Fatty acid oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Ketone bodies- formation and utilization. 4. Amino acids: Catabolic fate of -amino acids and their regulation, urea cycle and its regulation.
5. Nucleotides: Biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines- De novo and salvage pathways and their
regulation. Catabolism of purines and pyrimidines. Structureand regulation of ribonucleotide reductase. Biosynthesis of ribonucl eotides and deoxyribonucleotides. 6. Integration of different metabolic pathways. Organ specialization. Met abolism under different stress
1. Principles of Biochemistry - L. Stryer (W.H. Freeman & Co.) 2. Principles of Biochemistry - A.L.Lehninger, D.W.Nelson & M.M.Cox (Macmillan) 3. Biochemistry - D.Voet & J.G.Voet (John Willey) 4. Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry - R.K.Murray et al. (McGraw Hill) SUBJECT CODE 2.5
1. Microbiological techniques: Sterilization, media preparation, preparation of slants and stabs, pouring of 2. Isolation of microorganisms from soil collected from different places. Serial dilution, plating for counting colonies. Single colony isolation techniques and its preservation. 3. Examination of microorganisms: Simple staining, Gram staining, Acid Fast Staining Endospore staining, staining of flagella, staining of caps ule, staining of fungi, localization of root nodule bacteria by staining. 4. Bacterial growth studies: Bacterial number counting by haemocytometer, colony counting, bacterial growth curve, determination of generation time. 5. Antibiotic sensitivity tests, antibiotic assay by paper disc / cup method, MIC determination. 6. Purification of α-amylase from Bascillus aminolucifecieus. 7. Bacteriological examination of drinking water.
SUBJECT CODE 2.6
General Biochemistry & Biophysics and Immunology
1. Estimation of protein by a) BCA and b) Bradford methods. 3. Estimation of RNA by orcinol reagent. 4. Separation, identification and estimation of lipids by TLC. 5. Separation, identification and estimation of free amino acids. 6. Sub-cellular fractionation of different sub -organelles from tissues such as liver and heart. 7. Marker enzyme studies of different sub-organelles. 12. Isolation and purification of IgG from serum. SEMESTER III
SUBJECT CODE 3.1
MICROSCOPY & SPECTROSCOPY
Total no. of lectures : 50
MICROSCOPY : 20
1. Light microscopy: Bright Field, dark field & phase contrast microscopy, resolving power & 2. Electron microscopy: Working Principle, Image formation process and Contrast, Image Defects, 3. Sample preparation and contrast enhancement techniques. 4. Comparison between SEM, STEM, STM, Atomic force microscopy (AFM). SPECTROSCOPY: 30
5. Interaction of light with matter:Adsorption and emission of radiation, transition moment and
oscillator strength, singlet/triplet transitions, electronic spectra of electronic transitions, singlet/ triplet transition, fluorescence and phosphorescence, intrinsic and extrinsic chromophores 6. Light scattering techniques.
7. IR spectroscopy & Raman spectroscopy: Principle, application to bimolecular.
8. NMR spectroscopy: Nuclear magnetic moments, spin quantum number, restricted orientation of
magnetic nuclei in applied field, chemical shifts,and spin-spin coupling and their importance.
Application of NMR spectroscopy to - a) Small molecules and biomolecules, b) Hydrogen bonding, c)
P31 NMR spectroscopy and its application in living organism, determination of ADP/ATP in the cell,
Ph of the cell etc.
9. ESR spectroscopy:Magnetic moment of unpaired electrons and para magnetic resonance,Hyperfine
ESR spectroscopy, application to identification of radical; spin labeled probes etc.
10. Circular Dichroism and optical rotatory dispersion: Plain, circular and elliptical polarization of
light, optical and optical rotatory dispertion, application of ORD in conformation and interactions of biomolecules. 6
1. Introduction to Electron Microscopy - S. Wischnitzer. 2. Electron Microscopy in Biology - J.R.Harris (ed.). 3. The Principle and Practice of Electron Microscopy - I. M. Watt (Cambridge Univ. Press). 4. Biophysics - V. Pattabhi & N. Gautham (Narosa, New Delhi). 5. Quantum Chemistry- I.N. Levine, 4th Edn., (Prentice Hall, India) 1. 6.Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy - C.N. Banwell, (Tata-McGraw Hill) 2. 7.Biological Spectroscopy- I.D. Cambell & R.A. Durk, (Benjamin Cummings) 11. Physical Biochemistry - D. Freifelder (W.H. Freeman & Co.) 12. Physical Biochemistry - K.E. Van Holde (Prentice Hall) 13. Biophysical Chemistry, Vol.II - C.R. Cantor & P.R. Schimmel, (W.H. Freeman &Co.) 14. Introduction to the Spectroscopy of Biological Polymers - D.W. Jones (Academic Press) 15. Light microscopy in Biology- A practical approach-A. J. Lacy 16. Optical Microscopy for Biology- Herman & Jacobson SUBJECT CODE 3.2
RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY
1. Tools : Plasmids (F, R & Col lasmids, copy number & its Control, replication of ColE1 plasmid,
plasmid incompatibility, plasmid amplification), Restriction enzymes (nomenclature, types, characteristics of type II R.E, modification, restriction map), Cloning vectors (pBR322, pUC, λ-vectors, cosmid, M13 vectors, phagemid, shuttle vectors), brief overview of vectors based on plant & animal viruses, Artificial chromosomes (YAC, BAC, HAC etc.). 2. Techniques: Isolation & purification of plasmid & geomic DNA, Manipulation of DNA (by nucleases,
ligases, polymerases, modifying enzymes), Construction of chimeric DNA (linker, adaptor, homo-polymer tailing), Introduction of DNA into cells (chemical method, electroporation, microinjection, gene gun etc.), Gel electrophoresis (polyacrylamide, agarose, pulse-field), Nucleic acid blotting (Southern, northern, western, South-western), Construction of libraries (genomic, cDNA, subtraction), Selection of a clone from library (screening by nucleic acid hybridization, immunoscreening, two-hybrid screening), DNA sequencing (manual & automated), RFLP, Genetic fingerprinting, Gel retardation & DNA footprinting, PCR (reaction conditions, thermostable DNA polymerases, characteristics of primers, cloning of PCR products, RT-PCR, real-time PCR, clinical diagnosis, RAPD), In vitro mutagenesis, protein engineering, Production of proteins from cloned genes (expression vectors, problems in E.coli, GST-MBP-His tagging for protein purification), Genetic mapping (SNPs, VNTRs, microsatellites), Microarray technique to study global gene expression, Gene Knock-out technique, Antisense & RNA interferece, brief overview of Protein array techniques. 3. Fermentation Technology: Batch – fed batch – continuous fermentation, Bioreactors, Largr-scale
fermentation system, Harvesting and disrupting microbial cells, Down-stream processing. 4. Industrial Microbiology: Industrially important microbial strains, Industrial production of primary
metabolites (amino acids, vitamins, solvents, organic acids etc.) and secondary metabolites (antibiotics, steroids Etc.). Production of enzymes of industrial use (amylase, protease etc.), Improvement of Microbial strains. 5. Recombinant DNA in Medicine & Industry: Production of recombinant pharmaceuticals:
Recombinant insulin, Human growth hormone, Complex human proteins, Antibiotics, Gene Therapy: Ex Vivo & In Vivo, Viral & non-viral gene delivery systems, Prodrug activation therapy, Nucleic acid therapeutic agents. 6. Genetic Engineering of Plants: Cloning in plants: A. tumefaciens, direct nuclear transformation,
chloroplast transformation. Commercial exploitation of plant transgenics: Delayed ripening, Insecticidal-herbicidal-viral-fungal resistance, Oxidative & salt-tolerant plants, Flower pigmentation, Modification of plant nutritional content (amino acids, lipids), Modification of taste & appearance (preventing discoloration, sweetness), Plants as bioreactors (antibodies, polymers, foreign proteins in seeds), Terminator technology. 7. Engineering Animals: Transgenic mice methodology (retroviral vector, DNA microinjection,
Embryonic stem cell) & its application, transgenic cattle (sheep, goats, pigs), Transgenic birds & fish. 8. Ethical values, Regulation & Patenting Molecular Biotechnology
1. Analysis of Genes and Genomes- Richard J Reece, JOHN WILEY & SONS, LTD., 2004.
2. Gene Cloning : an introduction- T.A. Brown, CHAPMAN & HAL, 3rd Edition, 1995.
3. Molecular Biotechnology : Principles and Applications of Recombinant DNA- B.R. Glick & J.J. Pasterak,
ASM PRESS, WASHINGTON, D.C., 1998.
4. Recombinant DNA- Watson-Gilman-Witkowski-Zoller, SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN BOOKS : W.H.
FREEMAN & COMPANY, NEW YORK, 2nd Edition, 1992.
SUBJECT CODE 3.3
1. Phospholipase A2 isoforms-nomenclature, genes knock out studies, PLA2 in cardiovascular
pathophysiology. Phospholipase C, phospholipase D and other lipases, Arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids. Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. Role of AA mediators in different pathophysiological processes. Cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. Therapeutic intervention of PLA2 and its metabolites, COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors. 2. Extracellular and intracellular signals: receptors, 2nd messenger, 3rd messenger, concept of
transducers, effectors, GTP binding proteins-Gi, Gs, Gp, Gq, ras; adenylate cyclase, gaunylate cyclase, phosphodiesterases, Protein kinase (PK) A, C and G, Calmodulin dependent PK, tyrosine kinase, MAPK, stress activated PK, ribosomal S6 kinase; cross-talk between different signal transduction pathways. Eicosanoids, endothelins and NO- chemistry, biochemistry and physiology. Endocrines, autocrines, paracrines; internalization of macromolecules, endocytosis and exocytosis, receptor mediated endocytosis, nuclear transcription factors, angiogenesis, PKs associated with cell survival and death processes. 3. Calcium –the developing role of chemistry and biological evolution, Ca as an intracellular 2nd
messenger. Inositol phospholipid metabolism, calcium transport in cellular and organelle membrane----Na+/Ca+2 exchanger, Ca+2-ATPase, Na+/H+ exchanger, ion channels, TRPc channels, store operated Ca+2 entry, capacitative Ca+2 entry, Ca+2 transport system in sarcoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and nucleus. Ca binding proteins, Ca in muscle contraction and sperm ejection, Ca+2 waves in cells under normal and stimulated conditions. Mg2+ as a physiological Ca+2 antagonists, Ca+2 in necrosis and apoptosis. Role of the adrenal hormone-ouabain in the regulation of Ca+2 dynamics in the cardiovascular and immune system. 4. Vascular endothelium and smooth muscle cells in health and diseases: Types of cell junctions, gap
junctions, action potential and conductance of electrical impulses, ion channels, sensory transduction in the visual system, intracellular transport via cytoskeleton protein. 5 5. Oxidants as signal transducers: in cardiovascular, neuronal, & immune system, c-AMP response
element binding protein (CREB) in mediating different signals in cells 5 6. Molecular and cellular basis of stress response: calpains, matrix metalloproteases, molecular
chaperone, heat shock proteins as signal transducers in mitochondria and ER. 5
1. Molecular and cellular biology—Baltimore 2. Molecular cell biology—Darnell et al 3. Biochemistry--- Leninger, Cox, Nelson 4. Biochemistry--- Stryer 5. Trends in pharmacological sciences 6. Nature reviews SUBJECT CODE 3.4
1. In born errors in metabolism: Introduction, Metabolic disorders of carbohydratesgalactosemia,
glycogen storage disease, deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, Hypoglycemia, Diabetes mellitus. Metabolic disorder of lipid: Tay-Sachs disease, Nieman Pick disease. Metabolic disorder of amino acid: phenylketonuria, alkaptonuria, Maple syrup urine disease. Metabolic disorder of nucleotides: gout, Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome. 2. Function of liver in health and disease: Jaundice, Hepatitis; liver function test.
3. Evaluation of organ function test: Assessment and clinical manifestation of renal, hepatic, pancreatic,
gastric & intestinal function, enzyme of pancreatic origin and biliary tract, test of myocardial infarction. 4. Enzymes as clinical diagnostic tools.
5. Endocrinal disturbance: protein hormones and hormones of hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and
6. Disorders of blood coagulation, different types of anemia.
7. Antibiotics: Classification. Primary mode of action of penicillin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol,
tetracycline, actinomycin D, mitomycin C, polyenes, mechanism of antibiotics resistance, multiple drug resistance.
1. Notes on clinical chemistry- Whitby-Smith-Beekett-Walker. Balackwell Sci, Inc. 2. Principle of internal Medicine- Harison T. R. McGrow Hill, NY. 3. Antibiotics” Vol. I & II -Gotleib & Shaw. 4. Text book of Medical Biochemistry- Ramakrishna et al. SUBJECT CODE 3.5
1. Time course of -galactosidase induction in E.coli. 2. Effect of membrane perturbants on Lac-permease activity. 3. Preparation of bacteriophage ΦX 174 stock and assay the titre strength. 4. To draw the lysis curve of E.coli after ΦX 174 infection. 5. To draw the survival curve of UV inactivated bacteriophage ΦX 174. 6. Repair of UV damaged ΦX 174 in E.coli. 7. Isolation of chromosomal DNA from E.coli. 8. Isolation of plasmid DNA from transformed E.coli 9. Characterization of isolated DNAs by agarose gel electrophoresis. 10. Extractions of nucleic acids from gels. 11. Artificial transformation of E.coli by plasmid DNA.
1. Experiments in Molecular Biology-R. J. Slater, Humana Press, 1986. 2. Molecular cloning -Sambrook and Russell, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2001 3. Practical Biochemistry- Keith Wilson and John Walker, Cambridge University Press, 1997. 4. Practical Biochemistry- David T Plummer, Tata McGraw-Hill, 1988. SUBJECT CODE 3.6
CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY & BIOPHYSICS
1. Separation and isolation of serum and plasma from blood. 2. Determination of (i) blood group and (ii) Rh factor. 3. Determination of (i) Hemoglobin content, (ii) total count and differential count (TC/DC), (iii) erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), (iv) packed cell volume (PCV). 4. Determination of number of RBC per mm3 in blood with standard error using a hemocytometer. 5. Measurement of viscosity & specific gravity of blood. 6. Estimation of blood glucose, Determination of serum (i) Urea, (ii) Creatinine, (iii) Uric acid, (iv) Creatinine, (v) Bilirubin (total and conjugated), (vi) Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ content (vii) glycosylated haemoglobin. 7. Determination of lipid profiles: total cholesterol, LDLc, HDLc, Triglycerides and VLDLc. 8. Estimation of serum (i) Alkaline phosphatase, (ii) LDH, (iii) GPT, (iv) GOT, and (v) Creatine kinase. 10. Measurement of blood pressure under normal and stress condition. 11. Demonstration of exposed plates of X -ray, USG, echocardiography, CT scan, MRI, PET scan. 12. Determination of electrical axis of the heart from ECG tracing. 13. Measurement of cell diameter by Ocular micrometer. 14. Demonstration of fertilization process through CCTV arrangement. 15. Demonstration of biosensors through polygraph.
1. Experimental Biochemistry- B. S. Rao and V. Deshpande, I.K. International Pvt. Ltd. 2. Practical Biochemistry- David T Plummer, Tata McGraw-Hill, 1988. SEMESTER IV
SUBJECT CODE 4.1
DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY & HUMAN GENETICS
Total no. of lectures 50
1. Gametogenesis: Meiosis, oogenesis, spermatogenesis
2. Early Development: Cleavage, gastrulation, axes & symmetry
3. Morphogenic processes: Cell movement, cell adhesion, classification of morphogenetic processes
4. Developmental commitment: Fate map, specification, determination, cytoplasmic determinant,
induction, lateral inhibition, homeotic genes. 5. Development of model organisms:
Drosophila -Embryogenesis, larval stage, dorsoventral patterning, anteroposterior
Ceanorhabditis elegans - embryonic development, regional specification, post-embryonic development. Chick - embryonic development, regional specification. Human – embryonic development, pre- and post-natal sexual development
6. Population genetics: Hardy-weinberg law and its application
7. Evolution: Mechanisms like selection, migration and mutation, genetic drift, human evolution, origin
8. Human chromosomes-chromosome banding, karyotyping, artificial chromosomes.
9. Human Pedigree: Pedigree construction, Pedigree analysis of Familial hypercholesterolemia, cystic
10. Aneuploidy: meitotic and mitotic non-disjunction, autosomal aneuploidy (Down syndrome,
Alzheimer), aneuploidy in sex chromosomes (Klinefelter & Turner syndrome). 11. Mutational diseases: Sickle-cell, β-Thalasemia, Huntington, Haemophillia A, Xeroderma
pigmentosum, Ataxia-Telangiectasia, Bloom syndrome, Warner syndrome. 12. Metabolic disorder: Inborn errors of metabolism, Tay-Sachs disease, phenylketonuria, albinism,
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, drug reactions.
1. Genes VII ---Bejamin Lewin, OXFOR UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2000. 2. Basic Human Genetics---E.J. Mange & A.P. Mange, SUNDERLAND MASSACHUSETTS, 1. 2nd Edition, 1999 2. Molecular Biology of the Gene-- Watson-Baker-Bell-Gann-Levine-Losick, 3. PEARSON EDUCATION, 5th Edition, 2004. SUBJECT CODE 4.2
BIOINFORMATICS & COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY
1. Brief idea of operating systems DOS, Unix. : Definitions and basic commands 7
2. Programming in Fortran: I/O system, CPU, Compiler, binary system, file definitions, Constants,
variables, format, mathematical, logical and relational operators, conditional statements, DO loops, subroutine, arrays, arrayed variables. 25 3. Idea about biological databases –PDB, Genbank, Cambridge Structural database. 7
4. Brief outline of Sequence alignment & Homology modeling: Template selection, principles of rigid
body method, Idea of pair wise and multiple sequence alignment. Brief outline of docking. 10
1. Fundamentals of computers – V.Rajaraman 2. Your unix: The ultimate guide – Sumitabha Das 3. Bioinformatics - David W. Mount 4. Introduction to Bioinformatics – T.K. Attwood & D.J.Parry-Smith SUBJECT CODE 4.3
PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY & NEUROBIOCHEMISTRY
Total no. of lectures 50
1. Photosynthesis: Structures of organelles involved in photosynthesis in plants and bacteria. Proton
gradients and electron transfer in chloroplasts of plants and in purple bacteria- differences from mitochondria. Light receptors-chlorophyll, light harvesting complexes, bacteriorhodopsin, rhodopsin as ion pump. Photosystems I and II their location, mechanism of quantum capture and energy transfer between photosystems-ferridoxin, plastocyanin, plastoquinone, carotenoid. The Hill reaction, photophotophosphorylation and reduction of CO2, C3, C4 and CAMmetabolism, light and dark reactions. Light activation of enzymes, regulation of photosynthesis, photore spiration. 2. Biological nitrogen fixation and ammonia assimilation. Nitrate and sulphate reduction and their
3. Translocation of inorganic and organic substances.
4. Plant hormones- Growth regulation substancesand their mode of action. Molecular effects of auxin in
regulation of cell extension and of gibberellic, abscisic acids and cytokynins in the regulation of seed dormancy, germination, growth and development, and embryogenesis 5. Defense systems in plants
6. Tissue culture and transgenic plants.
1. Meanings, blood brain barrier and glia, chemical composition of nerve tissue, carbohydrate and energy
metabolism in brain, transport of amino acid, protein, nucleic acids, metabolites in brain, biochemistry of synaptic junctions, influence of different factors (growth factors, hormones, cytokines) in brain functions. 2. Neurotransmitters, neuromediater, neuromodulators and their molecular aspects, pharmacology of
receptors, biochemical aspects of learning and memory, memory loss, biochemistry of mental disorder, biochemistry of aging and age related disorders-Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, Huntington’s disease and Alziemers. 3. CNS active drugs-Their classification and mode of action.
1. Pharmacology and experimental therapy – Goodman & Gilmann 2. Plant biochemistry –Werner 3. Plant Biochemistry - Ross
SUBJECT CODE 4.4
1. Programming in FORTRAN- Solving of mathematical and biological problems using FORTRAN
2. Demonstration of biological databases – PDB, Gen BANK
3. Demonstration of biological sequence alignment methodologies.
SUBJECT CODE 4.5
Projects / Seminar
SUBJECT CODE 4.6
A focused healthcare company Headline results from LEAD® 3 phase 3 study with liraglutide11 December 2007, 17.00 CET, 16.00 UK time, 11.00 New York time • Introduction (Lars Rebien Sørensen, CEO)• LEAD® 3 results (Mads Krogsgaard Thomsen, CSO)• Overview of LEAD® programme (Mads Krogsgaard Forward-looking statements The above contains forward-looking statements as the ter