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Denver children's natural health - pediatric pneumonia

Pneumonia is a respiratory condition in which there is inflammation of the lung. Community-acquired pneumonia refers to pneumonia in people who have not recently been in the hospital or another health care facility (nursing home, rehabilitation facility). Pneumonia is a common illness that affects millions of people each year in the United States. Germs called bacteria, viruses, and fungi may cause pneumonia.  Bacteria and viruses living in your nose, sinuses, or mouth may spread to your lungs.  You may breathe some of these germs directly into your lungs.  You breathe in (inhale) food, liquids, vomit, or secretions from the mouth into your lungs (aspiration Pneumonia caused by bacteria tends to be the most serious. In adults, bacteria are the most common cause of pneumonia.  The most common pneumonia-causing germ in adults is Streptococcus pneumoniae  Atypical pneumonia, often called walking pneumonia, is caused by bacteria such as Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae.  Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is sometimes seen in people whose immune system is impaired (due to AIDS or certain medications that suppress the immune system).  Staphylococcus aureus, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Neisseria meningitidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Haemophilus influenzae are other bacteria that can cause pneumonia.  Tuberculosis can cause pneumonia in some people, especially those with a weak immune system. Viruses are also a common cause of pneumonia, especially in infants and young children. Risk factors (conditions that increase your chances of getting pneumonia) include:  Recent viral respiratory infection (common cold, laryngitis, influenza)  Difficulty swallowing (due to stroke, dementia, Parkinson's disease, or other neurological conditions)  Chronic lung disease (COPD, bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis) illnesses, such as heart disease, liver cirrhosis, or diabetes mellitus  Impaired consciousness (loss of brain function due to dementia, stroke, or other neurologic  Immune system problem (See also: Pneumonia in immunocompromised host) Symptoms
The most common symptoms of pneumonia are:  Cough (with some pneumonias you may cough up greenish or yellow mucus, or even bloody mucus)  Shortness of breath (may only occur when you climb stairs)  Sharp or stabbing chest pain that gets worse when you breathe deeply or cough  Loss of appetite, low energy, and fatigue  Confusion, especially in older people Exams and Tests
If you have pneumonia, you may be working hard to breathe, or breathing fast. Crackles are heard when listening to your chest with a stethoscope. Other abnormal breathing sounds may also be heard through the stethoscope or via percussion (tapping on your chest wall). The health care provider will likely order a chest x-ray if pneumonia is suspected. Some patients may need other tests, including:  Arterial blood gases to see if enough oxygen is getting into your blood from the lungs  Gram's stain and culture of your sputum to look for the organism causing your symptoms  Pleural fluid culture if there is fluid in the space surrounding the lungs Treatment
Your doctor must first decide whether you need to be in the hospital. If you are treated in the hospital, you will receive fluids and antibiotics in your veins, oxygen therapy, and possibly breathing treatments. It is very important that your antibiotics are started very soon after you are admitted. You are more likely to be admitted to the hospital if you:  Have another serious medical problem  Are unable to care for yourself at home, or are unable to eat or drink  Have been taking antibiotics at home and are not getting better However, many people can be treated at home. If bacteria are causing the pneumonia, the doctor will try to cure the infection with antibiotics. It may be hard for your health care provider to know whether you have a viral or bacterial pneumonia, so you may receive antibiotics. Patients with mild pneumonia who are otherwise healthy are sometimes treated with oral macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin, clarithromycin, or erythromycin). Patients with other serious illnesses, such as heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or emphysema, kidney disease, or diabetes are often given one of the following:  Fluoroquinolone (levofloxacin (Levaquin), sparfloxacin (Zagam), gemifloxacin (Factive), or  High-dose amoxicillin or amoxicillin-clavulanate, plus a macrolide antibiotic (azithromycin,  Cephalosporin antibiotics (for example, cefuroxime or cefpodoxime) plus a macrolide (azithromycin, If the cause is a virus, typical antibiotics will NOT be effective. Sometimes, however, your doctor may use antiviral medication.  Drink plenty of fluids to help loosen secretions and bring up phlegm.  Get lots of rest. Have someone else do household chores.  Do not take cough medicines without first talking to your doctor. Cough medicines may make it harder for your body to cough up the extra sputum.  Control your fever with aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen or naproxen), or acetaminophen. DO NOT give aspirin to children. Outlook (Prognosis)
With treatment, most patients will improve within 2 weeks. Elderly or debilitated patients may need longer treatment. Those who may be more likely to have complicated pneumonia include:  People whose immune system does not work well  People with other, serious medical problems such as diabetes or cirrhosis of the liver Your doctor may want to make sure your chest x-ray becomes normal again after you take a course of antibiotics. However, it may take many weeks for your x-ray to clear up. Possible Complications
 Respiratory failure, which requires a breathing machine or ventilator  Empyema or lung abscesses. These are infrequent, but serious, complications of pneumonia. They occur when pockets of pus form inside or around the lung. These may sometimes need to be drained with surgery.  Sepsis, a condition in which there is uncontrolled swelling (inflammation) in the body, which may lead  Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a severe form of respiratory failure When to Contact a Medical Professional
 Shortness of breath, shaking chills, or persistent fevers  A cough that brings up bloody or rust-colored mucus  Chest pain that worsens when you cough or inhale  Night sweats or unexplained weight loss  Signs of pneumonia and weak immune system, as with HIV or chemotherapy Infants with pneumonia may not have a cough. Call your doctor if your infant makes grunting noises or the area below the rib cage is retracting while breathing. Prevention
Wash your hands frequently, especially after blowing your nose, going to the bathroom, diapering, and before eating or preparing foods. Don't smoke. Tobacco damages your lung's ability to ward off infection. Vaccines may help prevent pneumonia in children, the elderly, and people with diabetes, asthma, emphysema, HIV, cancer, or other chronic conditions:  Pneumococcal vaccine (Pneumovax, Prevnar) lowers your chances of getting pneumonia from  Flu vaccine prevents pneumonia and other problems caused by the influenza virus. It must be given yearly to protect against new virus strains.  Hib vaccine prevents pneumonia in children from Haemophilus influenzae type b.  A drug called Synagis (palivizumab) is given to some children younger than 24 months to prevent pneumonia caused by respiratory syncytial virus. If you have cancer or HIV, talk to your doctor about additional ways to prevent pneumonia and other infections. Alternative Names
Bronchopneumonia; Community-acquired pneumonia References
Higgins K, Singer M, Valappil T, Nambiar S, Lin D, Cox E. Overview of recent studies of community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:S150-156. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommended Immunization Schedule for Ages 0 - 6 Years. United States, 2009. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommended Immunization Schedule for Ages 7 - 18 Years. United States, 2009. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults. United States, 2009. Li JZ, Winston LG, Moore DH, Bent S. Efficacy of short-course antibiotic regimens for community-acquired pneumonia: a meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2007;120:783-790. Mandell LA, Wunderink RG, Anzueto A, et al. Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Mar 1;44 Suppl 2:S27-72. Update Date: 6/9/2009
Updated by: David A. Kaufman, MD, Section Chief, Pulmonary, Critical Care & Sleep Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital-Yale New Haven Health System, and Assistant Clinical Professor, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc. A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission. URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy, editorial process and privacy policy. A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 1997-2009, A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.


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July 2013 ta report jb update 13.8.13.xls

QVH NICE Technology Appraisal Report Report generated from local_bnf provided by FormularyComplete ( Accessed 16 05 2013 updated 13 08 2013 Items/TAs marked as non-formulary are not relevant to the services provided by the Queen Victoria Hospital NHS Foundation Trust TA Number Medicine Title Formulary Status Comments Formulary for NICE indications as recommended

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