Plasma levels of estradiol during vitellogenesis and early gestation inoviparous and viviparous Lacerta ( Zootoca ) vivipara Benoît Heulin1,*, Danielle Garnier2, Yann Surget-Groba3, Jean Deunff3 Abstract. The evolution of viviparity in lizards and snakes is always associated with a reduction of the eggshell membrane. There is strong evidence indicating that estradiol is the primary factor
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Esophageal manometry patient educationEsophageal Manometry is a test used to assess pressure and motor function of the esophagus which aids in the evaluation of how well the muscles in the esophagus (food pipe) work to transport liquids or food from your mouth into your stomach. Esophageal Manometry is performed for the following reasons: • To evaluate the causes of gastric reflux, heartburn, difficulty swallowing, and non-cardiac chest pain • Preoperative evaluation for anti-reflux surgery • To ensure proper placement of pH probes HOW ESOPHAGEAL MANOMETRY IS PERFORMED:
This study will be performed by a doctor, nurse, or technician and only takes about 10-15 minutes. A brief history will be obtained and any questions or concerns will be addressed prior to the study. Generally, you will be in a comfortable, semi-reclining or reclining position. Your nose and throat may be numbed with a spray or gel. This will minimize any discomfort associated with the placement of the small catheter through your nose and into your stomach. During this time, you will be able to breathe, swallow and talk with ease. During the course of the study you will be asked to take deep breaths or swallow a number of times. The pressures resulting from these movements will be detected and recorded by tiny sensors located on the catheter. The recording will then be transferred to a report for review and interpretation by your doctor. This study is very safe and complications are rare. Potential complications include gagging during the procedure and possible post procedure nosebleed and sore throat. Rare complications include esophageal perforation that might require surgical intervention. PREPARATION FOR ESOPHAGEAL MANOMETRY:
• The proton pump inhibitors (omeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, rabeprazole) will be suspended at least 10 • The H2 receptor antagonists (cimetidine, famotidine, ranitidine) will be suspended at least 3 days before • Do not eat or drink anything after midnight the night before the test. • You may take necessary medications with a small sip of water up to 2 hours before your study. These medications include high blood pressure and heart medication. Please consult your physician. • If you are a diabetic, follow your physicians instruction regarding medication dosage. • Medications to avoid the day of the procedure includes: all pain medications, sedatives, tranquilizers, antispasmodics and promotility medications. These medications can affect the muscles of your esophagus, altering the outcome result of your study. AFTER THE ESOPHAGEAL MANOMETRY:
You may resume your normal daily activities, diet, and medications following the study. You may drive yourself home after the study since no sedation is involved. If you experience a sore throat, lozenges or gargling with salt water may help. Please schedule follow-up visit with your physician to discuss the results of the study. Contact your physician with any unusual symptoms or side effects. DIAGNOSTIC STUDY
DATE OF APPOINTMENT
TIME OF APPOINTMENT
On the Day of Your Appointment, Please Report To:
400 Westage Business Center Drive- Suite 209, Fishkill, NY 12524
If you should have any questions regarding your appointment please call 845-896-0736 OR 452-9800
All information contained herein is subject to, and should be considered as only supplemental to, the advice, care and instruction of your
physician. This material is not intended for direct distribution to patients but should only be delivered by the treating or consulting physician
in conjunction with usual and appropriate instruction and explanations regarding the procedures referenced herein.
The Water Economics in the Middle East Main Problems and Possible Solutions Contents 4. Water situation in each of the area’s countries. 6 5. Understandings and Treaties regarding water in the Middle East. 22 6. Means of improving the water situation in the Middle East . 26 a) Methods of increasing the quantity of water that do not require cooperation between the sides. 27 b)