/7 02/4%). $)%4 %.(!.#%3 4(% 4/8)#)49 /& #/-").%$ %4(!./, !.$ #(,/2/15).% !$-).)342!4)/. /. '/.!$!, 7%)'(4 3%-).)&%2/53 45"5,!2 $)!-%4%2 !.$ %0)4(%,)!, (%)'(4 /& -!,% 02!'5% !7,%9 2!43 Ejikeme F Mbajiorgu1, Tom A Aire3, Wynand Volk2, Marianne Albert4 1Department of Human Anatomy and Histology, 2Department of Zoology, University of Limpopo, 3Department of Preclinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, St. George’s University, Grenada. WI 4Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Limpopo ABSTRACT
Ethanol, chloroquine, low protein diet, seminiferous tubules, go- Testicular/reproductive effects of concurrent ethanol (E) and chloro- quine (Q) administration with protein malnutrition, a prevalent con-dition in Third World malaria-endemic communities, were INTRODUCTIONinvestigated. In malaria-endemic Third World countries, plagued with Alcohol is a general y abused drug, with attendant male repro-malnutrition, the abuse of chloroquine and alcohol is commonplace. ductive dysfunction that has been recognized in experimentalThis may present with some reproductive health problems.
animals and humans.1,2 It has also been shown that chloroquine(Q) adversely affects spermatogenesis when used chronical y.3 Impairment of testicular function has been reported in male rats Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats fed normal protein (NP, 15%) or fol owing short- and long-term exposure to chloroquine.4-6 How-low protein diet (LP, 6%) were treated with ethanol (NPE, LPE ever, chloroquine remains the drug of choice for the treatmentgroups; 6% in drinking water ad libitum), chloroquine (NPQ, LPQ of malaria in most malaria-endemic and impoverished Thirdgroups; 10mg, kg-1 body weight per rat, intramuscularly), or both World countries primarily because it is cheap, rapidly effective(NPEQ, LPEQ) and controls (NPC, LPC). After 10days (repeated at and readily available.7 It has been reported that over 2 bil ion20D, 30D and 40D) 5 – 7 rats randomly selected from each group people (over 40% of the world’s population) living in more thanwere sacrificed under ether anaesthesia.
100 countries are exposed to the risk of malaria, and that 270mil ion of these are infected with malaria, with 110 mil ion clin- ical cases and 1 mil ion deaths annual y.8,9 The loss in body weight gain and relative gonadal weights were In these malaria-endemic areas, malarious or rheumatoid general y increased in LP-groups compared with NP-groups. The arthritic patients undergoing Q treatment on a prolonged basisLPEQ-rats recorded actual-body (in contrast to NPEQ rats which also tend to consume alcohol regularly.10 For instance, in West-gained weight) and gonadal weight losses (p < 0.05), greater pro- ern Uganda, misuse of drugs such as chloroquine through self gressive reductions in seminiferous tubular diameter (STD) and ep- medication constitute about 87.2 – 94.6% of drug use.11 Addi- ithelial height (SEH) (10D to 40D). The reduction at 40days sacrifice tional y, these countries are plagued with poverty and malnutri-in SEH (-36.77%) and STD (-24.20%) of LPEQ-rats relative to tion.12 Thus, concurrent ingestion of Q, alcohol and protein-NPEQ-rats (-26.89% and -13.14% respectively) suggests greater deficient diets is common in these regions of the world. There aretesticular toxicity of combined E and Q administration with low apparently no reports on the possible effects of combined in-protein diet.
gestion of ethanol and chloroquine on a state of malnutrition, onthe testis and the relative weights of the epididymis and prostate gland. The present experimental protocol was designed in an at- Low protein diet enhanced the toxicity of concurrent ethanol and tempt to mimic this condition, using adult male Sprague-Daw-chloroquine intake on testicular/reproductive function of male rats. ley rats.
Further investigations wil include the female reproductive aspectand exploring the possible mechanisms of toxicity.
"!*)/2'5 !#5,49 /& %!,4( #)%.#%3 %0!24-%.4 /& 5-!. .!4/-9 !.$ )34/,/'9 #(//, /& %$)#).% .)6%23)49 /& )-0/0/ Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (±3months old) were used in the study. The rats, bred and housed at the Animal House, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, were housed in cages -!), %*)&5. '-!), #/- %*)&5. (/4-!), #/- under a 12–hour light / 12-hour dark regimen. The rat cages had


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New Spirit 4 Aussie Rescue Heartworm Treatment Protocol as of Fall 2011 Introduction: The drug, Immiticide, has been the treatment of choice for heartworm positive dogs. New Spirit has always opted for full treatment with Immiticide, even though it’s very expensive. In conjunction with a pre- and post treatment protocol, this was our preferred approach. and we had very good outcomes

Pii: s1090-5138(00)00063-5

Evolution and Human Behavior 22 (2001) 61±69Second to fourth digit ratio and male ability in sport:implications for sexual selection in humansaPopulation and Evolutionary Biology Research Unit, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool,bFootball Research Unit, Department of History, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, UKReceived 14 July 2000; accepted 16 October 2000

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