A Refereed Study Court Clerk Conditions and Code of Conduct in the Islamic Jurisprudence Dr. Ahmad Saalíh Al-Barraak* * Member of Faculty, Princess Nourah bint Abur-Rahmaan Girls University, Riyadh. Court Clerk Conditions and Code of Conduct in the Islamic Jurisprudence Introduction All praise belongs to Allah, the Lord of all the worlds, and peace and blessings be u
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Resources:Common Information About H1N1
Based on CDC and FLU.GOV
The novel H1N1 flu virus is causing illness in infected persons in the United States and countries around the world. CDC expects that illnesses may continue for some time. As a result, you or people around you may become ill. If so, you need to recognize the symptoms and know what to do. Symptoms
The symptoms of novel H1N1 flu virus in people are similar to the symptoms of seasonal flu and include fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, body aches, headache, chills and fatigue. A significant number of people who have been infected with novel H1N1 flu virus also have reported diarrhea and vomiting. The high risk groups for novel H1N1 flu are not known at this time, but it’s possible that they may be the same as for seasonal influenza. People at higher risk of serious complications from seasonal flu include people age 65 years and older, children younger than 5 years old, pregnant women, people of any age with chronic medical conditions (such as asthma, diabetes, or heart disease), and people who are immunosuppressed (e.g., taking immunosuppressive medications, infected with HIV). Avoid Contact With Others
If you are sick, you may be ill for a week or longer. You should stay home and keep away from others as much as possible, including avoiding travel and not going to work or school, for at least 24 hours after your fever is gone except to get medical care or for other necessities. (Your fever should be gone without the use of fever-reducing medicine.) If you leave the house to seek medical care, wear a facemask, if available and tolerable, and cover your coughs and sneezes with a tissue. In general, you should avoid contact with other people as much as possible to keep from spreading your illness, especially people at increased risk of severe illness from influenza. With seasonal flu, people may be contagious from one day before they develop symptoms to up to 7 days after they get sick. Children, especially younger children, might potentially be contagious for longer periods. People infected with the novel H1N1 are likely to have similar patterns of infectiousness as with seasonal flu. How long can an infected person spread this virus to others? People infected with seasonal and novel H1N1 flu shed virus and may be able to infect others from 1 day before getting sick to 5 to 7 days after. This can be longer in some people, especially children and people with weakened immune systems and in people infected with the new H1N1 virus. Treatment is Available for Those Who Are Seriously III It is expected that most people will recover without needing medical care. If you have severe illness or you are a contact your health care provider or seek medical care. Your health care provider will determine whether flu testing or treatment is needed. Be aware that if the flu becomes widespread, PAGE: 1 UPDATED: 9/6/2009 by Disease Prevention-TRB Common Information About H1N1
Based on CDC and FLU.GOV
less testing will be needed, so your health care provider may decide not to test for the
Antiviral drugs can be given to treat those who become severely ill with influenza. These antiviral drugs are prescription medicines (pills, liquid or an inhaler) with activity against influenza viruses, including novel H1N1 flu virus. These medications must be prescribed by a health care professional. There are two influenza antiviral medications that are recommended for use against novel H1N1 flu. The drugs that are used for treating novel H1N1 flu are called oseltamivir (trade name Tamiflu ®) and zanamivir (Relenza ®). As the novel H1N1 flu spreads, these antiviral drugs may become in short supply. Therefore, the drugs may be given first to those people who have been hospitalized or are at high risk of severe illness from flu. The drugs work best if given within 2 days of becoming ill, but may be given later if illness is severe or for those at a high risk for complications. Aspirin or aspirin-containing products (e.g., bismuth subsalicylate – Pepto Bismol) should not be administered to any confirmed or suspected ill case of novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection aged 18 years old and younger due to the risk of Reye’s syndrome. For relief of fever, other anti-pyretic medications are recommended such as acetaminophen or non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. For more information about Reye’s syndrome, visit the Check ingredient labels on over-the-counter cold and flu medications to see if they contain aspirin. Children 5 years of age and older and teenagers with the flu can take medicines without aspirin, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol®) and ibuprofen (Advil®, Motrin®, Nuprin®), to relieve symptoms. Children younger than 4 years of age should NOT be given over-the-counter cold medications without first speaking with a health care provider. Emergency Warning Signs
If you become ill and experience any of the following warning signs, seek emergency
In children, emergency warning signs that need urgent medical attention include:
Being so irritable that the child does not want to be held Flu-like symptoms improve but then return with fever and worse cough PAGE: 2 UPDATED: 9/6/2009 by Disease Prevention-TRB Common Information About H1N1
Based on CDC and FLU.GOV
In adults, emergency warning signs that need urgent medical attention include:
Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath Pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen Flu-like symptoms improve but then return with fever and worse cough Protect Yourself, Your Family, and Community
Stay informed. Health officials will provide additional information as it becomes
available. Visit the
Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw the tissue in the trash after you use it. Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially after you cough or sneezeare also effective. Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth. Germs spread this way. Try to avoid close contact with sick people. If you are sick with a flu-like illneIf you are sick and sharing a common space with other household members in your home, wear a facemask, if available and tolerable, to help prevent spreading the virus to others. Learn more about how to take care of someone who is ilVisit the Follow public health advice regarding school closures, avoiding crowds, and other social distancing measures. If you don’t have one yet, consider developing a family emergency plan as a precaution. This should include storing a supply of extra food, medicines, and other essential supplies. How long can influenza virus remain viable on objects (such as books and
Studies have shown that influenza virus can survive on environmental surfaces and can
infect a person for 2 to 8 hours after being deposited on the surface.
What kills influenza virus?
Influenza virus is destroyed by heat (167-212°F [75-100°C]). In addition, several
chemical germicides, including chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, detergents (soap),
iodophors (iodine-based antiseptics), and alcohols are effective against human
influenza viruses if used in proper concentration for a sufficient length of time. For
example, wipes or gels with alcohol in them can be used to clean hands. The gels
should be rubbed into hands until they are dry.
PAGE: 3 UPDATED: 9/6/2009 by Disease Prevention-TRB
SUMMER SELF STUDY PROGRAM Drug Therapy for Stabilization of AF: From Foxglove to Tarantulas Friday, May 16, 2008 Bramah N. Singh, MD, DSc, FRCP Gerald V. Naccarelli, MD, FHRS Current Drug Options for Atrial Fibrillation L. Brent Mitchell, MD Dr. Brent Mitchell discussed the magnitude of the clinical problem of atrial fibrillation. He reviewed the epidemiology of atri