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PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS:
Addiction: a physical or psychological
Tolerance: it takes more than before to get
Withdrawal: physical illness or discomfort
Stimulants
  A class of psychoactive drugs that arouse/excite CNS.
  Increase heart rate, stamina, respiration, and blood Caffeine (coffee, soda…)
  Suppresses adenosine (a depressant of the brain)
  Increased feelings of alertness
  Addictive - Caffeinism is a dependence on caffeine
w/ insomnia, loss of appetite, irritability, racing heart, and elevated body temp.   Withdrawal = lethargy, irritability, lack of concentration and headache   Link with caffeine and birth defects Nicotine (cigs, chew…)
  Activates and increases Ach (Acetylcholine)
  Makes the user feel more relaxed – even though it   Can be lethal (chain smoking 17-25)   Overdose: dizziness, nausea, muscle tremors…   One of the most addicting of all drugs   Heart disease, gum disease, lung disease, cancer, Amphetamines (speed, methamphetamines, diet pills…)
  Activates DA and NE, prevents reuptake
  Amphetamine Psychosis = mental illness due to chronic amphetamine drug use – paranoid delusion   Heart attacks, aggression, odd behavior ** Amphetamine Sensitization – for occasional users, a small amount of the drug has a bigger effect than Cocaine/Crack
  Increases transmission of NE and DA
  Euphoria and increased alertness
  Originally used as local anesthesia
  Until 1906 was found in Coca Cola (hence the name)
  Highly addictive
  Increased body temp, heart attack, stroke, seizures
  Len Bias – drafted by Celtics celebrated with cocaine–
  Withdrawal = fatigue, anxiety, paranoia, boredom, depression, and Anhedonia (inability to feel pleasure)   Particularly dangerous when used with alcohol or heroine Stimulants cont…
Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy)
  Increases release of 5-hT (Serotonin) and NE
  Euphoria, heightened sensory experiences, empathy, lowered inhibitions, diminished sexual response   Dry mouth, clenched jaw, grinding teeth, agitation, blurred vision, rapid eye movement, nausea, chills, and sweating.   Overdose: Increased body temperature that leads to kidney failure and heart failure, heart attack, overdose of   Long term effects – linked to damaged serotonin receptors, damaged serotonergic brain cells, clinical depression, decreased sexual response.   Most pills sold in the US are NOT MDMA
Depressants
  A class of psychoactive drugs that inhibit or slow the   Reduce anxiety, help with insomnia, slow reflexes, Anti-Anxiety (Valium, Xanax…)
  Activates/enhances GABA
  Benzodiazepines (tranquilizers) = lowers anxiety, reduces tension, relieves insomnia   Valium, Xanax, Halcion, Rohypnol (10x more potent)  Dangerous drug interaction with alcohol Sedatives-Hypnotics and Anti-Anxiety (barbiturates,
  Barbiturates = depress brain activity, highly addictive,   GHB = Gamma-hydroxybutyrate. Relaxes and sedates   Slows heartbeat and respiration, loss of muscle control, loss of gag reflex, loss of consciousness, death   Dangerous drug interaction with alcohol Alcohol
  Enhances GABA (an inhibitory NT), decreases
effectiveness of DA, effects Cerebral Cortex, Limbic System, Cerebellum, Hypothalamus, and Medulla   Effects may vary – range from euphoria to excitement to confusion to stupor and eventually to coma and death   Problems with drinking? See page 279 Alcohol cont…
  CNS damage, liver/pancreas damage, cirrhosis of the
liver, kills brain cells reducing total brain mass, stomach/ intestinal ulcers, increased bp, decreased sex hormones, lowered immune system, memory loss, anemia,   Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
  Withdrawal = convulsions, hallucinations, tremors
  Hangover = withdrawal due to acute intoxication
  Treatment = antabuse, therapy, rehab, AA
  Some Signs / Symptoms:
  Unconscious or semi-consciousness.
  Slow respiration (breaths) of eight or less per minute or lapses between breaths of more than eight seconds.
  Cold, clammy, pale or bluish skin. Alcohol Poisoning:
Appropriate Action:
  CALL 911. Do what you would do in any
medical emergency--call immediately.
  gently turn the intoxicated person on his/her side and place a pillow in the small of the person's back. This is important to prevent aspiration (choking) should the person vomit.   Stay with the person until medical help arrives.
Narcotics
  Class of psychoactive drugs that reduce pain, reduce   Opiates: Derived from the opium poppy
  Opioids: Same chemical structure, but synthetic)
  Morphine, Heroin, Codeine, Methadone, Percodan,   Euphoria, reduction of pain, depressed breathing,   Body stops producing endorphins, making withdrawal very difficult and addiction quite easy   Heroin withdrawal = starts in 4-6 hours with running nose, watery eyes, and cramping. By 12-18 hours there is no appetite, severe diarrhea, severe cramps, chills, and fever that will last for days.   Naloxone (blocks the drug) Methadone program Hallucinogens
  A class of psychoactive drugs that alter consciousness of inner and outer worlds. Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)
  Blocks 5hT
  Dizziness, creeping skin, nausea, tremors, loss of time,
mood swings, hallucinations, extreme cognitions,   Not addictive, but tolerance does occur
  Long term physical effects not yet known, but linked to
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinal (THC)
  THC mimics Anandamide (a NT) by binding
with cannabinoid receptors in the brain.   These receptors affect short-term memory, coordination, learning, sensory and time   Disconnected ideas, loss of time/space, hunger , distorted perception, increased heart rate, paranoia, pre-cancerous changes in   Other long term problems not yet known   Psychological dependence Phencyclidine (PCP, “angel dust”) and Ketamine
  Anesthetic drugs with hallucinogenic effects and
  Euphoria   PCP = hostile and aggressive bxs, violence, mimics Psilocybin and Mescaline (peyote)
  Two other hallucinogens that are found naturally
  Still have hallucinogenic effects, exhilaration, distorted
  Can intensify existing psychological problems and

Source: http://www.ljhs.sandi.net/faculty/KDill/Course_Documents_files/drugs%20lecture%20notes.pdf

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CRITICAL ISSUES IN HEALTH ECONOMICS B. J. Dooley, Louisiana State University at Eunice Arthur Schroeder, Louisiana State University at Eunice Fred Landry, Louisiana State University at Eunice Edwin Deshautelle, Louisiana State University at Eunice Cynthia Darbonne, , Louisiana State University at Eunice ABSTRACT The healthcare industry faces critical issues including co-pay

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