Addiction: a physical or psychological
Tolerance: it takes more than before to get
Withdrawal: physical illness or discomfort
  A class of psychoactive drugs that arouse/excite CNS.
  Increase heart rate, stamina, respiration, and blood Caffeine (coffee, soda…)
  Suppresses adenosine (a depressant of the brain)
  Increased feelings of alertness
  Addictive - Caffeinism is a dependence on caffeine
w/ insomnia, loss of appetite, irritability, racing heart, and elevated body temp.   Withdrawal = lethargy, irritability, lack of concentration and headache   Link with caffeine and birth defects Nicotine (cigs, chew…)
  Activates and increases Ach (Acetylcholine)
  Makes the user feel more relaxed – even though it   Can be lethal (chain smoking 17-25)   Overdose: dizziness, nausea, muscle tremors…   One of the most addicting of all drugs   Heart disease, gum disease, lung disease, cancer, Amphetamines (speed, methamphetamines, diet pills…)
  Activates DA and NE, prevents reuptake
  Amphetamine Psychosis = mental illness due to chronic amphetamine drug use – paranoid delusion   Heart attacks, aggression, odd behavior ** Amphetamine Sensitization – for occasional users, a small amount of the drug has a bigger effect than Cocaine/Crack
  Increases transmission of NE and DA
  Euphoria and increased alertness
  Originally used as local anesthesia
  Until 1906 was found in Coca Cola (hence the name)
  Highly addictive
  Increased body temp, heart attack, stroke, seizures
  Len Bias – drafted by Celtics celebrated with cocaine–
  Withdrawal = fatigue, anxiety, paranoia, boredom, depression, and Anhedonia (inability to feel pleasure)   Particularly dangerous when used with alcohol or heroine Stimulants cont…
Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy)
  Increases release of 5-hT (Serotonin) and NE
  Euphoria, heightened sensory experiences, empathy, lowered inhibitions, diminished sexual response   Dry mouth, clenched jaw, grinding teeth, agitation, blurred vision, rapid eye movement, nausea, chills, and sweating.   Overdose: Increased body temperature that leads to kidney failure and heart failure, heart attack, overdose of   Long term effects – linked to damaged serotonin receptors, damaged serotonergic brain cells, clinical depression, decreased sexual response.   Most pills sold in the US are NOT MDMA
  A class of psychoactive drugs that inhibit or slow the   Reduce anxiety, help with insomnia, slow reflexes, Anti-Anxiety (Valium, Xanax…)
  Activates/enhances GABA
  Benzodiazepines (tranquilizers) = lowers anxiety, reduces tension, relieves insomnia   Valium, Xanax, Halcion, Rohypnol (10x more potent)  Dangerous drug interaction with alcohol Sedatives-Hypnotics and Anti-Anxiety (barbiturates,
  Barbiturates = depress brain activity, highly addictive,   GHB = Gamma-hydroxybutyrate. Relaxes and sedates   Slows heartbeat and respiration, loss of muscle control, loss of gag reflex, loss of consciousness, death   Dangerous drug interaction with alcohol Alcohol
  Enhances GABA (an inhibitory NT), decreases
effectiveness of DA, effects Cerebral Cortex, Limbic System, Cerebellum, Hypothalamus, and Medulla   Effects may vary – range from euphoria to excitement to confusion to stupor and eventually to coma and death   Problems with drinking? See page 279 Alcohol cont…
  CNS damage, liver/pancreas damage, cirrhosis of the
liver, kills brain cells reducing total brain mass, stomach/ intestinal ulcers, increased bp, decreased sex hormones, lowered immune system, memory loss, anemia,   Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
  Withdrawal = convulsions, hallucinations, tremors
  Hangover = withdrawal due to acute intoxication
  Treatment = antabuse, therapy, rehab, AA
  Some Signs / Symptoms:
  Unconscious or semi-consciousness.
  Slow respiration (breaths) of eight or less per minute or lapses between breaths of more than eight seconds.
  Cold, clammy, pale or bluish skin. Alcohol Poisoning:
Appropriate Action:
  CALL 911. Do what you would do in any
medical emergency--call immediately.
  gently turn the intoxicated person on his/her side and place a pillow in the small of the person's back. This is important to prevent aspiration (choking) should the person vomit.   Stay with the person until medical help arrives.
  Class of psychoactive drugs that reduce pain, reduce   Opiates: Derived from the opium poppy
  Opioids: Same chemical structure, but synthetic)
  Morphine, Heroin, Codeine, Methadone, Percodan,   Euphoria, reduction of pain, depressed breathing,   Body stops producing endorphins, making withdrawal very difficult and addiction quite easy   Heroin withdrawal = starts in 4-6 hours with running nose, watery eyes, and cramping. By 12-18 hours there is no appetite, severe diarrhea, severe cramps, chills, and fever that will last for days.   Naloxone (blocks the drug) Methadone program Hallucinogens
  A class of psychoactive drugs that alter consciousness of inner and outer worlds. Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)
  Blocks 5hT
  Dizziness, creeping skin, nausea, tremors, loss of time,
mood swings, hallucinations, extreme cognitions,   Not addictive, but tolerance does occur
  Long term physical effects not yet known, but linked to
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinal (THC)
  THC mimics Anandamide (a NT) by binding
with cannabinoid receptors in the brain.   These receptors affect short-term memory, coordination, learning, sensory and time   Disconnected ideas, loss of time/space, hunger , distorted perception, increased heart rate, paranoia, pre-cancerous changes in   Other long term problems not yet known   Psychological dependence Phencyclidine (PCP, “angel dust”) and Ketamine
  Anesthetic drugs with hallucinogenic effects and
  Euphoria   PCP = hostile and aggressive bxs, violence, mimics Psilocybin and Mescaline (peyote)
  Two other hallucinogens that are found naturally
  Still have hallucinogenic effects, exhilaration, distorted
  Can intensify existing psychological problems and

Source: http://www.ljhs.sandi.net/faculty/KDill/Course_Documents_files/drugs%20lecture%20notes.pdf

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