TRIBUNAL REGIONAL ELEITORAL DE SÃO PAULO Relação Mensal de Compras: Agosto/2007 PREÇO UNIT PREÇO TOTAL FORNECEDOR CNPJ/CPF Ácido Acetilsalicílico, em cartelas com 10 comprimidos Amoxicilina + Clav Potássio, em caixas com 18 comprimidos de 500/ 125 mg, laboratório EMS. Besilato de Anlodipino, em caixas com 30 comprimidos Besilato de Anlodipino, em caixas com 30 comprimid
Microsoft word - malarianomore factsheet final.docFact Sheet
Overview of Malaria
Malaria is a disease of contradiction – it is both one of the most deadly and prevalent diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa and also the most preventable and treatable. More than 1 million people die of malaria each year, 75 percent of them African children, and more than 300 million people worldwide fall ill from malaria annually. Defeating malaria is an urgent calling and an achievable goal. We have eliminated malaria in many regions of the world – and with the help of people across the United States and around the world, we can bring this disease under control. Nationally representative, Gallup Survey Data collected December 8 – 10, 2006, indicate that Americans rank malaria last as a very serious problem around the world.
What is Malaria No More?
Malaria No More is an inclusive, grassroots movement to engage individuals and private institutions globally in supporting a comprehensive approach to control malaria. o Malaria No More is a non-profit organization with more than 60 organizations from the
United States and across the globe working together to end deaths from malaria. o Malaria No More founding members include: American Red Cross, Global Business
Coalition on HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis & Malaria; Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis & Malaria; Millennium Promise; UNICEF; United Nations Foundation & United Way of America. The Board of Directors of Malaria No More is drawn from business executives, philanthropists, NGO executives, and the media.1 o Malaria No More has international counterparts – Malaria No More! Netherlands and Spread
the Net in Canada – and international partners in other countries.
Private Sector Commitments -- White House Summit
In three months after the announcement of the White House Summit on Malaria, the private sector has
come forward with these new commitments being announced today:
o 150,000 New Volunteers in Africa, reaching 12.5 million people with malaria prevention and
treatment education. The Red Cross will mobilize 50,000 volunteers, and the Saddleback 1 The Board of Directors of Malaria No More: Omar Amanat, John Bridgeland, Nancy Brinker, Kathy Bushkin, Ray Chambers, Peter Chernin, Jeff Flug, Helene Gayle, Richard Holbrooke, Bonnie McElveen-Hunter, Charles MacCormack, Ian Rowe, Edward Scott, Tim Shriver, Chris Stamos, Jack Valenti, and Ann Veneman. Church 100,000 volunteers. (Based on its long experience, each Red Cross volunteer will reach 200 people. Each Saddleback volunteer will initially reach at least 25 people.) o 15 million individuals in the United States reached by these initiatives (e.g., United Way,
Boys & Girls Clubs, students, and Red Cross) o 220 corporations engaged in these initiatives (e.g., Global Business Coalition)
o 1.03 million new bed nets protecting more than 2.5 million lives from malaria in Africa
Lesson Plans & Book on Malaria for Students o 5.8 million students in virtually every elementary school in the United States reached with
new educational materials on malaria and how young people can make a difference o Created an environment that has brought forth $103.4 million dollars in new financial private
sector commitments in the last three months o Convening leading multilateral institutions for private sector led Post Summit Review to
o Malaria No More will obtain new private sector commitments by April 25, 2007, the new Malaria Awareness Day in the U.S. in support of Africa Malaria Day o The World Economic Forum has agreed to make malaria a priority at their meeting in Cape o Malaria No More will host an International Youth Summit on Malaria in 2007 o A Roundtable of Faith-based and Community leaders in 2007 will be held to foster
The White House Summit on Malaria
The White House Summit on Malaria on December 14, 2006, hosted by the President and First Lady, and
including distinguished guests from Africa and other countries and from leading institutions at the forefront
of malaria control efforts, will feature many of these new commitments to help ignite the grassroots
movement and support malaria control. This Summit follows on the heels of the President’s commitment of
$1.2 billion to control malaria and was designed to ignite the private sector in response to his challenge.
Gallup Survey Shows Need for Education & Mobilization
Nationally representative, Gallup Survey Data collected December 8 – 10, 2006, shows that:
Malaria ranked last in a list of five diseases with only 28 percent of adults ranking it as a “very serious problem around the world.” In this telephone survey, the diseases that ranked above malaria were HIV/AIDS (89%); Cancer (87%), Poor Nutrition (80%), and Tuberculosis (31%).
Mobilizing Boots on Ground & Networks
Malaria No More has entered into an agreement with its founding partner, the American Red Cross. Bonnie
McElveen-Hunter, Chair of the American Red Cross, was joined by Shimelis Adugna, President of the
Ethiopian Red Cross, in announcing the agreement’s objectives at the White House Summit on Malaria:
To mobilize 50,000 trained Red Cross and Red Crescent volunteers and workers in Sub-Saharan Africa in 2007 and 2008 who will educate and train more than 10 million people on malaria control, including the proper use of bed nets, the elimination of mosquitoes, and the need to seek prompt treatment for children and others with symptoms of the disease. Based on its experience in mobilizing volunteers for the Measles Initiative, the Red Cross expects to reach at least 200 people with each trained volunteer. To mobilize the American Red Cross and its more than 750 chapters and 1 million volunteers in the United States to make promotion and fundraising for malaria prevention and control efforts through Malaria No More a priority, and work with the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and with the 53 African Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, to play a leading role in the education and mobilization of malaria prone communities. United Way of America, a founding partner of Malaria No More, is mobilizing more support for the comprehensive approach to control malaria. Brian Gallagher, President & CEO of United Way of America, and Angelina Wapakabulo, Vice Chair of United Way of Uganda, made these announcements at the Summit: To encourage 4 million Americans through the United Way of America’s national networks of corporate partners and millions of additional Americans through 1,300 local United Ways to support the comprehensive approach through Malaria No More, including the purchase and distribution of bed nets, the deployment of additional volunteers, and monitoring and evaluation. The Board of United Way of Uganda will convene government, NGO, academic, faith-based and other civic leaders to address the concerns related to malaria and to take action to protect people from malaria – especially children, families, and those with HIV/AIDS.
Providing Bed Nets
Malaria No More is supporting the comprehensive approach to control malaria, including the provision of
additional bed nets where they are needed most:
Malaria No More is providing $2 million for the purchase of 330,000 bed nets for Uganda. Working in partnership with the President’s Malaria Initiative, Malaria No More and the President’s Malaria Initiative will produce a total of 530,000 bed nets for Uganda, together with education and training and monitoring and evaluation. The 2006 Malaria Country Action Plan for Uganda indicates that household ownership of bed nets is only 25% and that only 15% of children under five are sleeping under a treated bed net. The President’s Malaria Initiative has established a goal that 85% of children under five and 85% of all pregnant women will have slept under a bed net by 2010. The provision of these nets by Malaria No More and the President’s Malaria Initiative, working in partnership with the Global Fund’s leading contribution of 1.8 million nets, will nearly double household net coverage in Uganda to about 50%. Malaria is endemic in 95% of Uganda, is the leading cause of death and infection, and nearly half of hospital in-patient deaths among children under five are attributed to malaria. Uganda has the highest number of malaria cases in Africa. Sports teams are emerging to support bed net campaigns: The National Basketball Association’s NBA Cares, the People of the United Methodist Church, Malaria No More, Sports Illustrated and the United Nations Foundation have launched its “Nothing But Nets” campaign to attract more support for bed nets. Inspired by Sports Illustrated’s columnist Rick Reilly, who challenged each of his readers to donate at least $10 for the purchase and distribution of bed nets, more than 18,000 people raised $1.2 million — enough to buy 100,000 nets. Thousands of additional people have since joined the campaign, and 150,000 nets were distributed in November 2006 in Nigeria through the Measles Initiative. The NBA, along with its players and teams, will launch a major campaign at its NBA store and in arenas in January 2007. The People of the United Methodist Church recently facilitated a project in Sierra Leone that focuses on community-based primary health care, education and creating a “net culture.” Colleges and universities are working to educate students on the roles they can play in controlling malaria and raise support for bed nets: More than 40 colleges and universities have created "Veto the Squito" SWAT TEAMs (Students Working as Teammates to Engage Against Malaria) and more than 1 million student leaders have been reached by the Veto the Squito campaign run by Americans for Informed Democracy, Children for Children, and the LOVE, HALLIE Foundation. SWAT TEAM members are organizing town hall meetings, pajama parties, concerts, and other events primarily in the United States, but also in other countries to raise support for bed nets through Malaria No More. Faith Based Initiatives
Saddleback Church, led by Pastor Rick Warren, is working with faith-based leaders on the ground in
Rwanda through its P.E.A.C.E. Plan and Malaria No More. Pastor Rick Warren and Reverend Straton Gataha
of the Living Church in Kigali, Rwanda, announced their plans:
To mobilize a total of 1,000 church leaders throughout Rwanda and to mobilize at least 100,000 additional volunteers from faith-based communities over the next three years to educate and train 2.5 million villagers on the comprehensive approach to control malaria as part of primary health care. Working with the President’s Malaria Initiative, NGOs and multilateral institutions, church leaders in Rwanda, Saddleback Church, and Malaria No More want to make Rwanda a test-case for demonstrating the power of faith-based institutions in controlling malaria and sustaining primary health care efforts over time. For many villages in Rwanda, the church is the only formal institution and churches have universal distribution, large numbers of volunteers, people with credibility in local villages, and the ability to help monitor the effects of malaria control efforts on mortality and infection rates. To present to Saddleback Church’s network of 300,000 church leaders globally the opportunity to support the comprehensive approach through Malaria No More, including the purchase and distribution of bed nets, the deployment of additional volunteers, and monitoring and evaluation. The Episcopal Relief and Development is demonstrating the power of partnerships between corporations and faith-based institutions. Robert W. Radtke, President of the Episcopal Relief and Development, announced: That its partnership to prevent malaria, NetsforLifesm, is distributing one million long lasting insecticide treated nets in 16 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa over the next three years, together with additional volunteers and monitoring and evaluation. NetsforLife’s ability to reach the last mile in Africa through its Anglican Church partners is reducing malaria morbidity and mortality for people who live at the end of the road. NetsforLife is supported by Episcopalians, foundations and corporations and is pleased to partner with Malaria No More. New funding from the ExxonMobil Foundation Africa Health Initiative and Standard Chartered Bank totals $2.4 million and enables 200,000 nets to be distributed, 680 new volunteers to be trained and 600,000 vulnerable people protected from malaria in Zambia, Kenya, DR Congo, Angola, Burundi and Namibia. ExxonMobil's investment will verify the 'on-the-ground' health impact of the project, which will be achieved through a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation program conducted in all 16 countries.
Faithful America is an online interfaith ministry of the National Council of Churches and through its network
of 105,000 subscribers representing virtually all faith communities – including Christian, Jewish, Muslim and
other faiths – will work to help advance the mission of Malaria No More through both education and a
targeted online donation campaign.
The Muslim Public Affairs Council, Jewish Life Network, and Stand for Africa are mobilizing members of their
faith communities to support efforts to save and improve lives through Malaria No More.
Grassroots Initiatives Abroad
Malaria No More is working to ignite a grassroots movement with reach into other countries. Ray
Chambers, Chairman of Malaria No More, acknowledged two international partners of Malaria No More:
Malaria No More! Netherlands, a partnership of the Netherlands Red Cross, the Fred Foundation, and other future partners, has been launched to ignite a grassroots movement of individuals, civil society, the public sector and the corporate sector in the Netherlands. The foundation will support an integral approach to control malaria, including the purchase of bed nets and the mobilization of more volunteers for education and training, primarily in Africa. The Spread the Net Campaign in Canada, a partnership of UNICEF Canada with Member of Parliament Belinda Stronach, and co-chaired by Canadian television personality Rick Mercer, is bringing Canadians together to help prevent the transmission of malaria among African children by raising money to buy 500,000 insecticide-treated bed nets over the next two years. Bed nets costing $10 per net will be delivered free of charge to families in Liberia and Rwanda. The Spread the Net campaign can be found at www.spreadthenet.org and is the strategic partner of Malaria No More in Canada.
The Global Business Coalition on HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is a founding partner of Malaria No
More. CEO Richard Holbrooke, as a member of the Malaria No More Board, has brought these
In partnership with Malaria No More, the Global Business Coalition is mobilizing its 220 member companies to increase global disease awareness and raise funds for life-saving bed nets. More specifically, the Global Business Coalition will work with its member companies to facilitate vector control, monitoring and evaluation programs, and offer opportunities to purchase bed nets to millions of its member companies’ customers, employees, their families and community members in more than 150 countries around the world. The Global Business Coalition on HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria supports a comprehensive approach to fighting malaria, which includes prevention and treatment initiatives. Its member companies possess a range of core competencies crucial to implementing cost-effective malaria interventions, ranging from marketing capability to promote malaria awareness campaigns and consumer education programs, to the research and development of diagnostic tests and life-saving drugs.
Educating Tomorrow’s Leaders
Malaria No More has developed educational materials that will be sent to schools throughout the United
States. U.S. Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings highlighted the following efforts at the White
House Summit on Malaria:
Malaria No More has developed a children’s book for first graders called Nets are Nice, with a foreward by Laura Bush. The book uses malaria as a vehicle for teaching young children something about Africa, common values, including learning and caring, and how each of us can make a difference in this world. The book is accompanied by a teaching guide, lesson plans for teachers, and a family take-home page developed in partnership with Scholastic, Inc., which will distribute this material to nearly every elementary school in the United States – public, private and parochial – reaching approximately 71,000 1st grade teachers and 1.7 million students and families. In early 2007, Malaria No More will have forthcoming 5th and 6th grade educational materials that will go to virtually all elementary schools in the United States. The 1st, 5th and 6th grade material combined will reach almost 6 million students. These materials were made possible by a generous, $1 million grant from the Abbott Fund, a philanthropic foundation dedicated to creating healthier global communities. Students have already begun to take up the challenge presented by Malaria No More: The 324 students of Holy Trinity School in Washington, D.C. have made Malaria No More a focus of their learning and charity for the 2006-2007 school term. The seventh grade students researched facts about malaria in their science classes, learned about Sub-Saharan Africa in their social studies classes, wrote grade-specific lesson plans for grades K-6, and taught younger students about malaria. The third grade held a bake sale, the fourth grade made gift certificates, and the entire school is participating in a “Read-a-Thon,” all in support of Malaria No More’s campaign to save lives in Africa. The students of Mount Kenya Academy in Nyeri, Kenya are raising awareness about the problem and challenge of malaria in Kenya by writing essays and creating artwork on display at the White House Summit on Malaria. High school students wrote essays about “A World Without Malaria,” detailing how their lives have been affected by the disease and how their lives would change in the absence of malaria. Elementary and middle school students created drawings of dragonflies, an insect that eats mosquitoes. At the White House Summit on Malaria, Malaria No More’s first Dragonfly Awards will be given for outstanding youth achievement in fighting malaria. The Dragonfly Award is designed to promote awareness of malaria by recognizing outstanding youth achievement in fighting the disease. The award is named for the dragonfly, a natural and voracious predator of mosquitoes.
The Children of Agape are a choir of South African orphans. Their tour to the United States is sponsored by
the Love, Hallie Foundation, whose mission is to encourage kindness, respect, volunteerism and positive
action among America’s young people.
They are donating a portion of their end of the year 2006 tour proceeds to Malaria No More, and performed at the White House Summit on Malaria. The Boys & Girls Clubs of America is encouraging the more than 4.6 million boys and girls it serves in some 3,900 clubs to raise awareness and funds to support the fight against malaria. Five Boys & Girls Clubs are already leading such an effort. The Boys & Girls Clubs of Newark, which has exceeded its fundraising goal for bed nets, is hosting Malaria Awareness Week and local community presentations, creating a malaria awareness video and website, plus spearheading events throughout 2007 to raise awareness, funds and support for Malaria No More. Maintaining the Priority on Malaria
Malaria No More has obtained the agreement of the World Economic Forum to make malaria a “priority” issue at their regional meeting in Cape Town, South Africa, June 13 -15, 2007. Malaria No More will sponsor an International Youth Summit on Malaria in 2007, building on the progress it is making on college campuses and in schools across the United States to educate and engage a generation of young people in saving lives in Africa from malaria. Malaria No More will obtain new commitments in connection with the designation of April 25, 2007 as Malaria Awareness Day in the United States, as a sign of tangible support for Africa Malaria Day. Malaria No More will organize a roundtable discussion in 2007 to foster cooperation on malaria among faith-based leaders representing Christian, Jewish, Muslim and other faiths to discuss how to foster cooperation to control malaria, to deploy more volunteers, and to promote peace.
The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation made a variety of new announcements the week leading up to the
White House Summit on Malaria, and Melinda Gates participated in the White House Summit on Malaria.
The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation announced $83 million in new grants to combat the disease:
Malaria control: $29 million to expand the Malaria Control and Evaluation Program in Africa (MACEPA), based at PATH, from Zambia to five additional African countries. The program will support collaboration among developing countries, donors, and other public and private partners to rapidly expand and evaluate national malaria control programs. Vaccine research: $29.3 million to PATH’s Malaria Vaccine Initiative (MVI) for research on a promising malaria vaccine candidate, and $3.5 million to Fraunhofer USA to study potential antigens for use in malaria vaccines. MVI will investigate the potential for an attenuated malaria parasite to elicit an immune response, an approach that has worked previously with malaria and several other diseases. Preventive treatment for infants: $2.2 million to the World Health Organization (WHO) to develop guidelines for intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants (IPTi), a new strategy to prevent severe malaria, and $2.7 million to the Fundacio Clinic per a la Recerca Biomedica of the University of Barcelona for research on the acceptability and sustainability of IPTi. Diagnostics: $9.8 million to the Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND) to evaluate existing diagnostic tests for malaria, and develop guidelines for the effective and efficient use of malaria tests in the field. Roll Back Malaria Partnership: $7.1 million to the Roll Back Malaria Partnership (RBM), based at
WHO, to increase technical assistance to malaria programs in Southern Africa, and strengthen global advocacy activities. ExxonMobil has been a leader in malaria control for many years. Steven Phillips, Medical Director, Global Issues and Projects, for ExxonMobil, participated in the Summit: ExxonMobil will provide $10 million in support for malaria research and control in 2007. Exxon will focus its philanthropic giving on programs that work to combat malaria in five countries: Nigeria, Equitorial Guinea, Angola, Chad and Cameroon. The company is also the largest (non-pharm) private sector donor to malarial research and development activities. Its funds work in malaria vaccine discovery, new drugs and diagnostics. It is also the largest private sector donor to the President’s Malaria Initiative and is one of two private sector representatives on the Board of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership. These activities are continuing in 2007.
Every year, more than 300 million people worldwide suffer acute illnesses from malaria and more than one million people die of it, 75% of them African children. Malaria is a leading cause of mortality in Africa for children under the age of five. Sub-Saharan Africa is home to the most deadly and efficient species of mosquito – plasmodium falciparum – and most infections south of the Sahara are caused by this species that has shown resistance to antimalarial drugs, such as chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. In addition to the human toll, Malaria also strains health care systems, local economies, and social advancement. In Africa, malaria accounts for up to 50% of outpatient and inpatient visits in high malaria transmission regions and consumes 40% of public health spending. Malaria is estimated to sap African economies of $12 billion every year, representing a crippling 1.3 percent annual loss in GDP growth. Sick children miss school, local agriculture and economies wane, tourism suffers, and foreign investment is stifled. Malaria becomes a self-perpetuating problem, where the disease prevents the human, economic and social capital necessary to bring the disease under control. Moreover, malaria disproportionately affects the rural poor, who can neither afford a bed net for prevention, nor access appropriate treatment for it. Malaria is a disease of the blood that is caused by a parasite transmitted from person to person by certain types of mosquitoes. Malaria symptoms, which appear about 9 to 14 days after the infection,
include fever, headache, vomiting, and other flu-like symptoms. If drugs are not available for treatment or
the parasites are resistant to them, the infection can lead to coma, severe life-threatening anemia,
neurological disorders, and death by infecting and destroying red blood cells and by clogging capillaries
that carry blood to the brain (cerebral malaria) or other vital organs.
The Comprehensive Approach
Malaria No More supports the comprehensive approach to control malaria. Malaria is preventable and treatable and has been eliminated in many parts of Asia, Europe and the Americas. Experts agree that to control malaria, and ultimately to ensure that families can live malaria-free lives, a comprehensive approach is necessary, including education, prevention and treatment: Education and Awareness: no effort on the ground can be effective without proper
education and awareness. Whether such education relates to the proper and consistent use of bed nets, recognizing symptoms in a child that merit treatment, protecting pregnant women or unborn children, or reducing mosquito populations, a critical part of the comprehensive approach supported by Malaria No More involves education; Long-Lasting Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets: LLINs work by creating a protective barrier
against mosquitoes at night, especially from 10 pm to 4 a.m. when most mosquitoes bite. Most bed nets can cover a mother and infant or a few siblings for up to three to five years. A net treated with special insecticides offers about twice the protection of an untreated net, and through its repellency can even protect other people in the room outside the net. When enough people (about 70 percent) sleep under LLINs, entire villages, even huts and homes without an LLIN, can be made safer; Eliminating Mosquitoes: indoor residual spraying of homes also reduces malaria
transmission by killing mosquitoes. Teams are also organized to eliminate or treat mosquito breeding sites and villagers also can be educated to eliminate pools of water, cut grass and fields and take other measures to reduce mosquito populations; Anti-Malarial Drugs: Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the most
effective drugs currently available for treating malaria. In addition to ACTs, pregnant women can be helped by administering at least two monthly doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. More than 70 percent of pregnant women in Africa attend antenatal clinics at least once during pregnancy and a regime of SP helps protect them from possible death and anemia and also prevents malaria-related low birth weight in infants, which causes about 100,000 infant deaths annually in Africa; Development of a Vaccine: while years away, outstanding efforts are underway to develop
a vaccine as the best possible defense against malaria. As work continues to develop a vaccine, we need to concentrate on the tools of prevention and treatment that exist today.
Dept. of Stat. Methods, University of L´ e-mail : email@example.comThe celebrated Kaplan-Meter estimator (KME) suffers from a disadvantage:it may happen that estimated probabilities of survival for two different times t 1and t 2 are equal each to other while t 1 and t 2 differ substantially. We proposea smoothinq of KME in such a way that the resulting estimator is a strictlydec