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Systematic & Applied Acarology Special Publications (2004) 19, 1–14 An indexed, annotated bibliography of the German-language papers on ticks
and tick-borne diseases translated under the editorship of the late
Harry Hoogstraal (1917–1986)

RICHARD G. ROBBINS1 & ELISSA M. ROBBINS21Armed Forces Pest Management Board, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC 20307-5001, U.S.A.
2formerly Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave-
nue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4307, U.S.A.; now 13021 Brahms Terrace, Silver Spring, Maryland 20904-7107, U.S.A. Corresponding author: Abstract
An annotated bibliography is presented describing the 54 German-language tick papers known to have beenselected for translation into English under the editorship of the late Harry Hoogstraal during his years at U.S.
Naval Medical Research Unit Number Three (NAMRU-3) in Cairo, Egypt. The bibliography is followed by anindex to all tick species, subspecies and varieties named in these papers, including junior synonyms, nominadubia, misidentifications, and lapsus calamorum.
Key words: Hoogstraal bibliography, ticks, translations, German
During his long (1949–1986) tenure at U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit Number Three (NAMRU-3), Cairo, Egypt, the late Harry Hoogstraal (1917–1986) edited at least 1,810 translations of scientificpapers and books, largely from the Russian literature on ticks and tick-borne diseases. In an earliercompilation (Robbins & Robbins 2003), we described how, over the last decade, we have succeededin acquiring copies of most of these translations. Currently, our collection contains 1,775 items, ofwhich 1,594 (90%) are from Russian; the remaining 181 comprise 17 other languages, with Germanfar in the lead at 70 translations. However, in keeping with Hoogstraal’s reputation as a Renaissanceman, almost a quarter of the German titles address non-acarological subjects: mammalogy (T60-61,T142), leishmaniasis (T229), honey bees (T269), parasitology book reviews (T285-290),chromatography (T353, T367), insect chemoreception (T378, T384), and schistosomiasis (T874).
Herein, we confine ourselves to providing an indexed, annotated bibliography of the 54 German tickpapers that Hoogstraal deemed worthy of an Anglophone audience. Together, these works discuss208 taxa representing all three extant tick families–ample evidence that die schöne Sprache remainsa vibrant medium of scientific communication.
Annotated Bibliography
Abar, B., Ackermann, R. & Danielová, V. (1977) Jetzt dran denken: Zeckenenzephalitis. Medical Tribune, Wiesbaden 12, 1 & 7. (T1258. A reminder that German physicians, particularly during 2004 Systematic & Applied Acarology Society summer in southern Germany, should consider Central European tick-borne encephalitis whendiagnosing infections of the nervous system. Transmitted by Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus), thisdisease is known from five endemic foci in Baden-Württemberg, eight in Bayern, and one eachin Nordrhein-Westfalen and Rheinland-Pfalz.) Abar, B., Rehse-Küpper, B., Gibbels, E. & Ackermann, R. (1977) Über weitere Isolierungen und Eigenschaften des Tettnang-Virus. 2 Internationales Arbeitskolloquium über Naturherde vonInfektionskrankheiten in Zentraleuropa, Graz. pp. 181–185. (T1187. Pools of Ixodes ricinus(Linnaeus) collected from 1972 to 1975 in the German states of Nordrhein-Westfalen andBayern yielded seven strains of Tettnang virus, indicating that this virus is probably widespreadin Europe.) Ackermann, R. (1983) Erythema chronicum migrans und durch Zecken übertragene Meningopolyneuritis (Garin-Bujadoux-Bannwarth): Borrelien-Infektionen? Deutsche Medi-zinische Wochenschrift, Stuttgart 108, 577–580. (T1696. Antibodies to a laboratory-propagatedstrain of Borrelia duttoni were demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence in sera of sixpatients with erythema chronicum migrans and eight patients with tick-bornemeningopolyneuritis. The same methodology revealed spirochetes in specimens of Ixodesricinus collected from sites in Germany where people had been infected, lending credence to theview that spirochetes are the etiological agents of erythema chronicum migrans, tickbornemeningopolyneuritis, and what, in the United States, is called Lyme disease.) Ackermann, R. & Hörstrup, P. (1977) Die durch Zecken übertragene Meningopolyneuritis Garin- Bujadoux-Bannwarth. Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie, Stuttgart 28, 263. (T1411. A briefdescription of the symptoms of Garin-Bujadoux-Bannwarth syndrome, including the erroneouspresumption that this neuroborreliosis is caused by a virus.) Ackermann, R., Runne, U., Klenk, W. & Dienst, C. (1980) Erythema chronicum migrans mit Arthritis. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, Stuttgart 105, 1779–1781. (T1695. A detaileddescription of arthritis in a 46-year-old female patient, appearing two months after erythemachronicum migrans. With rest and anti-inflammatory treatment, the arthritis subsided in sixweeks, at which time the erythema also faded, having persisted for three and one half months,despite frequent administration of penicillin and tetracycline. This condition was observed tobe nosologically similar to Lyme disease, recently described from the northeastern UnitedStates.) Afzelius, A. (1921) Erythema chronicum migrans. Acta Dermato-Venereologica, Stockholm 2, 120–125. (T1425. An early paper on the clinical characteristics of erythema chronicummigrans, with speculation concerning its etiology, and the observation that this conditionsometimes seemed to originate at the site of a bite by the tick Ixodes reduvius (Linnaeus) [ajunior synonym of I. ricinus (Linnaeus)].) Allerdist, H. (1982) Durchseuchung mit FSME-Virus (Zeckenenzephalitis) in Norddeutschland.
Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, Stuttgart 107, 1113–1114. (T1708. The supposedlywide distribution of tick-borne encephalitis in the northern German states of Niedersachsen andSchleswig-Holstein is refuted. An ELISA survey for FSME antibodies among forestrypersonnel, compared to their infestation by ticks, and complemented by surveys of antibodies inwild deer and boar, indicated that the risk of FSME infection is minimal in northern Germanyand that vaccination of the local population or vacationers is unwarranted.) Balát, F. (1964) Unter welchen Umständen kommt es zum Befall der Wildenten und -gänse mit Zecken und was für eine epidemiologische Bedeutung kann das haben? Schriftenreihe desLandesamtes für Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege Nordrhein-Westfalen, Festschrift (zum 25Jährigen Bestehen der Nordrhein-Westfalischen Vogelschutzwarte), Essen-Altenhundem. No.
1, pp. 115–120. (T230. Records of Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus) collected from 747 adult, young, SYSTEMATIC & APPLIED ACAROLOGY SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS (2004) 19 and newborn wild ducks and geese representing 17 species, chiefly in South Moravia,Czechoslovakia. Tick infestations were seen only on young birds no more than one week oldand captured away from their nests in tick-harboring biotopes immediately adjacent to water.) Bodemann, H., Hoppe-Seyler, P., Blum, H. & Herkel, L. (1980) Schwere und ungünstige Verlaufsformen der Zeckenenzephalitis (FSME) 1979 in Freiburg. Deutsche MedizinischeWochenschrift, Stuttgart 105, 921–924. (T1486. During 1979, eight patients contracted tick-borne encephalitis in the vicinity of Freiburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. In four of thesecases, the course of infection was severe: one patient died from pneumonia and heart failure aftersix weeks in a coma; another patient was comatose for more than 40 weeks; a third patientsuffered flaccid quadriplegia more than 10 weeks after initial coma; and the fourth patientcontinued to experience leg paresis after nine weeks, plus paralysis of the left arm. This highproportion of severe encephalitis cases contrasts markedly with previous reports from CentralEurope, where mortalities have generally ranged between 1 and 4.5%.) Brachtel, R. & Korting, G. W. (1973) Zur febrilen und hämorrhagischen Atypie des Erythema chronicum migrans. Medizinische Welt, Stuttgart 24, 81–83. (T1412. Two case histories arepresented, in which atypical fever and occasional hemorrhagic symptoms accompaniederythema chronicum migrans.) Caflisch, U., Tönz, O., Schaad, U. B., Aeschlimann, A. & Burgdorfer, W. (1984) Die Zecken- Meningoradikulitis–eine Spirochätose. Schweizerische Medizinische Wochenschrift, Basel 114,630–634. (T1803. Tick-borne meningoradiculitis is characterized by a distinct sequence ofsymptoms: erythema chronicum migrans, localized pain and, eventually, radicular asymmetricneurological involvement, especially facial palsy, associated with findings of asepticmeningitis. On the basis of specific serological data from three pediatric patients who wereinfected in Switzerland and the Bodensee area of southern Germany, it is suggested that tick-borne meningoradiculitis is spirochetal, as shown recently for Lyme disease in North America.
Analogous positive spirochetal antibody titers were found in other patients with erythemachronicum migrans and in a child with Bäfverstedt cutaneous lymphadenosis. In the vicinity ofLuzern, 20% of the specimens in collections of Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus) were infected withspirochetes.) Cohen, C. & Luntz, M. H. (1976) Rift-Valley-Fieber und Rickettsianretinitis einschließlich Fluoresceinangiographie. Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde, Stuttgart 169, 685–699.
(T1262. A discussion of the ophthalmological complications and clinical pathology of threecases of Rift Valley fever retinitis and one case of tick bite [= boutonneuse] fever retinitis, allfrom the University Eye Clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. The ocular manifestations ofthese two diseases were indistinguishable, manifesting as localized areas of retinal ischemia andsoft exudate formation.) Diehl, P. A. (1969) Hämolymphenproteine und Vitellogenese bei Ornithodoros moubata, Murray [sic] (Ixodoidea, Argasidae). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft,Schaffhausen & Bern 42, 117–125. (T1219. In reared females of O. moubata from UlangaDistrict, Tanzania, specific female proteins are found in high concentrations in the hemolymphduring vitellogenesis. It is thought that these proteins are taken into the oocyte bymicropinocytosis and that they are stored there as yolk.) Diehl, P. A. (1970) Zur Oogenese bei Ornithodoros moubata Murray [sic] (Ixodoidea: Argasidae) unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Vitellogenese. Acta Tropica, Basel 27, 301–355. (T515.
In O. moubata, oogenesis may be divided into four stages: premeiotic nuclear processes,cytoplasmic growth or previtellogenesis, yolk formation or vitellogenesis, and ovulation/postovulation. Each of these stages is described histochemically, using reared ticks from UlangaDistrict, Tanzania.) ROBBINS & ROBBINS: HOOGSTRAAL BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRANSLATED GERMAN PAPERS Eichenberger, G. (1970) Das Zentralnervensystem von Ornithodoros moubata (Murray), Ixodoidea: Argasidae, und seine postembryonale Entwicklung. Acta Tropica, Basel 27, 15–53.
(T419. A detailed histological examination of the central nervous system of O. moubata, basedon reared material from Ulanga District, Tanzania, with comparative studies of O. savignyi(Audouin) and O. tartakovskyi Olenev, plus a review of the literature on similar investigationsusing ixodid ticks.) Enigk, K. & Grittner, I. (1952) Die Exkretion der Zecken. Zeitschrift für Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie, Stuttgart 4, 77–94. (T449. A study of the behaviors and mechanisms associatedwith excretion in a wide range of argasid and ixodid ticks: Argas reflexus (Fabricius),Ornithodoros coriaceus Koch, O. lahorensis Neumann, O. moubata (Murray), O. rostratusAragno, Amblyomma hebraeum Koch, A. variegatum (Fabricius), Boophilus calcaratus (Birula)[a junior synonym of B. annulatus (Say)], B. decoloratus (Koch), Dermacentor marginatus(Sulzer), Haemaphysalis leachi (Audouin), “Hyalomma detritus” [= H. detritum Schulze], H.
Koch, H. rufipes glabrum Delpy [a junior synonym of H. marginatum turanicumPomerantzev], H. savignyi (Gervais) [a junior synonym of H. anatolicum anatolicum Koch],Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus), Rhipicephalus bursa Canestrini & Fanzago, R. evertsi evertsiNeumann, and R. sanguineus (Latreille).) Germershausen, C. F. (1789) Das Ganze der Schafzucht aus Beurteilung und Berichtigung älterer und neuerer Theorien nach Gründen und eigner Erfahrung. Erster Teil. Leipzig, JohannFriedrich Junius, pp. 374–375. (T462. Early arguments for and against a relationship betweentick infestation of sheep and pasturing in woodlands, including the observation that sheep aremore likely to be infested if they are poorly fed, poorly pastured, or kept in dirty stables.) Geutebrück, C. A. (1766) Gesammelter Unterricht von Schafen und Schäfereien zum Behuf der dabei vorkommenden ökonomischen, Policei- und Kameral-Geschäfte. Leipzig, Hilscher, p.
237. (T461. Recipes for early ointments intended to rid sheep of ticks.) Gothe, R. (1971a) Die durch Argas (Persicargas) persicus-Larven bedingte Paralyse der Hühner.
I. Über den Einfluss des Saugzustandes und der Infestationsrate auf die klinische Manifestation.
Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde, Berlin 35, 298–307. (T484. The extent and intensity of paralysisin chickens caused by larval A. persicus (Oken) are shown to be more or less directlyproportional to the number of engorging larvae, although with increasing host age, relativelyfewer larvae are needed to induce a given symptom complex.) Gothe, R. (1971b) Die durch Argas (Persicargas) persicus-Larven bedingte Paralyse der Hühner.
II. Untersuchungen zur Immunität. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde, Berlin 35, 308–317. (T485.
Only after repeated reinfestations by larval A. persicus (Oken) do chickens develop a weakimmune protective mechanism, which is directed against the engorgement process.) Gusev, A. V. (1982) 150 Jahre Zoologisches Institut der Akademie der Wissenschaften der UdSSR.
Angewandte Parasitologie, Jena 23, 109–111. (T1726. A brief but detailed history of theorganization, parasite collections and personnel associated with the Zoological Institute of theAcademy of Sciences of the USSR [now Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy ofSciences], founded in St. Petersburg in 1832 to serve as a center for zoological research inRussia.) Jenni, L. (1971) Synthese und Aufnahme von Proteinen während der Vitellogenese in Ovocyten von Ornithodorus [sic] moubata, Murray [sic] (Ixodoidea: Argasidae). Acta Tropica, Basel 28,105–163. (T560. An exhaustive study of the synthesis and assimilation of yolk proteins duringvitellogenesis in oocytes of O. moubata (Murray), conducted by electron microscopy, usingthree protein tracers: tritium leucine as a protein precursor, ferritin, and peroxidase.) Krüger, K. (1935) Die Doppelt-Schrägstreifung bei den Muskelfasern der Zecken (Ixodidae).
Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche Zoologie, Abteilung A, Leipzig 147, 275–294. (T268. All SYSTEMATIC & APPLIED ACAROLOGY SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS (2004) 19 patterns of double oblique striation seen in tick muscles of several species are caused bydistortion of transverse striation. This displacement occurs only in relaxed fibers and shouldtherefore not be interpreted as a contraction phenomenon, nor does fixation or a muscle’sparticular function play a role in the formation of these patterns.) Malamos, B. (1938) Versuche mit Leishmanien. IV. Versuche der Kala-azar Übertragung durch Zecken (Rhipicephalus sanguineus). Archiv für Schiffs- und Tropenhygiene, Leipzig 42, 21–22.
(T42. A brief history of attempts to isolate leishmanial agents from ticks that had fed on infectedrodents or from the organs of rodents that had been inoculated with emulsions of such ticks. Allresults were negative.) Mayer, A. & Madel, W. (1950) Beobachtungen über das Auftreten und die Bekämpfung von Taubenzecken (Argas reflexus F. [sic]). Desinfektion und Schädlingsbekämpfung, Staufen 41,197–199. (T806. A detailed account of massive household infestations of the pigeon tick, A.
(Fabricius), in Pforzheim (State of Baden-Württemberg) and in Dietkirchen an der Lahnand Limburg an der Lahn (State of Hessen), with descriptions of this species’ life history, theeffects of tick bites on birds and humans, and control using CX 99, a hexachlorocyclohexane/synergist emulsion.) Mester, H. (1974) Gehäuftes Vorkommen von Hyalomma excavatum Koch 1844 (Ixodoidea, Ixodidae) auf Singvögeln. Beiträge zur Vogelkunde, Leipzig 20, 181–190. (T1298. Of 462birds examined on the north side of Menorca, Balearic Islands, between 26 August and 18September 1971, 30 (6.5%) were infested by tick nymphs and larvae, almost all of whichappeared to be H. anatolicum excavatum Koch, 1844. Parasitized birds represented eightspecies in five families of the order Passeriformes.) Moskwin, I. A. (1929) Über die Rolle der Zecke (Ixodoidea) Ornithodorus [sic] papillipes Bir.
(Turkestan) in der Übertragung des Rückfallfiebers. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde, Berlin 2,73–89. (T1703. A review of the epidemiology of tick-borne relapsing fever in Uzbekistan,together with reports on a series of experiments designed to test the effectiveness ofOrnithodoros papillipes (Birula) [a junior synonym of O. tholozani (Laboulbène & Mégnin)] asa vector of this disease. These experiments demonstrated that infected, field-collected O.
transmit spirochetes to laboratory animals solely by the act of feeding, in that no coxalfluid is secreted during engorgement, and inoculation of coxal fluid secreted after feeding didnot produce infection. Hospitalized humans suffering from progressive paralysis were alsoexperimentally infected with relapsing fever spirochetes using this tick species.) Nemenz, H. (1968) Ixodes moschiferi nov. spec. aus Nepal und seine Stellung unter den fissicoxaten Ixodes-Arten (Acari: Ixodoidea). Khumbu Himal, München 3, 19–26. (T316. The originaldescription of I. moschiferi, based on three specimens collected by H. Löffler from the head ofa musk deer, Moschus moschiferus Linnaeus, near Thami, Nepal, on 12 August 1964. The newspecies is compared with two other “fissicoxate” Ixodes, I. acutitarsus (Karsch) and I.
Warburton, and the synonymy and types of all three species are discussed.) Oefele, F. von (1901) Studien über die altägyptische Parasitologie. Allgemeine Wichtigkeit der Parasitologie für Ägypten. Archives de Parasitologie, Paris 4, 481–530. (T430. A discussionof the habits and superstitions affecting personal hygiene in pharaonic Egypt, with passingreference to ticks.) Oppermann, E. (1935) Die Entstehung der Riesenspermien von Argas columbarum (Shaw) (reflexus F. [sic]). Zeitschrift für Mikroskopisch-Anatomische Forschung, Leipzig 37, 538–560.
(T263. A detailed histological and karyological study of spermatogenesis in argasids, usingspecimens of A. columbarum [a nomen nudum; the accepted name is A. reflexus (Fabricius)]from Berlin, Giessen (State of Hessen) and Aschaffenburg (State of Bayern). The large size of ROBBINS & ROBBINS: HOOGSTRAAL BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRANSLATED GERMAN PAPERS argasid spermatozoa is thought to ensure their survival and fertility during the long periods ofstarvation that often occur in the life cycle of the Argasidae.) Pavlov, P. (1964) Die Rolle der Wildvögel bei der Verbreitung von Argas persicus in Bulgarien.
Angewandte Parasitologie, Jena 5, 167–168. (T187. Observations from 1936 to 1963 inPleven, Sofia, Tirnovo and Vratza, Bulgaria, led to speculation that a species of Argas, hereinidentified as A. persicus (Oken), may transmit leptospirosis from wild birds to humans.) Piekarski, G. (1934) Über die Entstehung des vierten Beinpaares bei Zecken. Zoologischer Anzeiger, Leipzig 106, 1–4. (T569. Observations and experiments utilizing larvae of Argaspersicus (Oken) and A. reflexus (Fabricius) clearly show that the fourth pair of legs added atmolting develop behind the third pair.) Putzig, P. (1939) Rauchschwalben-Sterben durch Zecken (Ixodidae) verursacht. Vogelzug, Berlin 10, 25–27. (T458. Barn swallows, Hirundo rustica Linnaeus, arriving at a farm near Mariental,South West Africa (now Namibia), during December 1937 were often so severely parasitized byIxodes frontalis Panzer that they died of exsanguination.) Rehse-Küpper, B., Danielová, V. & Ackermann, R. (1977) Eigenschafter des Tettnang-virus. 2 Internationales Arbeitskolloquium über Naturherde von Infektionskrankheiten inZentraleuropa, Graz. pp. 179–180. (T1261. Tettnang virus was originally isolated fromnymphs of Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus) at three ecologically similar sites in western Germany: nearTettnang, a town on the Bodensee (Lake Constance) in Oberschwaben; in the Königsforst eastof Köln; and in the Hürtgenwald west of Düren. Like most other European arboviruses,Tettnang is pathogenic for suckling mice, but only marginally, and the low virus titer in mousebrain, even after repeated passages, is remarkable. Also unusual are Tettnang’s pronounced heatlability and low antigenic effects.) Reinhardt, J. (1975) Virus-Infektion nach Zeckenbiß als Berufskrankeit nach Ziffer 38 der 7.
BKVO [Berufskrankheitenverordnung]. Arbeitsmedizin Sozialmedizin Präventivmedizin,Stuttgart 10, 232. (T1040. Description of a severe case of Central European tick-borneencephalitis in a forest worker, resulting in permanent physical incapacitation.) Roth, W. (1983) Ein Fall von Arthritis durch Zeckenbiß (Lyme-Arthritis). Kurzbericht. Der Hautarzt, Berlin 34, 346–347. (T1785. Description of a temporary but painful arthritis in theright knee joint of a man who had been bitten by a tick, presumably Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus),in the hollow of his right knee while visiting a forested area in Romania. Although no erythemachronicum migrans was observed, this appears to have been a case of Lyme arthritis. Treatmentwas limited to heat therapy, and all symptoms disappeared entirely after 10 days.) Runne, U. & Ackermann, R. (1984) Stellungnahme zum Kurzbericht von W. Roth: Ein Fall von Arthritis durch Zeckenbiß (Lyme-Arthritis) – [Der Hautarzt (1983) 34: 346–347]. DerHautarzt, Berlin 35, 265–266. (T1770. Comments on the above report by Roth, with therecommendation that tetracycline be used in treating Lyme arthritis, even at a late date or in theabsence of symptoms, because surviving spirochetes may have deleterious effects on the centralnervous system.) Ruser, M. (1933) Beiträge zur Kenntnis des Chitins und der Muskulatur der Zecken (Ixodidae).
Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere, Berlin 27, 199–261. (T22. Anatomical andhistological investigations of the structure of ixodid chitin, the organization of various musclegroups, especially those associated with the digestive and reproductive systems, and thesegmentation of the legs.) Samson, K. (1909) Zur Spermiohistiogenese der Zecken. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin, Berlin 8, 486–499. (T321. An attempt to correct earlydescriptions of tick spermatogenesis, in which uncapacitated sperm in the male vas deferenswere confused with capacitated sperm in the female genital tract.) SYSTEMATIC & APPLIED ACAROLOGY SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS (2004) 19 Schaltenbrand, G. (1967) Durch Arthropoden übertragene Erkrankungen der Haut und des Nervensystems. Nonne-Gedächtnisvorlesung. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fürInnere Medizin, 72 Kongress (1966), München. pp. 975–1005. (T459. Case histories from thelate 1950s and early 1960s of several German patients suffering from an arthropod-bornesyndrome described as Franconian meningo-encephalo-radiculo-myelitis, the symptoms ofwhich sometimes included erythema chronicum migrans. The author speculates concerning thecausative agent, offering arguments for and against bacterial, rickettsial and viral involvement.) Schulze, P. (1934) Über eine Zeckenausbeute von Kleinsäugern aus Java. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde, Berlin 7, 167–171. (T293. Precise host and locality data for several large tickcollections from small mammals in western Java. Eight argasid and ixodid taxa are identified:Argas sp., Amblyomma javanense (Supino), Aponomma lucasi Warburton [a junior synonym ofA. varanensis (Supino)], Haemaphysalis koningsbergeri Warburton & Nuttall, H. traguliOudemans, Indocentor [= Dermacentor] sp., Ixodes granulatus Supino, and I. spinicoxalisNeumann.) Schulze, P. (1935) Zur Zeckenfauna Formosas. Zoologischer Anzeiger, Leipzig 112, 233–237.
(T1725. Morphological descriptions, host lists, and statements of distribution for 11 ixodid ticktaxa: Amblyomma formosanum Schulze [probably a junior synonym of A. geoemydae (Cantor)],A. infestum taivanicum ssp. nov. [a junior synonym of A. testudinarium Koch], Haemaphysalisbirmaniae Supino [no specimens of H. birmaniae exist among the extensive holdings ofTaiwanese Haemaphysalis in the U.S. National Tick Collection], H. formosensis Neumann, H.
Supino, H. warburtoni Nuttall [possibly also H. formosensis; no bona fide specimensof H. warburtoni have ever been collected in Taiwan], Indocentor bellulus sp. nov. [a juniorsynonym of Dermacentor taiwanensis Sugimoto], Ixodes acutitarsus (Karsch), Rhipicephalussanguineus (Latreille), Uroboophilus distans Minning [a junior synonym of Boophilusmicroplus (Canestrini)], and U. sinensis Minning [a junior synonym of B. microplus].) Schulze, P. (1938) Über rein glabellare Karapaxbildungen bei Milben und über die Umgestaltung des Vorderkörpers der Ixodoidea als Folge der Gnathosomaentstehung. Zeitschrift fürMorphologie und Ökologie der Tiere, Berlin 34, 135–149. (T300. A discussion of thehypothetical changes accompanying separation of the anterior segments of the tick body to formthe gnathosoma, together with a description of the function and possible origins of Géné’sorgan.) Schulze, P. (1941) Das Geruchsorgan der Zecken. Untersuchungen über die Adwandlungen eines Sinnesorgans und seine stammesgeschichtliche Bedeutung. Zeitschrift für Morphologie undÖkologie der Tiere, Berlin 37, 491–564. (T855. A survey of the structure and setation ofHaller’s organ in all three families of the Ixodoidea, with a discussion of how this organ revealsphylogenetic relationships between tick genera. The new argasid genera Alveonasus andReticulinasus are described, as well as the new subspecies Alectorobius talaje sancti-pauli.) Steigleder, G. K. (1984) Ixodes-ricinus-Spirochäten: wahrscheinlich Ursache der Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans Herxheimer. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, Stuttgart 109, 3–5.
(T1749. A detailed history of clinical, ecological and epidemiological observations associatedwith acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, culminating in the discovery of serum antibodiesagainst spirochetes from Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus) specimens associated with this condition.) Tessier (1811) Über die Schafzucht, insbesondere über die Rasse der Merinos. Aus dem Französischen von W. Witte. Berlin, Hitzig, p. 181. (T460. Various vegetative remediesintended to cure sheep suffering from piroplasmosis.) Wagner-Jevseenko, O. (1958) Fortpflanzung bei Ornithodorus [sic] moubata und genitale Übertragung von Borrelia duttoni. Acta Tropica, Basel 15, 118–168. (T322. Detailedmorphological and histological examination of the male and female genital tracts in ROBBINS & ROBBINS: HOOGSTRAAL BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRANSLATED GERMAN PAPERS Ornithodoros moubata (Murray), together with infection experiments, demonstrated thatspirochetes generally are not transmitted to female ticks during copulation with infected males.
Therefore, copulation does not significantly contribute to the spread of spirochetes in tickpopulations.) Wakkerman, C. T. B. & Rijn, J. F. A. van (1965) Strophulus arthropodicus, verursacht durch Ixodiden. Der Hautarzt, Berlin 16, 37–38. (T347. The authors propose the term strophulusarthropodicus to describe a papular eruption of the skin caused by acarines, as seen among Dutchblueberry pickers bitten by ticks of the genus Ixodes.) Weber, K. (1981a) Erkrankungen nach Zeckenbiß. Zeitschrift für Allgemeinmedizin, Stuttgart 57, 1158–1163. (T1756. An overview of the four most widespread tick-borne diseases in theformer West Germany: Central European tick-borne encephalitis (CEE), known to be of viraletiology; and erythema chronicum migrans, acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, and tick bitelymphocytoma, all thought to be bacterial diseases. The active and passive Austrian vaccinesavailable against CEE are described, as are methods of tick removal.) Weber, K. (1981b) Erythema chronicum migrans und innere Organerkrankungen. Der Hautarzt, Berlin 32, 106. (T1757. In answers to a series of questions, the author erroneously assumes thaterythema chronicum migrans (ECM) is caused by “rickettsia-like corpuscles” morphologicallyidentified in 1979. European and North American ECM appear to differ, in that the former ischiefly characterized by meningitis, whereas the latter entails a marked arthritis.) Weidner, H. (1964) Eine Zecke, Ixodes succineus sp. n., im baltischen Bernstein.
Veröffentlichungen aus dem Überseemuseum in Bremen, Reihe A: Naturwissenschaften,Bremen 3, 143–151. (T123. A brief history of discoveries of fossil acarines, together with theoriginal description of Ixodes succineus, based on a single unengorged female, the first tickspecimen ever reported from amber (termed “succinum” by Pliny). The new species differs onlyslightly from I. ricinus (Linnaeus) and, on the basis of ecological evidence, the holotype isthought to have been passively transported to the site of its eventual fossilization.) Weyer, F. (1970) Zur Frage der Rolle von Arthropoden als Reservoir des Psittakoseerregers.
Zeitschrift für Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie, Stuttgart 21, 146–153. (T448. In a series ofexperiments, the causative agent of psittacosis (genus Chlamydia), isolated from parakeets, wasinoculated into Ornithodoros moubata (Murray) via the coxal intersegmental membrane.
Successful transmission to ticks was verified by intraperitoneal inoculation of mice withtriturated ticks. By this method, live Chlamydia were demonstrable in ticks regularly up to 23days, repeatedly between 30 and 62 days, and once up to 75 days, indicating that suchmicroorganisms may multiply in ticks, which may therefore play a role as reservoirs.) Weyer, F. & Mooser, H. (1957) Beobachtungen an Stämmen von Borrelien im Laboratorium.
Zeitschrift für Tropenmedizin und Parasitologie, Stuttgart 8, 294–304. (T258. Three strains ofBorrelia recurrentis from Ethiopia, one spirochete strain from Mexican Ornithodoros turicata(DugPs), and one strain from Egyptian O. erraticus (Lucas) were transmitted to human body liceand kept for several months by louse-to-louse passage. The method of choice for maintainingspirochete strains in lice is intracoelomic inoculation.) Yalvac, S. (1939) Histologische Untersuchungen über die Entwicklung des Zeckenadultus in der Nymphe. Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere, Berlin 35, 535–585. (T274.
Histological observations on the development of the hypodermis, cuticle, and glandular senseorgans during the nymphal molt in a variety of tick species, together with an account of changesin the dorsoventral musculature during the transition from nymph to adult, and descriptions ofthe male and female reproductive systems.) SYSTEMATIC & APPLIED ACAROLOGY SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS (2004) 19 Taxonomic Index
(includes junior synonyms, nomina dubia, misidentifications, and lapsus calamorum, as explained in
the annotations)
Alectorobius jul: Schulze 1941Alectorobius talaje capensis: Schulze 1941Alectorobius talaje sancti-pauli: Schulze 1941Alectorobius talaje talaje: Schulze 1941Alveonasus lahorensis: Schulze 1941Argas arboreus: Gothe 1971a, bArgas columbarum: Oppermann 1935, Schulze 1941, Wagner-Jevseenko 1958, Yalvac 1939Argas miniatus: Oppermann 1935, Wagner-Jevseenko 1958Argas passerinus: Schulze 1941Argas persicus: Eichenberger 1970, Enigk & Grittner 1952, Gothe 1971a, b, Moskwin 1929, Oppermann 1935, Pavlov 1964, Piekarski 1934, Ruser 1933, Schulze 1941, Wagner-Jevseenko 1958 Argas pipistrellae: Schulze 1934Argas reflexus: Enigk & Grittner 1952, Mayer & Madel 1950, Oppermann 1935, Piekarski 1934, Schulze 1941, Wagner-Jevseenko 1958 Argas steini: Schulze 1941Argas vespertilionis: Schulze 1934Carios dunni: Schulze 1941Carios hasei: Schulze 1941Carios pipistrellae: Schulze 1941Carios testudo: Schulze 1941Carios vespertilionis: Schulze 1941Ornithodoros coriaceus: Enigk & Grittner 1952, Weyer 1970Ornithodoros delanoei acinus: Schulze 1941Ornithodoros erraticus: Eichenberger 1970, Weyer & Mooser 1957Ornithodoros lahorensis: Eichenberger 1970, Enigk & Grittner 1952, Moskwin 1929, Schulze Ornithodoros moubata: Diehl 1969, 1970, Eichenberger 1970, Enigk & Grittner 1952, Jenni 1971, Malamos 1938, Moskwin 1929, Samson 1909, Schulze 1941, Wagner-Jevseenko1958, Weyer 1970, Weyer & Mooser 1957 Ornithodoros nicollei: Wagner-Jevseenko 1958Ornithodoros papillipes: Moskwin 1929, Wagner-Jevseenko 1958Ornithodoros pavimentosus: Schulze 1941Ornithodoros rostratus: Enigk & Grittner 1952Ornithodoros savignyi: Diehl 1970, Eichenberger 1970, Enigk & Grittner 1952, Malamos 1938, Piekarski 1934, Samson 1909, Schulze 1941, Wagner-Jevseenko 1958 Ornithodoros talaje: Schulze 1941Ornithodoros tartakovskyi: Eichenberger 1970, Wagner-Jevseenko 1958Ornithodoros tholozani: Diehl 1970, Moskwin 1929Ornithodoros turicata: Wagner-Jevseenko 1958, Weyer & Mooser 1957Otobius megnini: Schulze 1941 Ixodidae
Amblyocentor circumguttatus: Schulze 1941 ROBBINS & ROBBINS: HOOGSTRAAL BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRANSLATED GERMAN PAPERS Amblyocentor rhinocerinus: Schulze 1941Amblyomma agamum: Wagner-Jevseenko 1958Amblyomma argentinae: Schulze 1941Amblyomma aureolatum: Schulze 1941Amblyomma babirussae: Schulze 1941Amblyomma brasiliense: Schulze 1941Amblyomma cohaerens: Schulze 1941Amblyomma compressum compressum: Schulze 1941Amblyomma compressum javanense: Schulze 1941Amblyomma cooperi: Schulze 1941Amblyomma cuneatum: Schulze 1941Amblyomma cyprium: Schulze 1935, 1941Amblyomma cyprium aeratipes: Schulze 1935Amblyomma dissimile: Schulze 1938, 1941, Wagner-Jevseenko 1958Amblyomma elegans: Schulze 1941Amblyomma formosanum: Schulze 1935Amblyomma fuscum: Schulze 1941Amblyomma hebraeum: Enigk & Grittner 1952, Schulze 1941Amblyomma infestum taivanicum: Schulze 1935Amblyomma infestum testudinarium: Schulze 1941Amblyomma javanense: Schulze 1934, 1938Amblyomma lepidum: Schulze 1941Amblyomma leucozomum: Schulze 1941Amblyomma longirostre: Schulze 1941Amblyomma marmoreum: Schulze 1941Amblyomma paulopunctatum: Schulze 1941Amblyomma personatum: Schulze 1941Amblyomma petersi: Schulze 1941Amblyomma rhinocerotis: Schulze 1941Amblyomma rotundatum: Schulze 1941Amblyomma scutatum: Schulze 1941Amblyomma splendidum: Schulze 1941Amblyomma sublaeve: Schulze 1934Amblyomma testudinarium: Schulze 1935Amblyomma testudinis: Schulze 1941Amblyomma variegatum: Enigk & Grittner 1952, Krüger 1935, Ruser 1933, Schulze 1941Anocentor columbianus: Schulze 1941Aponomma auruginans: Schulze 1938, 1941Aponomma exornatum: Schulze 1941Aponomma fimbriatum: Schulze 1941Aponomma gervaisi: Schulze 1934, 1941Aponomma laevatum: Schulze 1941Aponomma lucasi: Schulze 1934, 1941Aponomma omissum: Schulze 1941Aponomma pseudolaeve: Schulze 1941Aponomma undatum: Schulze 1934, 1941Boophilus annulatus: Diehl 1970, Enigk & Grittner 1952, Schulze 1941Boophilus bovis: Piekarski 1934 SYSTEMATIC & APPLIED ACAROLOGY SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS (2004) 19 Boophilus calcaratus: Eichenberger 1970, Enigk & Grittner 1952, Schulze 1941Boophilus calcaratus balcanicus: Yalvac 1939Boophilus decoloratus: Enigk & Grittner 1952, Krüger 1935Boophilus microplus: Diehl 1969, 1970Ceratixodes putus: Schulze 1941Ceratixodes uriae: Schulze 1941Cosmiomma hippopotamense: Schulze 1941Coxixodes ornithorhynchi: Schulze 1941Dermacentor albipictus: Schulze 1941Dermacentor albipictus nigrolineata: Schulze 1941Dermacentor albipictus nigromaculata: Schulze 1941Dermacentor andersoni: Gothe 1971a, b, Schulze 1941Dermacentor atrosignatus: Schulze 1935Dermacentor marginatus: Enigk & Grittner 1952, Schulze 1941, Wagner-Jevseenko 1958, Dermacentor occidentalis: Weyer 1970Dermacentor pictus: Eichenberger 1970Dermacentor reticulatus: Wagner-Jevseenko 1958, Weidner 1964Dermacentor sinicus: Schulze 1941Dermacentor variabilis: Schulze 1941Dermacentor venustus: Schulze 1941Endopalpiger luxuriosus: Schulze 1941Endopalpiger steini: Schulze 1941Eschatocephalus vespertilionis: Schulze 1941Exopalpiger priscicollaris: Schulze 1941Haemalastor acutitarsus: Nemenz 1968Haemalastor longirostris: Schulze 1941Haemaphysalis bartelsi: Schulze 1938Haemaphysalis birmaniae: Schulze 1935Haemaphysalis campanulata: Krüger 1935, Schulze 1941Haemaphysalis concinna: Balát 1964, Wagner-Jevseenko 1958Haemaphysalis formosensis: Schulze 1935Haemaphysalis hystricis: Schulze 1935Haemaphysalis inermis: Gothe 1971b, Schulze 1941Haemaphysalis koningsbergeri: Schulze 1934, 1938Haemaphysalis leachi: Enigk & Grittner 1952, Schulze 1941Haemaphysalis leachi australis: Schulze 1934Haemaphysalis monospinosa: Schulze 1934Haemaphysalis otophila: Schulze 1941Haemaphysalis punctata: Gothe 1971a, b, Mester 1974, Schulze 1938, 1941Haemaphysalis traguli: Schulze 1934Haemaphysalis warburtoni: Schulze 1935Hyalomma aegyptium: Oefele 1901, Oppermann 1935, Samson 1909, Wagner-Jevseenko 1958, Hyalomma anatolicum: Eichenberger 1970, Schulze 1938, 1941, Wagner-Jevseenko 1958, Hyalomma detritum: Eichenberger 1970, Enigk & Grittner 1952Hyalomma dromedarii: Eichenberger 1970 ROBBINS & ROBBINS: HOOGSTRAAL BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRANSLATED GERMAN PAPERS Hyalomma excavatum: Mester 1974Hyalomma impressum rufipes: Schulze 1941Hyalomma marginatum: Mester 1974, Schulze 1938, 1941Hyalomma marginatum brionicum: Ruser 1933, Schulze 1938Hyalomma rufipes: Enigk & Grittner 1952Hyalomma rufipes glabrum: Enigk & Grittner 1952Hyalomma savignyi: Enigk & Grittner 1952, Schulze 1941Hyalomma scupense: Ruser 1933Hyalomma syriacum: Wagner-Jevseenko 1958Indocentor ater: Schulze 1941Indocentor atrosignatus: Schulze 1941Indocentor auratus: Schulze 1934, 1941Indocentor auratus sumatranus: Schulze 1941Indocentor bellulus: Schulze 1935Indocentor compactus tricuspis: Schulze 1935Indocentor confractus: Schulze 1935Indocentor confragus: Schulze 1935Indocentor steini: Schulze 1935Ixodes acutitarsus: Nemenz 1968, Schulze 1935, 1941Ixodes apronophorus: Schulze 1941Ixodes arboricola: Schulze 1941Ixodes autumnalis: Schulze 1941Ixodes barbarossae: Schulze 1941Ixodes brunneus: Putzig 1939Ixodes calcaratus: Wagner-Jevseenko 1958Ixodes caledonicus: Schulze 1941Ixodes collocaliae: Schulze 1941Ixodes cordifer: Schulze 1938Ixodes dammini: Ackermann 1983, Caflisch et al. 1984Ixodes frontalis: Putzig 1939Ixodes gigas: Nemenz 1968, Schulze 1935, 1941Ixodes granulatus: Schulze 1934Ixodes hexagonus: Ruser 1933, Schulze 1941Ixodes holocyclus: Gothe 1971a, b, Schulze 1938Ixodes japonensis: Schulze 1941Ixodes kerri: Nemenz 1968Ixodes laevis: Nemenz 1968Ixodes lividus obotriticus: Schulze 1941Ixodes luxuriosus: Schulze 1938Ixodes melicola: Schulze 1941Ixodes moschiferi: Nemenz 1968Ixodes muntiaci: Schulze 1941Ixodes nivalis: Ruser 1933, Schulze 1938, 1941Ixodes ornithorhynchi: Schulze 1941Ixodes percavatus: Schulze 1941Ixodes petauristae: Nemenz 1968Ixodes plumbeus obotriticus: Krüger 1935, Ruser 1933Ixodes praematurus: Schulze 1941 SYSTEMATIC & APPLIED ACAROLOGY SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS (2004) 19 Ixodes rasus: Schulze 1941Ixodes reduvius: Afzelius 1921, Brachtel & Korting 1973, Samson 1909, Wagner-Jevseenko Ixodes ricinus: Abar et al. 1977 (both papers), Ackermann 1983, Balát 1964, Bodemann et al.
1980, Brachtel & Korting 1973, Caflisch et al. 1984, Diehl 1970, Enigk & Grittner 1952,Krüger 1935, Oppermann 1935, Piekarski 1934, Rehse-Küpper et al. 1977, Roth 1983,Runne & Ackermann 1984, Ruser 1933, Samson 1909, Schatenbrand 1967, Schulze 1938,1941, Steigleder 1984, Wagner-Jevseenko 1958, Weber 1981a, Weidner 1964, Weyer1970, Yalvac 1939 Ixodes ricinus scapularis: Schulze 1941Ixodes rubicundus: Gothe 1971bIxodes signatus: Schulze 1941Ixodes spinicoxalis: Schulze 1934Ixodes steini: Ruser 1933, Schulze 1938Ixodes strigicola: Schulze 1941Ixodes succineus: Weidner 1964Ixodes tertiarius: Weidner 1964Ixodes testudinis: Oppermann 1935Ixodes unicavatus: Schulze 1941Margaropus annulatus: Schulze 1935Otocentor nitens: Schulze 1941Palpoboophilus decoloratus: Schulze 1941Reticulinasus steini: Schulze 1941Rhipicephalus appendiculatus: Schulze 1941Rhipicephalus bursa: Enigk & Grittner 1952, Jenni 1971, Wagner-Jevseenko 1958Rhipicephalus evertsi: Enigk & Grittner 1952, Gothe 1971bRhipicephalus macropis: Schulze 1941Rhipicephalus sanguineus: Enigk & Grittner 1952, Malamos 1938, Oefele 1901, Schulze 1935, Rhipicephalus supertritus: Schulze 1941Scaphixodes unicavatus: Schulze 1941Sternalixodes cordifer: Schulze 1938, 1941Sternalixodes holocyclus: Schulze 1938Sternalixodes rossianus: Schulze 1941Uroboophilus caudatus: Schulze 1941Uroboophilus distans: Schulze 1935Uroboophilus sinensis: Schulze 1935Xiphixodes collocaliae: Schulze 1941 Nuttalliellidae
Nuttalliella namaqua: Schulze 1941 Acknowledgements
For generously supplying copies of translations in their care, we warmly thank these friends andkindred spirits of Harry Hoogstraal: Drs. William H. Dees, LCDR, U.S. Navy (retired) and ElizabethA. Dykstra, LT, U.S. Navy, both formerly of NAMRU-3; Drs. Lance A. Durden and James E.
Keirans, U.S. National Tick Collection, Institute of Arthropodology and Parasitology, Georgia ROBBINS & ROBBINS: HOOGSTRAAL BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRANSLATED GERMAN PAPERS Southern University, Statesboro; and Dr. Frederick J. Santana, CAPT, U.S. Navy (retired), formerlyof NAMRU-2, Taipei, Taiwan. The opinions and assertions advanced herein are those of the authorsand are not to be construed as official or reflecting the views of the U.S. Departments of the Armyor Defense.
Robbins, R. G. & Robbins, E. M. (2003) An indexed, annotated bibliography of the Chinese- and Japanese- language papers on ticks and tick-borne diseases translated under the editorship of the late HarryHoogstraal (1917–1986). Systematic and Applied Acarology Special Publications, 17, 1–12.
Full text of this paper is available online free of charge from: SYSTEMATIC & APPLIED ACAROLOGY SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS (2004) 19


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Microsoft word - 1 anti microbial therapy

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