A Guide for Classroom – Stage 4 Oxford Reading Tree is the most popular reading programme in the UK, and used in approximately 14,000 primary schools. Its balanced approach, which provides a range of skills and strategies for reading, has proved highly successful at teaching children to read. Oxford Reading Tree is divided into stages. Stage 1 teaches children important pre-reading skil
Microsoft word - microbial_2_Nigerian Journal of Microbiology,2009, Vol., 23(1);1817 - 1822
The Microbial Associates Of Unexpired And Expired Paediatric Syrups.
1Ogbulie J.N.; 2*Ibe, I.J and 1Nguma, C. C.
1Department of Microbiology,Federal University of Technology,,Owerri, Nigeria. 2Department of Biology\Microbiology,Federal Polytechnic, Nekede, Owerri, ,Nigeria. Abstract
The microbial isolates of unstable and stable vitamin B-complex, Ventoiln, Colipan, Revitone, and KP-Multivitamin syrups sold in Orlu main market were carried out. The total heterotrophic bacterial count, were 2.0 x 102, 0.3 x 102,1.0 x 102, 2.1 x 102, 3.3 x 102, 0.8 x 102, 3.7x102 cfu|ml while fungi were 1.0 x 102, 0.6 x 102,0.2 x 102,1.3 x 102, 2.0 x 102, 0.4 x 102,0.2 x 102, 0.0 x 102 cfu|ml for vitamin B-complex,Ventolin, Coilpan, Revitone, and KP-Multivitamin respectively. The study revealed the isolation of Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus, Aspergillus, Penicillum and Rhizopus. The presence of isolates are indicative possible problems that can be associated with the consumption of any of these expired products. Key words: microbial associates, total heterotrophic bacteria, isolates Corresponding author ; Email: email@example.com 08035990380. Introduction
the treatment of diseases (Eka et al., sterile liquid products were examined for syrups, solutions, off-tonics, elixirs and isolated include E. coli, Pseudomonas species and Klebsiella species; while S. children and infants: groups of patients products to these people pose real danger, (Mendie et al., 1993; Betram, 2004; Itah Taylor et al., (2001) also reported that Ogbulie et al., 1998; Prescott et al., Nig. J. Microbiol., 23(1);1817 -1822 often prepared for children. Dilution in Isolation
bacteria and fungi
diluents. After serial dilution, 0.1ml of the dilution was plated out using spread plated out in duplicates on nutrient agar them inactive or toxic (Ghulan et al., Samonella and Shigella species, and agents are introduced with the intention biochemical analysis for characterization heterotrophic count of bacteria and fungi. 2.1 x 102, 2.0 x 102 and 1.0 x102 cfu|ml Mendie et al., 1993, Betram, 2004). Materials and methods
Nig. J. Microbiol., 23(1);1817 -1822 isolates. For bacterial, Staphylocoous, Bacillus and Micrococcus accounted for 0.6 x 102 cfu\ml and unexpired Ventolin, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Aspergillus Table1: Total Heterotrophic Count of Bacteria\Fungi.
Table 2: Percentage occurrence of different genera
Key: Staph = Staph. aureus, Bac = Bacillus species, Micro = Micrococcus species, Rhi=Rhizopus species, Pen=Penicillium species, Asp= Aspergillus species Nig. J. Microbiol., 23(1);1817 - 1822 Discussion
unexpired paediatric syrups sold in Orlu (Mendie et al., 1993, Eka et al., 1987). total heterotrophic bacterial and fungal 3.7 x 102 cfu|ml (for bacteria) and 0.2 x 102 to 2.0 x 102 cfu|ml (for fungi). These findings are similar those of Hossain et al., (2004). Expired drug samples had could be attributed to lack of appropriate recommends Salmonella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli and Staph. aureus as indicators of microbial contamination of Research, 2000). Staph. aureus was isolated from syrup samples in this study. It had the highest percentage occurrence of all the genera (27.3%). Its isolation, neonates, children and infant, groups of along with Bacillus spp, has health isolates in stable syrups collaborates the report of Hossain et al., (2004). Nahata, and use (Itah, et al., 2004). The poor personal hygiene, low efficiency of inspection of drugs should be carried out standards (Panusa and Gargliardi, 2008). Nig. J. Microbiol., 23(1);1817 - 1822 References
Betram G.K. (2004) Basic and Clinical Ogiehor,S.I.(1998) Introductionto The pharmacological basis of therapeutics, 9th edition, MacGraw- Ghulan, A., Keen, K., Teleu, C., Wong, I. Afr. J. M ed. Sci. :30(1-2):47-51. journal of Pharmacology 12 (2) 44- Holt, J.G ( 1984 ) Shorter Bergey’s not declared in label. Journal of Nig. J. Microbiol., 23(1);1817 - 1822
A Patient’s Guide to Hip Replacement Dr Ashish Mittal, MBBS, MS(Orth), MRCS, MCH(Orth), Diploma in Sports & Exercise Medicine (London) Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon The Royal Orthopaedic & Sports Injury Center, Jaipur & Kota Understanding Your Hip Replacement Surgery INTRODUCTION A Hip replacement is an operation for serious arthritis of the hip.