2000-2002 Contributions 2002 – Present Dean Kereiakes. Editorial Board, Circulation Dean Kereiakes. Editorial Board – Reviews in Cardiovascular Dean Kereiakes. Editorial Board, American Journal of Cardiology Bin JP, Pelberg RA , Wei K, Le DE, Goodman NC, Kaul S. Dobutamine versus dipyridamole for inducing reversible perfusion defects in chronic multivessel coronary artery stenosi
The official text of the Prohibited List shall be maintained by WADA and shall be published in English and French. In the event of any conflict between the English and French versions, the English version shall prevail. This List shall come into effect on 1 January 2012
THE 2012 PROHIBITED LIST
WORLD ANTI-DOPING CODE
Valid 1 January 2012
In accordance with Article 4.2.2 of the World Anti-Doping Code, all Prohibited Substances shall be considered as “Specified Substances” except Substances in classes S1, S2, S4.4, S4.5, S6.a, and Prohibited Methods M1, M2 and M3. SUBSTANCES AND METHODS PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES
(IN- AND OUT-OF-COMPETITION)
S0. NON-APPROVED SUBSTANCES
Any pharmacological substance which is not addressed by any of the
subsequent sections of the List and with no current approval by any
governmental regulatory health authority for human therapeutic use (e.g
drugs under pre-clinical or clinical development or discontinued, designer
drugs, veterinary medicines) is prohibited at all times.
S1. ANABOLIC AGENTS
Anabolic agents are prohibited.
1. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS)
a. Exogenous* AAS, including:
1-androstenediol (5α-androst-1-ene-3β,17β-diol ); 1-androstenedione (5α-
androst-1-ene-3,17-dione); bolandiol (estr-4-ene-3β,17β-diol ); bolasterone;
boldenone; boldione (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione); calusterone;
clostebol; danazol (17α-ethynyl-17β-hydroxyandrost-4-eno[2,3-d]isoxazole);
1,4-dien-3-one); desoxymethyltestosterone (17α-methyl-5α-androst-2-en-
17β-ol); drostanolone; ethylestrenol (19-nor-17α-pregn-4-en-17-ol);
fluoxymesterone; formebolone; furazabol (17β-hydroxy-17α-methyl-5α-
androstano[2,3-c]-furazan); gestrinone; 4-hydroxytestosterone (4,17β-
dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one); mestanolone; mesterolone; metenolone;
methandriol; methasterone (2α, 17α-dimethyl-5α-androstane-3-one-17β-ol);
methyldienolone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methylestra-4,9-dien-3-one); methyl-1-
methyltestosterone; metribolone (methyltrienolone, 17β-hydroxy-17α-
methylestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one); mibolerone; nandrolone; 19-
norandrostenedione (estr-4-ene-3,17-dione); norboletone; norclostebol;
norethandrolone; oxabolone; oxandrolone; oxymesterone; oxymetholone;
prostanozol (17β-hydroxy-5α-androstano[3,2-c] pyrazole); quinbolone;
stanozolol; stenbolone; 1-testosterone (17β-hydroxy-5α-androst-1-en-3-
one); tetrahydrogestrinone (18a-homo-pregna-4,9,11-trien-17β-ol-3-one);
trenbolone; and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar
b. Endogenous** AAS when administered exogenously:
androstenediol (androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol); androstenedione (androst-4-ene-
3,17-dione); dihydrotestosterone (17β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-3-one);
prasterone (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA); testosterone
and their metabolites and isomers, including but not limited to:
5α-androstane-3α,17α-diol; 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol; 5α-androstane-
3β,17α-diol; 5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol; androst-4-ene-3α,17α-diol;
androst-4-ene-3α,17β-diol; androst-4-ene-3β,17α-diol; androst-5-ene-
3α,17α-diol; androst-5-ene-3α,17β-diol; androst-5-ene-3β,17α-diol;
4-androstenediol (androst-4-ene-3β,17β-diol); 5-androstenedione (androst-5-
ene-3,17-dione); epi-dihydrotestosterone; epitestosterone; 3α-hydroxy-5α-
androstan-17-one; 3β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one; 7α-hydroxy-DHEA ;
7β-hydroxy-DHEA ; 7-keto-DHEA; 19-norandrosterone; 19-
2. Other Anabolic Agents, including but not limited to:
Clenbuterol, selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), tibolone,
* “exogenous” refers to a substance which is not ordinarily capable of being produced by the body naturally. ** “endogenous” refers to a substance which is capable of being produced by the body naturally.
S2. PEPTIDE HORMONES, GROWTH FACTORS AND RELATED
The following substances and their releasing factors are prohibited:
1. Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents [e.g. erythropoietin (EPO),
darbepoetin (dEPO), hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilizers,
methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (CERA), peginesatide
2. Chorionic Gonadotrophin (CG) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) in
5. Growth Hormone (GH), Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1),
Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs), Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF),
Mechano Growth Factors (MGFs), Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
(PDGF), Vascular-Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) as well as any
other growth factor affecting muscle, tendon or ligament protein
synthesis/degradation, vascularisation, energy utilization, regenerative
capacity or fibre type switching;
and other substances with similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).
S3. BETA-2 AGONISTS
All beta-2 agonists (including both optical isomers where relevant) are prohibited except salbutamol (maximum 1600 micrograms over 24 hours), formoterol (maximum 36 micrograms over 24 hours) and salmeterol when taken by inhalation in accordance with the manufacturers’ recommended therapeutic regime. The presence in urine of salbutamol in excess of 1000 ng/mL or formoterol in excess of 30 ng/mL is presumed not to be an intended therapeutic use of the substance and will be considered as an Adverse Analytical Finding unless the Athlete proves, through a controlled pharmacokinetic study, that the abnormal result was the consequence of the use of the therapeutic inhaled dose up to the maximum indicated above. S4. HORMONE AND METABOLIC MODULATORS
The following are prohibited:
1. Aromatase inhibitors including, but not limited to: aminoglutethimide,
(androstatrienedione), 4-androstene-3,6,17 trione (6-oxo),
exemestane, formestane, letrozole, testolactone.
2. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) including, but not
limited to: raloxifene, tamoxifen, toremifene.
3. Other anti-estrogenic substances including, but not limited to:
clomiphene, cyclofenil, fulvestrant.
4. Agents modifying myostatin function(s) including, but not limited, to:
5. Metabolic modulators: Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor δ
(PPARδ) agonists (e.g. GW 1516), PPARδ-AMP-activated protein
kinase (AMPK) axis agonists (e.g. AICAR)
S5. DIURETICS AND OTHER MASKING AGENTS
Masking agents are prohibited. They include:
Diuretics, desmopressin, plasma expanders (e.g. glycerol; intravenous
administration of albumin, dextran, hydroxyethyl starch and mannitol),
probenecid; and other substances with similar biological effect(s). Local
application of felypressin in dental anaesthesia is not prohibited.
Acetazolamide, amiloride, bumetanide, canrenone, chlorthalidone,
etacrynic acid, furosemide, indapamide, metolazone, spironolactone,
thiazides (e.g. bendroflumethiazide, chlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide),
triamterene; and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar
biological effect(s) (except drospirenone, pamabrom and topical dorzolamide and
brinzolamide, which are not prohibited).
The use In- and Out-of-Competition, as applicable, of any quantity of a substance
subject to threshold limits (i.e. formoterol, salbutamol, morphine, cathine,
ephedrine, methylephedrine and pseudoephedrine) in conjunction with a diuretic
or other masking agent requires the deliverance of a specific Therapeutic Use
Exemption for that substance in addition to the one granted for the diuretic or
other masking agent.
M1. ENHANCEMENT OF OXYGEN TRANSFER
The following are prohibited:
1. Blood doping, including the use of autologous, homologous or heterologous
blood or red blood cell products of any origin. 2. Artificially enhancing the uptake, transport or delivery of oxygen, including, but not limited to, perfluorochemicals, efaproxiral (RSR13) and modified haemoglobin products (e.g. haemoglobin-based blood substitutes, microencapsulated haemoglobin products), excluding supplemental oxygen.
M2. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL MANIPULATION
The following are prohibited:
1. Tampering, or attempting to tamper, in order to alter the integrity and validity of Samples collected during Doping Control is prohibited. These include but are not limited to urine substitution and/or adulteration (e.g. proteases). 2. Intravenous infusions and/or injections of more than 50 mL per 6 hour period are prohibited except for those legitimately received in the course of hospital admissions or clinical investigations. 3. Sequential withdrawal, manipulation and reintroduction of any quantity of whole blood into the circulatory system.
M3. GENE DOPING
The following, with the potential to enhance sport performance, are prohibited:
1. The transfer of nucleic acids or nucleic acid sequences;
2. The use of normal or genetically modified cells. SUBSTANCES AND METHODS
In addition to the categories S0 to S5 and M1 to M3 defined above,
the following categories are prohibited In-Competition:
All stimulants (including both optical isomers where relevant) are prohibited, except imidazole derivatives for topical use and those stimulants included in the 2012 Monitoring Program*.
a: Non-Specified Stimulants:
Adrafinil; amfepramone; amiphenazole; amphetamine; amphetaminil;
benfluorex; benzphetamine; benzylpiperazine; bromantan; clobenzorex;
cocaine; cropropamide; crotetamide; dimethylamphetamine;
etilamphetamine; famprofazone; fencamine; fenetylline; fenfluramine;
fenproporex; furfenorex; mefenorex; mephentermine; mesocarb;
modafinil; norfenfluramine; phendimetrazine; phenmetrazine;
phentermine; 4-phenylpiracetam (carphedon); prenylamine; prolintane.
A stimulant not expressly listed in this section is a Specified Substance.
b: Specified Stimulants (examples):
Adrenaline**; cathine***; ephedrine****; etamivan; etilefrine; fenbutrazate;
fencamfamin; heptaminol; isometheptene; levmetamfetamine;
meclofenoxate; methylephedrine****; methylhexaneamine
(dimethylpentylamine); methylphenidate; nikethamide; norfenefrine;
octopamine; oxilofrine; parahydroxyamphetamine; pemoline;
pentetrazol; phenpromethamine; propylhexedrine; pseudoephedrine*****;
selegiline; sibutramine; strychnine; tuaminoheptane; and other substances
with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s). * The following substances included in the 2012 Monitoring Program (bupropion, caffeine, nicotine, phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine, pipradol, synephrine) are not considered as Prohibited Substances. ** Local administration (e.g. nasal, ophthalmologic) of Adrenaline or co-
administration with local anaesthetic agents is not prohibited. *** Cathine is prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 5
**** Each of ephedrine and methylephedrine is prohibited when its
concentration in urine is greater than 10 micrograms per milliliter. ***** Pseudoephedrine is prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater
than 150 micrograms per milliliter.
The following are prohibited:
Buprenorphine, dextromoramide, diamorphine (heroin), fentanyl and its
derivatives, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone,
oxymorphone, pentazocine, pethidine.
Natural (e.g. cannabis, hashish, marijuana) or synthetic delta 9-
tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabimimetics [e.g. “Spice” (containing
JWH018, JWH073), HU-210] are prohibited.
All glucocorticosteroids are prohibited when administered by oral, intravenous,
intramuscular or rectal routes.
SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED IN PARTICULAR
Alcohol (ethanol) is prohibited In-Competition only, in the following sports.
Detection will be conducted by analysis of breath and/or blood. The doping
violation threshold (haematological values) is 0.10 g/L. • Aeronautic (FAI)
Unless otherwise specified, beta-blockers are prohibited In-Competition only, in
the following sports.
• Aeronautic (FAI)
• Archery (FITA) (also prohibited Out-of-Competition) • Shooting (ISSF, IPC) (also prohibited Out-of-Competition) • Skiing/Snowboarding (FIS) in ski jumping, freestyle aerials/halfpipe and
Beta-blockers include, but are not limited to, the following:
Acebutolol, alprenolol, atenolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, bunolol, carteolol,
carvedilol, celiprolol, esmolol, labetalol, levobunolol, metipranolol,
metoprolol, nadolol, oxprenolol, pindolol, propranolol, sotalol, timolol.
Book ReviewsCroatian Economic Survey : Vol. 15 : No. 1 : April 2013 : pp. 115-134 Pension Reforms in Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe: From Post-Socialist Transition to the Global Financial Crisis Igor Guardiancich London, New York, NY: Routledge/ EUI studies in the political economy of the The pension system is the important part of every country’s social security. The f