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Microsoft word - astham_terms_glossary.doc

astham_terms_glossary.doc Created on 5/7/09 2:09 PM Last printed 5/7/09 3:03 PM Page 1 of 10 acceptance: agreement by patient to a treatment routine they understand
Accolate: brand name for zafirlukast, a leukotriene modifier (oral)
acute: sudden
adrenal insufficiency: inability of the body’s adrenal glands to produce an
adequate amount of cortisol, the hormone needed to respond to stress adrenaline (epinephrine): a quick relief medicine, produced by the body and
adrenergic: adrenaline-like medicine
adverse: undesirable
Aerobid: brand name for flunisolide, an inhaled steroid medicine, control er
AeroChamber: brand of holding chamber
Air Watch: airflow monitoring device with electronic link to the doctor
airflow: the rate at which you can blow air out of your lungs
albuterol: generic name of Proventil, Ventolin and ProAir; beta2-agonists, quick
allergen: any substance that can induce an al ergy
allergist: doctor who specializes in understanding and treating al ergies
allergy: condition in which the body has an immune reaction to a substance that
alveoli: air sacs located at the end of the tiniest airways
ampule (ampoule): smal , sealed vial containing medicine in liquid form
anaphylaxis: severe al ergic reaction throughout the body which can be fatal if
not treated immediately; commonly includes respiratory symptoms, itching, antibody: protein that develops in the body in response to a foreign substance
anticholinergic: type of inhaled quick relief medicine that acts through a
antihistamine: generic name for medicine that blocks the actions of histamine,
antiinflammatory: medicine that counteracts inflammation
asthma: inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by airways that are
hyperresponsive and symptoms that can be reversed Asthma Peak Flow Diary: an individual record of peak flow scores, medicines,
asthma signs, and triggers; helps in monitoring peak flow trends in people 5 asthma signs: physical indicators of asthma that can observed by another
Asthma Signs Diary: an individual record of asthma signs scores, medicines,
and triggers that helps in monitoring the trends in asthma signs in children asthma treatment zone: a range of peak flow scores or total scores of asthma
signs that cal s for fol owing a particular treatment plan asymptomatic: without symptoms
atopic: al ergic
Atrovent: brand name for ipratropium bromide, an inhaled quick relief medicine
attack: a dramatic term for an episode of asthma
Azmacort: brand name for triamcinolone, an inhaled steroid medicine, control er
beclomethasone: generic name for Vanceril, Beclovent, and QVAR, inhaled
steroid medicines, control er
Beclovent: brand name for beclomethasone, an inhaled steroid medicine,
astham_terms_glossary.doc Created on 5/7/09 2:09 PM Last printed 5/7/09 3:03 PM Page 2 of 10 beta-blockers: medicines that block the action of beta-agonist medicines, and
responses of the sympathetic nervous system beta2-agonist: a class of quick relief medicine
b.i.d.: a dosing schedule cal ing for medicine to be taken twice a day
blood concentration: amount of a substance in a given quantity of blood
expressed as weight per unit volume (e.g., mg/ml) blow-by technique: a low-efficiency method for administering inhaled medicines
breath-activated: method for triggering the release of medicine from a device by
breathing cycle: total time it takes to breathe in and out once
breathing rate: number of breaths per minute
Brethaire: brand name for terbutaline, an inhaled beta2-agonist, quick relief
Brethine: a brand name for terbutaline, an inhaled beta2-agonist, quick relief
Bricanyl: a brand name for terbutaline, an inhaled beta2-agonist, quick relief
bronchi: large air passages or airways
bronchiolitis: inflammation of the smal est airways (bronchioles); caused by a
bronchitis: inflammation of the large airways (bronchi) due to asthma, a virus or
bronchoconstriction: narrowing of the airways caused by contraction of the
smooth muscles encircling them (same as bronchospasm) bronchodilator: medicine that causes the airways to open
bronchospasm: narrowing of the airways caused by contraction of the smooth
muscles encircling them (same as bronchoconstriction) budesonide: generic name for Pulmicort, an inhaled steroid medicine, control er
candidiasis: yeast infection in the mouth or vagina; same as moniliasis
capillary: tiniest blood vessel
cartilage: strong, flexible tissue that supports the large airways
cc: abbreviation for cubic centimeter; equivalent to a mil iliter (ml) or 1/1000 of a
liter. This metric measurement is equal to 1/5 of a measuring teaspoon. CDN: compressor driven nebulizer
CFC: chlorofluorocarbon; propel ant used in most metered dose inhalers
chemical mediator: class of chemical that plays a role in the asthma reaction;
chronic: continuous or long-term
cilia: tiny hairlike projections from the surface of the cel s that line the airway
closed mouth technique: a method for inhaling medicine from an MDI; open-
compliance: doing exactly what the doctor says, whether or not you understand
compressor: machine that produces air under pressure
compressor driven nebulizer (CDN): electric- or battery-powered device that
uses compressed air to create a medicine mist consultation: ful review of a patient’s asthma history, physical exam, and other
information; leads to the creation of a written asthma management plan controlled-release: same as long-acting, sustained-release, or slow-release;
applies to some theophylline and albuterol preparations controller: medicine that prevents or reduces the frequency and severity of
astham_terms_glossary.doc Created on 5/7/09 2:09 PM Last printed 5/7/09 3:03 PM Page 3 of 10 corticosteroid: another term for a steroid or cortisone-like medicine
coughing asthma: form of asthma in which coughing is the only symptom
croup: il ness usual y produced by a virus, in which the larynx and trachea are
dander: scales of dead skin
decongestant: a medicine that reduces congestion (swel ing)
discard date: date when an MDI should be thrown away because it wil no
Diskus: brand name for dry powder inhaler device
diurnal variation: change within a day
DPI: dry powder inhaler
dry powder inhaler: device for inhaling asthma medicines in powder form;
depends on the force of inhalation to disperse medicine into the lungs EasiVent: brand of holding chamber
eczema: a skin rash, also known as atopic dermatitis
effort monitor: part of a holding chamber which indicates the effort a person is
electrostatic air precipitator: air cleaner
eosinophils: white blood cel s involved in inflammation
ephedrine: oral adrenergic medicine, bronchodilator; no longer commonly used
epinephrine (adrenaline): a quick relief medicine, produced by the body and
EpiPen: brand name for epinephrine for intramuscular use (injection); used to
episode (flare): period of time when asthma signs or symptoms occur, peak flow
scores drop, breathing is changed, or additional asthma medicine is needed exacerbation: worsening or new episode
exercise induced asthma: a form of asthma in which exercise is the only trigger
exhale: to breathe out
expiration: act of breathing out
extended-release: medicine preparation that acts over a longer period of time
than the standard preparation; also cal ed slow-release, sustained-release E-Z Spacer: brand of holding chamber
family practitioner: primary care physician who sees patients of al ages
FEV1: forced expiratory volume in one second. This measurement of airflow is
done using a spirometer or simple FEV1 meter. It provides information about the status of the large and smal airways flare (episode): period of time when asthma signs or symptoms occur, peak flow
scores drop, breathing is changed, or additional asthma medicine is needed Flovent: brand name for fluticasone, an inhaled steroid medicine available in
flow monitor: part of a holding chamber which makes a sound if inhalation is too
flunisolide: generic name for Aerobid, an inhaled steroid medicine, control er
fluticasone: generic name for Flovent, an inhaled steroid medicine, control er
gastroesophageal reflux: (also cal ed stomache acid reflux) backward flow of
material from stomach to the esophagus; causes irritation which can lead to
astham_terms_glossary.doc Created on 5/7/09 2:09 PM Last
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green zone: asthma treatment zone in which there are no symptoms and peak
flow is 80 to 100 percent of the personal best growth retardation: slowing of rate at which height increases
Gyrocap: capsule containing Slo-Phyllin, a slow-release theophylline
hay fever: al ergic condition of the nose and eyes brought on mainly by ragweed
or other pol en
HEPA filter: abbreviation for a “high-efficiency particulate air” filter; removes tiny
HFA propellant: hydrofluoroalkane, a propel ant used in MDIs which does not
destroy ozone in the stratosphere (upper atmosphere) high yellow zone: asthma treatment zone in which there are only mild
symptoms and peak flow is 65 to 80 percent of personal best histamine: one of the chemical mediators of the asthma reaction
hives: itchy swel ings of skin usual y due to al ergy
holding chamber: inhalation device used with a metered dose inhaler that holds
the medicine mist to improve medicine effect home care company: organization that provides many aspects of asthma care
in the home, including teaching, monitoring, and review of environment and hyperresponsive: refers to airways that overreact to various asthma triggers
hyperventilation: excessive rate and depth of breathing
IAQ: indoor air quality
I/E ratio: in/out ratio, or relative length of inhale compared to exhale
IgE: immunoglobulin E, an antibody that reacts with an al ergen, initiating the
immunotherapy: synonymous with al ergy shots, injection treatment,
indication: reason to use
indoor air quality (IAQ): overal healthfulness of the air inside a building
inflammation: a response of the body to physical or chemical triggers; includes
swel ing due to movement of cel s, fluid, and chemicals into the area inhalation device: apparatus for inhaling asthma medicine
inhaled steroid: inhaled medicine that prevents inflammation in the airways and
reduces inflammation that already exists; the most commonly prescribed type of control er medicine for people with persistent asthma inhaler: also metered dose inhaler (MDI). Device that uses propel ant to create a
medicine mist that can be breathed into the airways I/O ratio: in/out ratio, or relative length of inhale compared to exhale
inspiration: act of breathing in
InspirEase: brand of holding chamber
inspiration-expiration ratio: see in/out (I/O) ratio
intermittent flow director: a vent in the nebulizer tubing that, when covered,
internist: primary care physician who sees adult patients
intradermal: into the skin
intravenous: into a vein
intubation: placing a tube into the trachea to enable artificial breathing; can be a
lifesaving procedure during a severe asthma episode ipratropium: generic name for Atrovent, an anticholinergic medicine, quick relief
astham_terms_glossary.doc Created on 5/7/09 2:09 PM Last printed 5/7/09 3:03 PM Page 5 of 10 irritant: a nonal ergenic substance that may provoke a reaction in the airways
kg: kilogram; 1,000 grams or 2.2 pounds
levalbuterol: generic name for Xopenex, a beta2-agonist; quick relief medicine
leukotriene: chemical mediator involved in the asthma reaction
leukotriene modifier medicine: class of medicine that blocks the formation or
action of leukotrienes in the airways, thereby blocking part of the asthma liter (L): metric measurement, slightly more than a quart
liters/minute (L/min): a flow rate, applied to peak flow or oxygen delivery
long-acting: synonymous with slow-release or sustained-release when referring
to a theophylline or beta2-agonist preparation low yellow zone: asthma treatment zone in which symptoms are moderate and
peak flow is 50 to 65 percent of personal best malingering: pretending to be il
mask: a device that fits snugly over the nose and mouth; used to deliver inhaled
mast cell: one of the cel types that contain chemicals which can produce the
Maxair: brand name for pirbuterol, a beta2-agonist, quick relief medicine
Maxair Autohaler: brand name for an MDI with a special “breath-activated”
release mechanism; contains pirbuterol (quick relief medicine) mcg: microgram, 1/1,000,000 (one mil ionth) of a gram
MDI: metered dose inhaler
mean (average) peak flow score: the average peak flow score for people of a
certain height, expressed in liters per minute median peak flow score: the peak flow score at which half of the people of a
specific height, gender and age wil be able to blow mediator: a chemical that is the middleman or go-between in the asthma
medicine retaining valve: valve in the exit port of a holding chamber which
holds medicine until a person begins to breathe in Medrol: brand name of methylprednisolone, an oral steroid
metabolize: to change chemical y or physical y in the body
metered dose inhaler (MDI): device that creates medicine mist for inhalation by
using propel ant to expel liquid medicine metaproterenol: generic name for beta2-agonist, quick relief medicine
methylprednisolone: generic name for Medrol, oral steroid medicine
methotrexate: immunosuppresive drug used to treat severe asthma that does
not respond to usual treatment; also used to treat cancer micron: micrometer, 1/1,000,000 (one mil ionth) of a meter
mg: mil igram, 1/1,000 (one thousandth) of a gram
mite: tiny arachnid (spiderlike animal); skeleton and feces found in house dust
ml: mil iliter, 1/1,000 of a liter; same as a cubic centimeter (cc)
moniliasis (candidiasis): yeast infection in the mouth or vagina
monitoring: keeping track of
montelukast: generic name for Singulair, a leukotriene modifier medicine,
mouthpiece: part of an asthma device which is put in the mouth
astham_terms_glossary.doc Created on 5/7/09 2:09 PM Last printed 5/7/09 3:03 PM Page 6 of 10 mucus: protective and cleansing material produced by glands in the airways,
nose, sinuses, and elsewhere in the body nebulizer (nebulizer cup): the smal plastic device that converts liquid medicine
into a mist for inhalation
normal (tidal) breath: usual breathing volume when no extra effort is made
onset of action: time span from when a medicine is inhaled or swal owed until it
open mouth technique: effective method for inhaling medicine from a metered
osteoporosis: decrease in bone density causing increased bone fragility
ozone: a form of oxygen (O3) that is a respiratory irritant; one component of
ozone layer: layer of ozone in the upper atmosphere which encircles the Earth,
protecting the surface from harmful effects of cancer-causing ultraviolet light
palate: roof of mouth
peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR): speed at which air exits the lungs when you
give your fastest blast (a fraction of a second); also known as peak flow peak flow meter: a device used to measure peak expiratory flow rate
peak flow score: the best of three attempts blown on the peak flow meter,
peak flow zone: one of the treatment zones of asthma management as defined
Pediapred: brand name of prednisolone, an oral steroid
pediatrician: primary care physician for children
persistent asthma: condition in which a person experiences asthma symptoms
two or more times a week (when taking no asthma medicine) personal best peak flow score: highest peak flow score that an individual has
blown on two separate days when the airways are completely clear and pirbuterol: generic name for Maxair; beta2-agonist, quick relief medicine
pollen: potent al ergen shed during a plant’s flowering season
pollutant: impurity or substance that contaminates the air
post bronchodilator: airflow that occurs after inhaling a quick relief medicine
ppm: parts per mil ion. Number of molecules of a particular substance (e.g., a
pol utant) found in a mil ion molecules of air, water, etc. prebronchodilator: rate of airflow that occurs before inhaling a quick relief
prednisone: generic name of oral steroid medicine; many brand names
prednisolone: generic name for Prelone and Pediapred; oral steroid medicine
Prelone: a brand name for prednisolone, an oral steroid
prick test: type of skin test for al ergy
Proventil HFA: brand name for albuterol; beta2-agonist, quick relief medicine
Proventil Repetabs: brand name for long-acting albuterol preparation; oral
puffer: another word for inhaler or MDI
Pulmicort Turbuhaler: brand name for a dry powder inhaler containing
pulmonary function test: a test or series of tests used to measure various
pulmonologist: doctor specializing in the care of people with lung diseases
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printed 5/7/09 3:03 PM Page 7 of 10
q.i.d.: four times per day dosing schedule
quick relief medicine: inhaled medicine that acts to open constricted airways
within minutes (e.g., inhaled beta2-agonists) QVAR: brand name for beclomethasone, an inhaled steroid medicine; control er
rast: radioimmunosorbent test, an al ergy test that measures IgE (antibody) to a
rad: abbreviation for reactive airway disease, a name for asthma
red zone: asthma treatment zone in which symptoms are severe and peak flow
is less than 50 percent of personal best; requires immediate treatment relative humidity: amount of water in the air compared to the total amount of
water the air can hold at a given temperature rescue medicine: quick relief medicine
respiratory therapist: health professional who provides assessment, treatment,
and education for people with lung disease respirable range: size of particles that can be inhaled into the smal airways (1
retraction: “sucking in” of the skin between the ribs or above and below the
ROAD: reversible obstructive airway disease, a term that is sometimes used to
runout time: length of time it takes for the effect of a medicine to disappear after
the last dose; may be minutes, hours, or days
salmeterol: generic name for Serevent; inhaled long-acting beta2-agonist,
sensitization: process of becoming sensitized to an al ergen
sensitizer: al ergen or irritant that primes the asthma reaction
Serevent: brand name for salmeterol, control er
serum: the liquid portion of the blood
serum level: the amount of medicine in a quantity of serum
shake test: shaking the MDI canister, an unreliable method for determining
whether the MDI can deliver a ful puff of medicine side effect: undesired or adverse effect of medicine
sign: an effect that can be seen or heard by an observer
Singulair: brand name for montelukast, a leukotriene modifier medicine,
sinuses: one of the eight bone-enclosed cavities surrounding the nose
sinusitis: inflammation of one or more paranasal (around the nose) sinuses
small airways: airways less than 2 mm in diameter; bronchioles
Space Chamber: brand of holding chamber
spacer: device used with an MDI to improve effectiveness; also known as
Spinhaler: brand name for dry-powder device containing cromolyn; control er
medicine; no longer available in the U.S. spirometer: device used in a doctor’s office to measure various components of
spirometry: the act of using a spirometer
step down: method for bringing asthma under control quickly, then gradual y
decreasing medicines to the lowest effective dose steroid burst: a short treatment with oral steroids, usual y lasting for seven days
astham_terms_glossary.doc Created on 5/7/09 2:09 PM Last printed 5/7/09 3:03 PM Page 8 of 10 steroid: type of hormone produced by the adrenal cortex which has
anti nflammatory effects. Also, medicine similar to this hormone that is given by inhalation or oral y to help control asthma subcutaneous: under the skin
sustained-release: synonymous with long-acting or extended-release; refers to
theophylline and beta2-agonist preparations sympathomimetic: produces the same effect as epinephrine injection or
stimulation of sympathetic nervous system symptoms: any effect on your body that you can feel that is different from usual;
for example, a tight chest or shortness of breath
terbutaline: generic name for Brethaire, Brethine, Bricanyl; beta2-agonist, quick
Theo-24: brand name for a long-acting theophylline preparation, control er, oral
Theo-Dur: brand name for a long-acting theophylline preparation, control er, oral
theophylline: slow-acting brochodilator medicine; control er, oral
tidal breathing: normal, relaxed breathing
toxicity: quality of being poisonous; the adverse effect(s) of a medicine
triamcinolone: generic name for Azmacort, inhaled steroid preparation
trigger: instigator; precipitating factor in causing airway inflammation and asthma
twitchy: overreactive, hyperresponsive; used in reference to airways
ultrasonic: sound waves above the range that humans can hear; can cause a
ultrasonic nebulizer: device that uses sound waves to create medicine mist;
usual y smal , light, and portable. It should not be used to deliver a suspension, unit dose: medicine in liquid or pil form that is packaged in individual doses
Uni-Dur: brand name for a long-acting theophylline preparation, control er, oral
Uni-Phyl: brand name for a long-acting theophylline preparation, control er, oral
USN: ultrasonic nebulizer
valve: device that regulates the flow of air or other substance
Vanceril: brand name for beclomethasone; an inhaled steroid medicine,
vent: tube that can be uncovered to interrupt the flow of air into a compressor
Ventolin: brand name for albuterol, a beta2-agonist, quick relief medicine
voice box: larynx, part of the upper airways which lies between the throat and
wheeze: high-pitched whistling that occurs when air flows through narrowed
white blood cells: cel s whose main function is to defend the body from bacteria
Windmill Trainer: a feedback device for people who use a MiniWright peak flow
meter to improve their ability to blow peak flow workup: evaluation of a patient
Xopenex: brand name for levalbuterol, a beta2-agonist, quick relief medicine
astham_terms_glossary.doc Created on 5/7/09 2:09 PM Last printed 5/7/09 3:03 PM Page 9 of 10 zafirlukast: generic name for Accolate, a leukotriene modifier; control er
zone borders: limits of the asthma treatment zones as defined by peak flow or
zileuton: generic name for Zyflo, a leukotriene modifier medicine; control er
Zyflo: brand name for the zileuton, a leukotriene modifier medicine; control er
astham_terms_glossary.doc Created on 5/7/09 2:09 PM Last printed 5/7/09 3:03 PM Page 10 of 10


Les graisses

V. Principaux dispositifs de graissage LES GRAISSES X. INTRODUCTION XI. CONSTITUTION DES GRAISSES 1.L'huile de base ou la base lubrifiante 2.Les épaississants 3.Les additifs a) Les additifs solubles dans l'huile b) Les additifs solides XII. PROPRIETES - CARACTÉRISTIQUES ET CLASSIFICATIONS DES GRAISSES 1.Aspect et texture des graisses 2.Classifications

Microsoft word - ishsko centre medical forms 2012.docx

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