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NutraLibido is an herbal-based supplement, which combines Muira Puama, Maca, Avena Sativa, and Ginseng: Ginseng has commonly been used as an herbal
Ginseng to aid sexual health. NutraLibido includes Dong treatment in Asian medicine to treat sexual ailments.10 Quai and Tribulus to support hormone health, while Several studies have found ginseng can improve libido Choline and Vitamin B5 help energy levels. Additionally, and sexual performance suggesting the herb’s ginsenoside L-Arginine, Cocoa Extract, and Ginkgo Biloba can components aid the central nervous system and gonadal tissues.23 Furthermore, ginseng increases potency by improving nitric oxide synthesis in many organs to FUNCTIONS
stimulate tissues and increase sexual drive.11 Avena Sativa: More commonly known as a cereal grain
One study gave 108 women (22-73 years old) with a low or oats, Avena Sativa (oat plant) is cultivated worldwide. sex drive a nutritional combination (Ginseng and other Many nutrients are contained in Avena Sativa including nutrients) or a placebo. After four weeks, women taking vitamins B, magnesium, iron, and zinc. It has been the nutritional formulation reported significant suggested that Avena Sativa’s tension-relieving effects improvement in sexual health, especially among pre- and decrease sexual ailments that are related to stress and anxiety, 1 but research is inconclusive. The effects of ginseng were observed in female rabbits Cocoa Extract (6-8% Natural Theobromine):
with sexual ailments. Results indicated that ginseng was a Theobroma cacao L., also known as cocoa, is cultivated in therapeutic treatment for relaxing the vaginal smooth tropical regions of Central and South America. Cocoa muscle tissue concluding this action was mediated by contains antioxidants, including phytochemicals that are nitric oxide synthesis.13 Another study found that male rats beneficial to sexual health. 2 Furthermore, the high taking ginseng had an increase in mating behavior, when polyphenol content enhances nitric oxide synthesis to improve blood circulation throughout the body.3,4 L-Arginine: L-Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid
Dong Quai: Commonly used in Chinese medicine to
that aids nitric oxide synthesis by increasing circulation balance hormones and stimulate sexual behavior, Dong and dilating blood vessels. In addition, it stimulates the Quai is a plant that grows in the mountain regions of secretion of hormones. L-Arginine aids normal erectile Korea, Japan, and China. There is evidence that Dong function, as it maintains nitric oxide synthesis and restores Quai increases sexual behavior, as it has been reported in female animals.5 Yet, Dong Quai research is inconclusive. L-Arginine can reverse the actions of NG-nitro-L- Ginkgo Biloba: One of the oldest living trees, Ginkgo
Arginine, a nitric oxide inhibitor. One study found the Biloba can survive over 1,000 years and grow 120 feet. amino acid improved oxide synthesis by relaxing the The leaves contain two unique antioxidants, flavone penile small arteries to aid normal erectile function.1 glycosides and terpene lactones, which improve circulation and maintain the tone and elasticity of arteries A six-week study recruited 50 men with libido ailments to take L-Arginine or a placebo. Results indicated L- Arginine improved erectile function in men by restoring One cause of impotence is poor blood circulation. Ginkgo nitric oxide levels.16 An animal study reviewed L- improves blood flow throughout the body by restoring the Arginine’s effect on erectile function in rats taking the nitric oxide balance.6, 19 One study observed the effects of nutrient for eight-weeks. Results indicated L-Arginine ginkgo on impotence among 60 patients. It was reported increased nitric oxide synthesis by nearly 100% in the that 6 to 8 weeks of ginkgo supplementation improved treatment group to aid normal erectile function.17 Fifty patients with mild to moderate libido ailments took The improvements in nitric oxide synthesis have made an L-Arginine/Pycnogenol combination for one month gingko a beneficial aid for restoring microcirculation and finding erectile function was restored and testosterone relaxing vascular walls in older individuals with levels increased in the treatment group.18 circulation problems, including erectile ailments.8 As individuals age, endothelial function (interior blood vessel Another study recruited 45 patients to take an L- cells) decreases altering coronary blood flow. One study Arginine/Yohimbine Hydrochloride combination, recruited 60 healthy elderly adults to take ginkgo or a Yohimbine Hydrochloride, or a placebo. Results indicated placebo. Results indicated ginkgo increased coronary a significant improvement in erectile function among blood flow and improved endothelial function by patients taking the L-Arginine/Yohimbine Hydrochloride the nutrients ability to increase testosterone levels.28 The combination, when compared to the other two groups.19 same researchers conducted another animal study observing the effects of Tribulus on androgen receptors in Maca Root (MacaPure®): Discovered in the Andes
the brain. Results indicated an eight-week treatment of mountains, Maca root has been used for generations in Tribulus significantly increased mechanisms associated Peru to improve fertility and sexual drive. with androgen receptor sites to improve sexual drive.29 Similarly, Tribulus increased androgen activity and the A twelve-week study gave men (21 to 56 years old) 1,500 release of nitric oxide to improve sexual function in mg of Maca, 3,000 mg of Maca, or a placebo. Subjects rabbits taking the nutrient for eight weeks.30 taking Maca reported an increase in sexual desire, when compared to the placebo group. Furthermore, the nutrient INDICATIONS
did not change testosterone or estradiol levels.20 NutraLibido is a specialized formulation that contains the finest-quality, herbal ingredients to benefit sexual health. MacaPure was given to male mice with libido ailments, observing the herb supported erectile function and FORMULA (WW #10242)
increased the number of sperm-positive female mice to improve reproduction.21 A similar study gave female mice 3 Capsules Contain:
Maca, finding the nutrient enhanced female fertility in the treatment group to significantly create more offspring.22 Cocoa Extract (6-8% Natural Theobromine) . 125 mg MacaPure was also administered to female mice and male Macapure® (0.6% Macamides and Macaenes) . 333 mg rats. Results indicated Maca increased the number of sperm-positive female mice and normalized erectile Dong Quai Root (1% Ligustilide) . 150 mg Various Maca doses were compared among male rats with erectile ailments. Researchers discovered that both an acute (7 days) and short-term (21 days) treatment Ginseng (min. 0.8% eleuthrosides) . 40 mg improved sexual behavior, while long-term administration (30 days) did not additionally enhance the benefits of an acute or short-term dose.23 (min. 24% ginkgo flavone glycosides, min. 6% terpene lactones, less than 1 ppm ginkgolic acid) Maca may also benefit sperm activity. One study found Tribulus Terrestris (40% Sapponins) . 200 mg that sperm count increased in male rats taking Maca for seven days, as daily sperm production began to increase SUGGESTED USE
after the first day of treatment. In addition, Maca did not As a dietary supplement, adults take 3 capsules daily, or increase testicular testosterone levels.24 as directed by a healthcare professional.
Muira Puama: A small Brazilian tree that grows mainly
in the Amazon region, Muira Puama has a long history in Brazilian folk medicine as an aphrodisiac to improve low The maximum safe dosages of the nutrients in this formula have not been determined for children, pregnant or nursing women, or those with severe liver or kidney One study gave a Muira Puama/Ginkgo Biloba disease. As with all supplement regimens, please consult formulation to 202 healthy women with low sex drive. your healthcare professional prior to use. After one month of treatment, subjects noticed significant improvement in sexual health.25 In addition, Muira Puama Avena Sativa: Individuals with gluten sensitivities should
has been observed to have possible stimulant activity that improves physical and mental fatigue, without creating Cocoa: There are no known adverse reactions with proper
Dong Quai: Possible side effects may include fever, upset
Tribulus Terrestris: Tribulus Terrestris is a vine plant
stomach, and thinning of the blood. Dong Quai should not that grows in tropical, mild climates throughout the United States, southern Asia, northern Australia, and southern Gingko Biloba: Occasional gastrointestinal upset, allergic
Europe. Known for its ability to increase energy and sex skin reaction and headache. Due to its blood thinning drive, it is commonly used in Ayurvedic medicine. properties, care should be used by individuals with blood clotting problems or those taking anticoagulant Tribulus’ effect on erectile function was evaluated in male rabbits and rats with erectile ailments. Results indicated Ginseng: Individuals with cardiovascular disease or
an eight-week treatment with Tribulus increased sex diabetes (may lower blood glucose levels) should use hormones, including certain testosterone hormones that caution when taking supplements with Ginseng. help balance mild to moderate erectile ailments.27 L-Arginine: The most common adverse reactions occur at
higher doses (15 to 30 g per day), which include nausea, One study found that Tribulus improved sexual behavior diarrhea, and abdominal cramps. Pregnant and nursing in rats concluding the aphrodisiac activity may be due to mothers should avoid L-Arginine supplementation as it Maca Root: There are no known adverse reactions with
11. Sandroni P. Aphrodisiacs past and present: a historical review. Clin Muira Puama: There are no known adverse reactions
12. Ito TY, Polan ML, Whipple B, Trant AS. The enhancement of female sexual function with ArginMax, a nutritional supplement, among women differing in menopausal status. Sex Marital Ther. 2006; 32(5):369-378. Tribulus Terrestris: There are no known adverse
13. Kim SO, Kim MK, Lee HS, Park JK, Park K. The Effect of Korean Red Ginseng Extract on the Relaxation Response in Isolated Rabbit Vaginal Tissue and Its Mechanism. J Sex Med. 2008 Jul 14. Drug Interactions:
14. Kim C, Choi H, Kim CC, Kim JK, Kim MS. Influence of ginseng on Consult a healthcare professional before taking mating behavior of male rats. Am J Chin Med. 1976; 4(2):163-168. NutraLibido, as the following key nutrients may interact 15. Simonsen U, Prieto D, Delgado JA, Hernandez M, et al. Nitric oxide is involved in the inhibitory neurotransmission and endothelium- Avena Sativa: Statins (oat bran may impair absorption)
dependent relaxations of human small penile arteries. Clin Sci. 1997; Cocoa: There are no known interactions with proper
16. Chen J, Wollman Y, Chernichovsky T, Iaina A, Sofer M, Matzkin H. Effect of oral administration of high-dose nitric oxide donor L-Arginine Dong Quai: Blood Thinning Medicine (Coumadin,
in men with organic erectile dysfunction: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. BJU Int. 1999; 83(3):269-273. Gingko Biloba: Blood thinning medicine (Coumadin,
17. Moody JA, Vernet D, Laidlaw S, Rajfer J, Gonzalez-Cadavid NF. Plavix, etc.); Pain Relievers (Advil, Motrin, etc.), Effects of long-term oral administration of L-Arginine on the rat erectile Naproxen (Aleve, etc.); Anti-Depressants (Zoloft, Paxil, response. J Urol. 1997; 158(3): 942-947. etc.); High blood pressure medicine (Cardizem, Cardene, 18. Stanislavov R, Nikolova V, Rohdewald P. Improvement of erectile etc.); Anti-convulsants (Dilantin, Tegretol, etc.); and/or function with Prelox: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Int J Impot Res. 2008; 20(2): 173-180. Ginseng: Albendazole, Anticoagulants, Insulin, Estrogen,
19. Lebret T, Herve JM, Gorny P, Worcel M, Botto H. Efficacy and safety of a novel combination of L-Arginine glutamate and yohimbine hydrochloride: a new oral therapy for erectile dysfunction. Eur Urol. L-Arginine: Diuretics (Aldactone, Midamor, Dyazide,
etc.); Estrogen (Premarin, Estrace, etc.); Ibuprofen; 20. Gonzales GF, Cordova A, Vega K, Chung A, et al. Effect of Sildenafil Citrate; Cyclosporine; Organic Nitrates Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on sexual desire and its absent relationship Maca Root: There are no known interactions with proper
with serum testosterone levels in adult healthy men. Andologia. 2002; Muira Puama: There are no known interactions with
21. Zheng BL, He K, Kim CH, Rogers L, et al. Effect of a lipidic extract from lepidium meyenii on sexual behavior in mice and rats. Urology. Tribulus Terrestris: There are no known interactions
22. Ruiz-Luna AC, Salazar S, Aspajo NJ, Rubio J, et al. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) increases litter size in normal adult female mice. Reprod 23. Lentz A, Gravitt K, Carson CC, Marson L. Acute and chronic dosing of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on male rat sexual behavior. J Sex Med. Store in a cool, dry place, away from direct light. Keep 24. Gonzales GF, Nieto J, Rubio J, Gasco M. Effect of Black maca REFERENCES
(Lepidium meyenii) on one spermatogenic cycle in rats. Andrologia. 2006; 38(5):166-172. 1. Abascal K, Yarnell E. Nervine Herbs for Treating Anxiety. Alternative 25. Waynberg J, Brewer S. Effects of Herbal vX on libido and sexual and Complementary Therapies. 2004; 10(6):309-315. activity in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Adv Ther. 2000; 2. Duke JA. Biological Activity Summary for Cocao (Theobroma cacao L.). Journal of Medicinal Food. 2000; 3(2):115-119. 26. Da Silva AL, Bardini S, Nunes, DS, Elisabetsky, E. Anxiogenic 3. Heiss C, Kleinbongard P, Dejam A, et al. Acute consumption of properties of Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth. (Marapuama). Phytotherapy flavanol-rich cocoa and the reversal of endothelial dysfunction in smokers. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005; 46(7):1276-1283. 27. Gauthaman K, Ganesan AP. The hormonal effects of Tribulus 4. Heiss C, Dejam A, Kleinbongard P, et al. Vascular effects of cocoa terrestris and its role in the management of male erectile dysfunction--an rich in flavan-3-ols. JAMA. 2003; 290(8):1030-1031. evaluation using primates, rabbit and rat. Phytomedicine. 2008; 15(1- 5. Zhu D. Dong Quai. Amer J Chin Med. 1987; 15(3-4):117-125. 6. Wu YZ, Li SQ, Zu XG, Du J, Wang FF. Ginkgo biloba extract 28. Gauthaman K, Adaikan PG, Prasad RN. Aphrodisiac properties of improves coronary artery circulation in patients with coronary artery Tribulus Terrestris extract (Protodioscin) in normal and castrated rats. disease: contribution of plasma nitric oxide and endothelin-1. Phytother 29. Gauthaman K, Adaikan PG. Effect of Tribulus terrestris on 7. Sikora R, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract in the therapy of erectile nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase activity and androgen receptors in rat brain. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 96(1-2):127-132. 8. Yoshikawa T, Naito Y, Kondo M. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract: review of biological actions and clinical applications. Antioxidants & Redox 30. Adaikan PG, Gauthaman K, Prasad RN, Ng SC. Proerectile pharmacological effects of Tribulus terrestris extract on the rabbit corpus cavernosum. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2000; 29(1):22-26. 9. Wu Y, Li S, Cui W, Zu X, Du J, Wang F. Ginkgo biloba extract improves coronary blood flow in healthy elderly adults: role of endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Phytomedicine. 2008; 15(3):164-169. 10. Murphy LL, Lee TJ. Ginseng, sex behavior, and nitric oxide. Ann NY These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.



Report Q205 Exhaustion of IPRs in cases of recycling or repair of goods In the name of the Polish Group Katarzyna Karcz, Jaromir Piwowar, Tomasz Rychlicki I) Analysis of the current statutory and case laws 1) Exhaustion In your country, is exhaustion of IPRs provided either in statutory law or under case law with respect to patents, designs and trademarks? What legal provisions are ap


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