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International Research Journal of Biochemistry and Bioinformatics (ISSN-2250-9941) Vol. 3(5) pp. xxx-xxx, May, 2013 Available online Copyright 2013 International Research Journals The (+)-adrenaline and skydiving as a solution to
psychogenic symptoms and a possible prevention of
psychosomatic diseases
1José Paulo de Oliveira Filho, 2Mauro Sérgio Dorsa Cattani, 3José Maria Filardo Bassalo,
*4Nelson Pinheiro Coelho de Souza
1project Phoenix, Avenida Duque de Caxias 1456, 66087-310, Belém, PA
2Institute of Physics of the University of São Paulo,C. P. 66318, 05315-970, São Paulo, SP
3For Academy of Sciences, Serzedelo Correa Avenue, 347/1601, 66035-400, Belém,
4School Application UFPA - Bethlehem, PA, Tancredo Neves Avenue 1000, 66095-780, Belém, PA
In this article, we analyze the emotional shock that a person, in a state of depressive anxiety, suffers
while performing a parachute jump. We present the testimonials from ten psychotherapy patients that
had depression. They reported that after skydiving they were cured from depression or had the
depression symptoms drastically reduced. We propose that in the case of parachute jumping, the
positive enantiomer of Adrenaline is the substance that mediates the cause and effect relationship
between skydiving emotions and the cure of depression. We suggest that during skydiving the person
experiences a shock that results from the racemization of the adrenaline molecule (C9H13NO3) and its
enantiomers [L (-) and D (+)]. We also suggest some clinical tests that should be performed before and
after the jump and finally, we conjecture a possible way of producing or manipulating the D (+) -
Keywords: Depressive anxiety; skydiving; enantiomers of adrenaline

Emotions might cure, cause or prevent psychosomatic the emotional control of the person, there might happen il nesses. This cause and effect relationship, although an increase on its power and, with it, the desired very wel documented in scientific literature1-3, yet racemization occurs and thereby the prevention of a remains to be explained. What is the “mechanism” that psychosomatic il ness (Oliveira Filho et al., 2012). enables an emotion to prevent or produce a In this article, we examine one aspect of this conjecture concerning the emotional shock that a person In an article recently published4 we proposed for such in a depressive anxiety state, suffers while performing a “mechanism” the fol owing conjecture: parachute jump. According to one of the authors (JPOF) When a person experiences an emotional shock, L(
Oliveira Filho, 2011, when a person jumps from an )-Adrenaline is released into the bloodstream. And, in its
airplane at a speed of 220 km/h and a height of 4,000 m, flow, the molecules start to interact, with some of them during the first 55 seconds of free fal (before opening the changing into D(+) – adrenaline. Depending on the parachute), the person experiences a rite of Buddhist person’s emotional conditions, this adrenaline might be passage of "death and rebirth of the ego", because his rapidly dissipated, for being less potent as it happens unconscious is not aware of the conditions of flight safety. zwhen obtained in a laboratory. However, depending on So, in that moment, one performs unconsciously, the myth of Icarus (Guirand, 1971), which reflects the ancient desire of humans to fly, and to experience the feeling of final y reborn from the ashes like in the myth of Fenix *Corresponding Author During the jump, we conjecture in this article that the L Sciences the result of his experiments in which he racemization, being transformed into D (+)-adrenaline observed that while the commercial AT salt crystals had and, therefore, at the end of the jump, due to this optical activity, i.e., they rotated the plane of polarization racemization, the skydiver feels that there was a "revival of the light that passed through, the same did not happen in his life", al owing him later to reflect on the problems with crystals AR. Such results were an enigma, since that were afflicting him, as shown in some testimonials these acids besides having identical chemical we col ected for this article, which wil only be numbered compositions had the same structure, i.e. were in ascending order, to preserve the patients’ identity. stereoisomers (nowadays enantiomers) Kauffman and Before presenting these testimonies, we wil make a historical review of the two types of adrenaline, cal ed The above riddle was solved by the French chemist enantiomers; we wil also see, the dynamics between Louis Pasteur (1822-1895), in 1848 and 1850, while them – the racemization. Considering that there already studying these acid crystals, mainly AR (paratartaric, as exists the possibility of measuring the D (+)-adrenaline he denominated it) with the aid of a microscope. Indeed, (Sänger-van de Griend et al., 2006), we suggest it to be by observing the crystals AR, Pasteur found that there measured before and right after the parachute jumps in are two kinds of them, one being the mirror image of the therapeutic treatments. At the end of the article, and other. He obtained these crystals from a solution which based on the Cognitive Neuroscience (Cunha, 2011), we did not rotated the plane of polarization of the incident conjecture the possibility of a relationship between the light on them and, immediately he guessed that a 50% x "rites of passage" of shamanic cults and parachute 50% mixture (racemization) of two types of crystals was the explanation for the observed optical inactivity. Thus, with the aid of clamps, he careful y separated the crystals in two mounds and, by passing again polarized light Enantiomers and racemization
through it, he realized that one of the mounds rotated the plane of polarization of the light clockwise and the other Initial y, we wil present a brief history about enantiomers. counterclockwise. [Note that this rotation was measured The tartaric acid (TA) [H2C4H4O6 (CHOH.COOH) 2], with a polarimeter, the Nicol prism, invented by the acid obtained from the tartars, which are deposits that scottish physicist Wil iam Nicol (1768-1851), in 1828.] form in the fermenting grapes, was known by the ancient Pasteur also observed that one of the two forms of AR Greeks and Romans in the form of salt of potassium acid was identical to AT. In view of this, he described the – the tartar: KHC4H4O6. However, only in the 18th crystals studied in two types: levorotatory [L (-)] (left- Century, the TA was isolated as a free acid by Swedish hand) and dextral [D (+)] (right-hand). Today, these chemist and pharmacist Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742- molecules known as chirals (from the Greek word keir, 1786). A second form of this acid, the paratartaric (APT), meaning hand) are cal ed enantiomers and are of two was mistakenly taken as oxalic acid [H2C2O4 types: L (-) - enantiomer and D (+) - enantiomer. These (HOOC.COOH)], around 1819, by the wine maker, molecules have a property; there cannot be an overlap frenchman Paul Kestner. Later, in 1828, the french between its structural representation and its mirror image. chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778-1850) showed It is also important to register that the name, chirality, was that APT had the same chemical composition of the AT, given by Scottish physicist Wil iam Thomson, Lord Kelvin and then gave him the name of racemic acid (RA), which Lars (1824-1907) in 1884 (Geison, 2007). derives from the Latin word racemus, which means In his research with the AR, Pasteur noted in grape. In 1831, the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob December 1857 that in the fermentation of ammonium Berzelius (1779-1848) showed that grape acids (TA and paratartrate [(NH4) 2 C4H6O6], the polarimeter used RA), as he denominated them, in 1830, had the same indicated an increase in the optical activity of the left- chemical composition, but with different properties, a hand crystals [D (+)], and that the right-hand [L (-)] were phenomenon denominated by him isomerism (which attacked during fermentation. In view of this, Pasteur derives from the Greek word isomeric, which means two linked this discriminatory action with the nutritional needs parts). In 1835, the French physicist Jean Baptiste Biot of microorganisms and thus discovered a new method (1774-1862) noted that the APT (AR), in solution, showed (biological or physiological) to separate the crystals of optical activity since turned the plane of polarization of AR. Later, in 1860, Pasteur showed that a specific micro- light to the right. In 1838, Biot realized that free AT and organism, the fungus penicil ium glaucum, selectively AR were optical y inactive. The detailed study of these metabolized L crystals in a solution of ammonia acids and their salts were performed by chemists, Frenchman Hervé Ferdinand Frédéric de la Provostaye Based on these experiences, Pasteur reinforced his (1812-1863) in 1841, and the German Carl Remigius theory of molecular asymmetry, whereby the biological Fresenius (1818-1897) and Eilhardt Mitscherlich (1794- properties of chemical substances depend not only on 1863) in 1842. In 1844, after sending a letter to Biot, the nature of the atoms constituting the molecules, but Mitscherlich presented to the French Academy of also in the way the atoms are arranged in space. On the other hand, the relationships observed by Pasteur , exceptional y, use D (+)-amino acids in the construction between microorganisms and molecular asymmetry of their cel wal s, and penicil in also contains a group of L convinced him that the Chemistry of Life showed a (-)-amino acid which interferes with the synthesis of preference for the chirality of certain molecules, and therefore, there was a clear distinction between living Having concluded a brief historical summary on matter and dead matter. This conviction led him to enantiomers we wil now show how racemization occurs appear before the French Academy of Sciences his between them, especial y with the enatiomers of famous conjecture: - The universe is dissymmetric adrenaline (C9H13NO3) (also known as epinephrine), which is the subject of this article. First, we wil do a quick As time went on, Pasteur’s conjecture proved to be historical overview of this molecule. Adrenaline is a true, and in the 20th Century, the development of hormone secreted by the suprarenal glands (located Science revealed that this asymmetry of the Universe above the kidneys) and, each cel that make up the gland occurs in al levels, from the microscopic to the medul a has about 30,000 packets containing this macroscopic, especial y as for the chemistry of life. As a hormone4. The adrenaline was discovered independently matter of fact, enantiomeric forms of molecules are found by four researchers: the American physiologist Wil iam in many organic and inorganic substances, and Horatio Bates (1860-1931), in 1886; Polish physiologist especial y in al molecules crucial to the development of Napoleon Cybulski (1854-1919), in 1895; biochemist and life, such as molecules of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) pharmacologist American John Jacob Abel (1857-1938), and RNA (ribonucleic acid) which carry the genetic in 1897, and the Japanese biochemist Jokichi Takamine information as wel as the proteins which are responsible (1854-1922) in 1901, who, incidental y, coined its name: for the chemical structure and regulation of living cel s. ad (Latin prefix meaning proximity), renal (kidney related, With respect to these enantiomeric forms, there are renalis in Latin) and ine (suffix applied to some interesting things to observe. For example, only the D (+)- chemicals). Adrenaline was artificial y synthesized in enantiomers of sugar are present in DNA and RNA. 1904 by the German chemist Friedrich Stolz (1860-1936). Furthermore, although there are hundreds of amino acids As we mentioned in the introduction the adrenaline in nature, only 20 comprise the proteins: aspartic acid, molecule has two enantiomers: L (-) - adrenaline and D glutamic acid, alanine, arginine, asparagine, cysteine, (+) – adrenaline. The former is ten (10) times more phenylalanine, glycine, glutamine, histidine, isoleucine, powerful than the latter1. It has been wel known since a leucine, lysine, methionine, proline, serine, tyrosine, long time, the effects of the L (-) - adrenaline on human threonine, tryptophan and valine. However, although beings as, for example, when used as a local anesthetic these amino acids exist in the forms of L (-) - enantiomer and in medical emergencies.3 On the other hand, when a and D (+) - enantiomer (except glycine), only the L (-) are change in the conditions threats the physical and found in proteins (Monod, 1976; Gribbin, 1989). emotional integrity of a person, adrenaline is released To conclude this history of the enantiomers, we into the bloodstream, causing rapid heartbeat, elevated believe it is appropriate to report certain facts related to level of blood sugar, minimization of blood flow in the the chirality of some enantiomers. Thanks to that chirality vessels and in the intestinal system, while maximizes the it was possible to explain the famous case of thalidomide flow to voluntary muscles in the legs and arms and (C13H10N2O4). Let's see how. In Europe, particularly in "burns" fat in adipose cel s. In turn, since the 1950s, England and Germany, between 1956 and 1963, it was researchers began to study, in mice, the effects of the observed that pregnant women who used a certain syrup two enantiomers of adrenaline.7,8 However, the major role (containing thalidomide), indicated for coughs and also of L (-)-adrenaline in al opathic medicine resulted from prescribed to reduce nausea, its use was causing the research conducted by the English (Scottish) doctor and birth of thousands of deformed children. Withdrawn from pharmacologist Sir James Whyte-Black (1924-2010, the market, the syrup began to be studied. Then it was Nobel Prize in Medicine, 1988) when he organized, in discovered that the D (-)-enantiomer of thalidomide cured 1950, the Department of Physiology of the Veterinary nausea, while the L (-) - enantiomer caused defects in the School of University of Glasgow, in Scotland. So in that embryo. Thus, the sensitivity of enantiomeric thalidomide Department, Black began studying the effect of L (-)- al owed it to be successful y used in curing leprosy. This adrenaline in the human heart, especial y in patients with same sensitivity also explains other interesting cases. For angina pectoris. Later, in 1957, was created the Imperial example, the compound limonema (C10H16) in its two Chemical Industries Pharmaceuticals (ICIP) and, in 1958, forms: L (-) and D (+) are responsible for flavor (acid, and Black went to work there in order to nul ify the effects of sugary) of citrus fruit (lemon, and orange, respectively) that enantiomer of adrenaline. Thus, researchers and and is widely used in the perfume industry. Moreover, the Black A. F. Crowther, R. G. Shanks, L. H. Smith and A. efficacy of penicil in-G (C16H18N2O4S) [the first C. Dornhorst in 196416 developed propranolol penicil in was discovered in 1928 by Sir Scottish (pronethalol), a beta-adrenergic blocker used (so far) in bacteriologist Alexander Fleming (1881 - 1955)] against the treatment of heart diseases, especial y for those who bacteria resulted from the fact that bacteria suffer heart attacks. It is worth noting that these researchers speak of side effects (dizziness and nausea) Ψ(t) = aL L − + aD + D + due to non-specific actions of the isomers, (+) – active and (-) - inactive, of this molecule on the central nervous system of man. Note that the researcher Dan Handley, in ∂ = [H +V x +U t Ψ t 1999 (Geison, 2007), referred to the enantiomers of adrenaline in his study of the beta-blockers and and aD(+) represent, respectively, the probabilities of the active molecule be found in one of the self-states L(−) Although, there is not yet a test of the presence of D (+) - adrenaline in humans or that it is produced directly in D(+) , and are determined by differential the human body, it is known, however, that L (-) - equations (Bassalo et al., 2007). With this data, one can epinephrine solution is inactivated by racemization, i.e., half of it is converted into D (+) - adrenaline. It should be calculate the racemic function r (t) = D(+) Ψ(t) , noted that the racemization of enantiomers is generated which describes the optical activity during the passage, by the interaction of enantiomeric molecules with from L(−) to D(+) . Details of the calculation of r (t) molecules of the medium (dense gases or liquids) in for some physical situations (Bassalo et al., 2007) Let us now present a brief theoretical summary about racemization. The optical activity of an optical y active material changes with time, according to L. showed D. Testimonials of skydivers-patients
Baron and S. F. Mason, in independent books published in 1982. Therefore, a sample containing predominantly We wil present in this section, some testimonials of one stereoisomer (enantiomer) can become a mixture of depressed patients who, on the recommendation of one equal amounts of each isomer. This relaxation process, of the authors (JPOF) of this article, performed parachute which is cal ed racemization, occurs spontaneously or it jumps as a way of helping on their recovery. The author is due to the interaction of an active molecule with the The preparations for the jump are described by JPOF According to what A. Vardi wrote in 2000, many as fol ows: - In the preparation for the first jump, fil ed with theories have been proposed to describe this process. expectations during the waiting period, the parachutist- Let's see how to calculate this temporal optical activity, patient prepares himself for the decision making moment. using one of these theories, which takes into account the The jump manifest determines the time of boarding. quantic tunneling (Cattani, 1996). Imagine an active While putting on each item of the equipment, the molecule soaked in a gas, liquid or solid, subject to a parachutist-patient level of cortisone further increases his generic external field U (t) resulting, for example, from a heart rate (HR) which then is around 140 beats /minute col ision. The calculation of the racemic function r (t) (to (140 b/m) and his whole being gets prepared to cope with be defined later) is performed through the Non- the stress of jumping. The exit of the airplane is the Relativistic Quantum Mechanics (NRQM) described by scariest part. Just before jumping his heart rate (HR) is the famous Schrödinger equation, given by the fol owing around 160 beats /m and his fear is transformed into dread. When he stands at the door of the plane ready to jump, he sees the height and his eyes get bulging. Then, the incomprehensible happens. When jumping, the Schrödinger function state, = h/2 , where h is Planck's change is immediate, because when he start to free fal , constant, and H is the Hamiltonian which is the sum of the dread disappears and he finds himself overcome by a kinetic energy (T) with the potential energy (V). Thus, we feeling of tense euphoria due to a biochemical response consider that the racemization is produced mainly by two in his body, changing immediately his mood from dread to pleasure, but keeping the physiological fear. D1. (T.A., 52 years old) After retirement I felt a sense
D(+) which are self-states of the initial Hamiltonian of grief and depression that worried my family; I sought help and it was proposed to me to experiment a (Ho) at a time considered to be zero (to), that is, let us parachute jump. I did just a double jump that changed my consider L(−) H L(−) = D(+) H D(+) = E being the total system energy, and that there is little D2. (A.O., 25 years old) I graduated in dentistry in
penetration (tunneling) (δ ) of these states separated by Espírito Santo and went to work in Paragominas. With six months of work, I was dissatisfied with the life I was leading, which made me think of doing therapy. I got to know about the skydiving work developed by JPOF, through information from friends. I did a double jump and According to NRQM, the state function Ψ(t) of the became a parachutist. This attitude has changed my life. D3. (P.P., 26 years old)
I went to see JPOF two months after suffering a robbery eyes of others. So, I went to live with ease; final y there at the Bank branch in which I work. As a consequence, I was a complete change in my life, including in my legal began to have fears, with intense sweating and panic episodes. I was treated with anxiolytics, which improved D9. (R.S., 59 years old) After 30 years of marriage, I
my state. However, the nightmares and constant lost my husband in a traffic accident. As a result, I flashbacks of the horror I have been through, continued. became prostrated and lost the wil to live. Six months After 30 days of therapeutic treatment with JOPF, he later, at the insistence of a friend, I sought Dr. JPOF to recommended me to skydive, which I practice to this day. make a therapeutic treatment. Knowing that I already had This activity made me completely overcome my trauma. practiced canoeing and sailing sport, JPOF proposed me D4. (J.R., 38 years old) As a lawyer, I was extremely
to make a parachute jump. I agreed, but my intention was shy and was terrified of exposing myself in public. So I different: was to die. Fortunately, after this extraordinary had many frustrations and disappointments in life. After experience, I came to discover life and today I have a lot convinced and prepared by JPOF, I did a double jump. of pleasure in dealing with my branch of business: I am a The feeling is indescribable and the joy in landing is of ecstasy. So I decided to do a course in skydiving and I D10. (S.A., 50 years old) I've always had a phobia of
made nine jumps. It surprises me to this day, my height and had ended abruptly a conjugal relationship of changing as a person, especial y my confidence. This seven years which left me in a state of deep depression, al owed me to be approved in a public tender. Also, my almost a pathological mourning. Life for me did not make relationship with people and the world has changed. much sense, I felt guilty for the failure of this relationship D5. (B.P., 30 years old). I had a sudden breakup of my
and the suffering it caused in my son. Then in an act of marriage due to infidelity. So, deeply depressed, I sought almost desperation, I decided to accept the unusual help from JPOF who, realizing my taste for sport, invitation from my therapist (JPOF) to try something, suggested that I should practice a sport which would end which he said could change my life: parachute jumping my mourning and grief: parachuting. I accepted promptly and to experience free fal ! An absurd to whom, as I said, and after the first jumps I completely overcame the grief, had height phobia. But as life did not mean much to me at the time, I could do anything, any risk would be D6. (L.S., 32 years old). For almost one year I suffered
negligible before my mood at that moment. To my from depression which left me discouraged and that surprise, during my first experience in free fal , I felt the interfered with my professional performance as a doctor. ful ness of my freedom, and after the parachute opened, I After going through a traditional psychiatric treatment, had the distinct feeling that I was not alone. It was the JPOF indicated for me a parachute jump. After the first greatest sensory experience of my life, and led me to a jump, there was a real turning point in my life, because holistic conception of the universe: I met with god. when we are up there, we see the size of the world, feel Nowadays I exercise my role as a university teacher and the nature, and perceive a mixture of ecstasy with freedom. It made me reflect for one week and, months later, I felt alive, happy and confident, and I was able to make important decisions in my life. It was fantastic. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
D7. (Camir, 58 years old) I am a heavy auto
mechanic businessman. I read an article of yours (JPOF) In the introduction of this article, we conjectured that the in a magazine. What caught my attention was your idea initial discharge of L (-)-adrenaline (in a parachute jump
of death and rebirth. I had been separated for 6 months performed by a person in depression) undergoes a and felt an inner emptiness. It was unbearable and I process of racemization turning itself into D (+)-
actual y felt dead and my soul ached. I was convinced by adrenaline (Stepensky et al., 2004):fig. the article and then decided by myself to do the course in Upon completing the jump, the parachutist-patient parachuting. My life has regained sense and it feels that there has been a paradigm shift in his life, as transformed me immediately. Today I am happy in a new indicated by some testimonials transcribed in the relationship and I am a skydiver with 200 jumps. I do not previous section. However, for confirmation (or not) of this conjecture, it is necessary to carry out some steps. A D8. (M.M.; 34 years old) I found myself with low self-
first step is to measure the variation of some biochemical esteem, very insecure and lacking the courage to do parameters [bp: dosage of L (-)-adrenaline, heart rate anything. I began a therapeutic treatment with JPOF and, (Holter-EEG) and cortisol], before and after the jump. A within three months, I made my first parachute jump. second step would be to measure the actual racemization Because I felt good, I decided to do the parachuting of adrenaline. If the occurrence of racemization can be course and now I am skydiver. I mean that, after this proved, then two other important research work should experience, my life took on a new meaning, because I be done. First, to see if there is an involvement of the overcame my low self-esteem and I began to see myself brain in this racemic process based on Cognitive with my own eyes since before I saw myself through the Neuroscience (Cunha, 2011). Now, as there already exists neurological studies on the "rites of passage" of adrenaline is of fundamental importance, because it shamanic cults (Winkelman, 2010) a type of search to be would be a possible mechanism used to generate or performed would be to check if there is a kind of shamanic racemization of adrenaline. In subsequent This research received no specific grant from any work, we wil discuss whether there is an racemic funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit isomorphism between parachuting and the shamanism. Final y, the physical explanation of the process via the racemic NRQM (seen in item 2). As shown in the figure above, this process is nothing more than the oscil ation of REFERENCES
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