Newsletter - trimline

Volume 12 No 8 - Aug 31, 2009
From the office of George R. Charbonneau DVM & Steven D Wolfgram DVM You should not have eaten, drunk, or smoked anythingin at least the previous fifteen to twenty minutes before Barn Entry Requirements:
taking your temperature. Body temperature normally "No Fever Please!"
fluctuates during the day, with the lowest levels around4 a.m. after sleeping and the highest around 6 p.m. after We have all seen images of public health staff stationed at a day of activity. Normal body temperature may differ airports and borders where they are checking people for as much as 0.6 EC (1 EF) between individuals or from fever. Absence of a fever is an important criteria to use in day to day within individuals. In women, temperature determining who is at risk of spreading disease. As we fine differs at various points in the menstrual cycle. The tune our ability to keep nH1N1 out of our pig herds, we measurement of fever in the arm pit and ear tend to be should review how absence of fever can be used as an more variable. Elderly patients may have a decreased important criteria in determining who should or should not ability to generate body heat during a fever, so even a low-grade fever can have serious underlying causes in Fever is a clinical sign that is associated with human geriatric cases. If you have a fever then you should not go to influenza but is not associated with the common cold. The work. If you take your temperature when you are not normal human body temperature measured by an oral sick it will help to develop a baseline for your own thermometer is 36.8 ± 0.7 EC (98.2 ± 1.3 EF). This means that any oral temperature between 36.1 and 37.5 EC (96.9 and Swine workers should keep a thermometer at home. If 99.5 EF) is a normal temperature. Fever is the term used to you are unsure about whether you should or should not describe a clinical sign where body temperatures are above go to work take your temperature. This will make it normal. Fever occurs when the body's thermoregulatory set- easier to decide if you have a fever. Some advice for point is elevated by about 1–2 EC (1.8-3.6 EF). A feverish the kids. If mom or dad sometimes take your rectal individual experiences the "chills" despite having an temperature and sometimes take an oral temperature but increased body temperature. Increased heart rate, muscle tone you can only find one thermometer in the house; you and shivering are caused by the body's attempts to reach the need to have a serious conversation about getting an new thermoregulatory set-point. Fever is usually accompanied by lethargy, depression, loss of appetite,sleepiness, aches and the inability to concentrate. Fever differs from hyperthermia, in that hyperthermia is an increasein body temperature over the body's thermoregulatory set- Fall Thermometer Promotion
point, due to excessive heat production or insufficient heatremoval or both. eg. vigorous exercise in a warmenvironment. A fever is just one of many immunemechanisms that are used to neutralize a perceived threatinside the body, be it bacterial or viral. < Fever - Anal - temperature is over 37.8 EC (100.0 EF) < Fever - Oral - temperature is over 37.5 EC ( 99.5 EF) < Fever - Arm Pit - temperature is over 37.2 EC ( 99.0 EF)< Fever - Ear - temperature is over 37.2 ºC ( 99.0 ºF) The values given are for an otherwise healthy, non-fasting adult, dressed comfortably, indoors, in a room that is kept at a normal room temperature (22.7 to 24.4 EC or 73 to 76 EF), during the morning, but not shortly after arising from sleep.
The pH of the individual stock solutions ranged from 3.1 Mixing Water Medications:
to 10.5. The percent of reactions ranged from 0 up to53% (Figure 1). When the individual solutions were Bad Things Can Happen!
mixed in acidic water (citric acid), reactions occurred It is common practice in swine barns to have medicators with ASA, amoxicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, set up for the distribution of antibiotics, vaccines, potassium penicillin and sulfamethazine. The electrolytes and/or other compounds. On occasion it may tetracyclines, tetracyline combinations and tiamulin be desirable to administer more than one substance in reacted when mixed in alkaline water (ammonia).
succession or even at the same time. When administeringwater medications, we make several assumptions; This study shows why flushing of water lines and < that the medication reaches all pigs; medicators between treatments is important. It is also < that all pigs consume the medication; t important to consider what water additives (eg.
acidifiers) are in the water on a routine basis and whether < that the water delivery system is functional; they should be discontinued prior to starting a new course < that the medicator delivers the proper concentration Reference: Dorr PM, Madson D, Wayne S, et al. Impact of pH In this study, the researchers wanted to look at the modifiers and drug exposure on the solubility of pharmaceuticalproducts commonly administered through water delivery systems.
solubility of pharmaceutical products when mixed with J Swine Health Prod. 2009;17(4):217-222.
other water additives. Fifteen water soluble medications,including acetylsalicylic acid (ASA-aspirin), amoxicillin, potassium penicillin, lincomycin, neomycin, tetracycline,sulfamethazine, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole andtiamulin were examined. Medications were observed for Timing of Enterisol Ileitis Vaccination
stability and pH in stock solution mixed according to Vaccination timing is important for all vaccine label directions using distilled water, and then for applications. Enterisol Ileitis vaccine seems to present stability when mixed with other medications, with citric challenges about the correct placement of the vaccination. The uncertainty usually centers on how tocalculate when is the right time to vaccinate. Propertiming of ileitis vaccination is essential for the best protection of pigs against ileitis. Once the time between Chlortet
exposure and development of antibodies is understoodthen correct placement of ileitis vaccine for the best protection of pigs against ileitis can be achieved.
Like many other vaccines, it takes about 3-4 weeks after vaccination for protection against Lawsonia intra- cellularis, the organism that causes ileitis, to develop.
This lag period of 3-4 weeks is known as the “onset of immunity”, and allows the pig’s immune system to respond to the vaccine and develop protective immunityso that when the pig is subsequently exposed to the virulent field bacterium, it is protected against How to Calculate Vaccination Time: Several studies have
documented ileitis vaccination protects pigs through tothe end of the finisher. This is true for pigs vaccinated at Figure 1. Formation of Precipitates X denotes precipitate weaning or at any stage in the nursery or beyond. The vaccination, however, has to be done at least 3-4 weeksprior to anticipated infection with L. intracellularis sothat protective immunity is present when pigs are first exposed to infection (the “onset of immunity” lag Farmers Encouraged To Take
period). Seroconversion usually occurs 2-4 weeks or later Advantage of Free Disposal of Expired
post-infection (the “diagnostic indicator” lag period).
Using seroconversion as a means of estimating when Products And Sharps
vaccination should occur requires that both lag periods A well established obsolete pesticide collection program be added together in order for vaccination to be placed is being expanded this year to also provide safe disposal sufficiently ahead of the infection indicator for unused animal health products and sharps. As part of (seroconversion). In general, vaccination should be this project, farmers will be able to bring their obsolete placed at least 6-8 weeks prior to anticipated pesticides, unused animal health products and used sharps (needles, syringes and scalpel blades) to a series diagnostic profiling to accurately identify proper vaccination timing, of 16 collections sites across the province for safe and a recommended “default” time frame for Lawsonia vaccination is environmentally responsible disposal October 20 - 22, during the mid-to-late nursery phase (6-10 weeks of age) in typical North American pork production systems. Unused animal health products should have a label that Another, less precise indicator that can be used in the contains a Drug Identification Number (DIN). Animalbiologicals are regulated in a different manner and will not have a DIN but are still acceptable. These productswill say “vaccine, bacterin, toxoid, antitoxin, antibody ordiagnostic” on them. They will have a Serial Number onthe label rather than a DIN.
Medicated Feed will not be accepted. Premise Figure 1: Identifying the Target Window for Vaccination disinfectants, pesticides and animal health products thatare in aerosol containers will not be accepted. They will absence of diagnostics is the historical time of first also not accept any household or human use items.
appearance of clinical signs in a particular herd. Clinical Sharps must be brought in a closed container. Ziploc signs usually appear 2-3 weeks after exposure to the bags and loose sharps are not acceptable. (Needles Lawsonia bacterium, so roughly about the same time that should not be able to poke through the container). seroconversin occurs. This being the case, using clinicalsigns as the indicator proper vaccination timing would The program will run from Tuesday October 20 to also be 6-8 weeks prior to the expected time of first Thursday October 22 at the following locations during their respective business hours:< Ailsa Craig: Hensall District Co-Operative Adjustments in timing may need to be made periodically based upon potential changes in infection dynamics and observed responses to vaccination on individual farms.
< Harriston: North Wellington Co-operative Services < Jordan Station: Vineland Growers Co-operative Additional information is available on the AgCare orOntario Farm Animal Council websites: www.agcare.orgor or contact the Ontario Ministry ofAgriculture Food & Rural Affairs at 877-424-1300.


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