International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 2013; 5(1); 1-3Bioassay- Guided Fractionation and Anti-Fungal Activity Studies on*Shubashini K. Sripathi, Poongothai G. Department of Chemistry, Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore Tamilnadu, India. ABSTRACT Bioassay- guided fractionation of ethanol extract of leaves of Pisonia grandis was studied for its anti-fu
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Microsoft word - hydrogen fluoride-1015.docHydrogen Fluoride
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET
Prepared to U.S. OSHA, CMA, ANSI, Canadian WHMIS Standards and EC Standards SECTION 1. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION
Hydrogen Fluoride, Anhydrous; Hydrofluoric Acid, Anhydrous; Fluorohydric Acid; HF MANUFACTURER:
SPECTRA GASES, INC.
SPECTRA GASES EMERGENCY CONTACT:
24 HOUR EMERGENCY CONTACT, CHEMTREC: 800/424-9300, 202/484-7616
DATE OF PREPARATION: December 20, 2000
MSDS NUMBER: 1015
PRODUCT USE: Various
SECTION 2. COMPOSITION and INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS
EINECS NUMBER: 231-634-8
SECTION 3. HAZARD IDENTIFICATION
EMERGENCY OVERVIEW: Hydrogen Fluoride is an extremely toxic and corrosive gas, stored as a liquid under its
own vapor pressure. It has a pungent, suffocating odor, detectable at low levels. Hydrogen Fluoride is heavier than
air, creating pockets of the gas in low-lying areas. Hydrogen Fluoride fumes strongly in moist air: larger leaks may
produce a dense, white cloud of hydrofluoric acid. Vapor clouds of the gas can be knocked-down with water. Over-
exposure to Hydrogen Fluoride (gas and/or liquid form) can cause substantial respiratory tract irritation or injury,
progressive burns to the skin and/or bone, and irritation or burns to the eyes. SYMPTOMS OF EXPOSURE MAY
BE DELAYED. Victims exposed to Hydrogen Fluoride should follow specific first-aid instructions and get immediate
medical attention, bringing a copy of this MSDS with them.
An additional possible hazard with cylinders of Anhydrous Hydrogen Fluoride which have been in long-term storage is that they may be under high pressure due to the generation of hydrogen. Be aware of the hazard of possible spontaneous rupture. High heat situations such as fire will increase pressure hazard. See “Storage” in Section 7 (Handling and Storage) for details. Extreme caution must be used when responding to releases.
ROUTES OF ENTRY, SYMPTOMS OF ACUTE EXPOSURE: CAUTION Hydrogen Fluoride is an extremely
corrosive, toxic gas or liquid. It should only be handled by trained personnel. Please read the rest of this
MSDS carefully before handling Hydrogen Fluoride. If rescue personnel need to enter an area suspected of
having an excessive level of Hydrogen Fluoride, they should be equipped with Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus
(SCBA), and, if available, a full-body chemically resistant suit. Acute overexposure to Hydrogen Fluoride may
cause the following health effects:
EYE CONTACT: Eye contact will cause severe irritation and burns. Symptoms of minor exposure include
extreme irritation, excessive tearing, redness, and swelling. Serious contact will cause burns and blindness.
Contact lenses should never be worn when using or handling Hydrogen Fluoride.
SECTION 3. HAZARD IDENTIFICATION (Continued)
INGESTION: Ingestion of Hydrogen Fluoride is not a likely route of industrial exposure. If this substance is
swallowed, it will irritate and potentially burn the mouth, throat, and esophagus. Victim may experience, difficulty breathing, yellowing of the skin and eyes, drooling, headache, weakness, tingling sensation, muscle spasm, visual disturbances, dilated pupils, digestive disorders, abdominal pain, vomiting, blood in the urine, inability to urinate, diarrhea, convulsions, collapse, low blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, circulatory shock, heart failure and coma. Systemic fluoride poisoning, paralysis, lung damage and kidney damage are possible. Additionally, aspiration by inhalation is possible, causing chemical pneumonia or death. INHALATION: Inhalation of Hydrogen Fluoride vapors will severely irritate the nose, throat and all tissues of
the respiratory system. Exposures to minor concentrations of Hydrogen Fluoride gas can lead to symptoms such as coughing, labored breathing, sore throat, and in some instances, unconsciousness, chemical pneumonitis and pulmonary edema. Severe inhalation over-exposures will cause burns to all contaminated tissue and can lead to hypocalcemia, a life-threatening lowering of serum calcium in the body. Inhalation of high concentrations may be fatal. A similar delay of symptoms and seriousness of effect will occur with inhalation exposure, as is described under “Skin Contact”. CONTACT: Contact of the gas, liquid or acid mist form of this product, with the skin can lead to severe
burns and permanent tissue damage. Burns may not be immediately painful or visible. Depending on the nature of the exposure, the effects can be immediate or delayed. Skin contact can lead to pain, redness, and burns which can leave scars. Subcutaneous tissues can be affected by over-exposure, causing tissues to become blanched and bloodless. Gangrene of affected areas may follow. Hydrogen Fluoride can penetrate the skin, causing destruction of the deep tissue layers, including bone tissue. This damage to the body’s tissues may continue for days, as the fluoride ion reacts with the calcium in the skin and bone. Severe skin-contact exposures (especially when the skin contamination exceeds 160 cm2) can lead to hypocalcemia, a life-threatening lowering of serum calcium in the body. OTHER HEALTH EFFECTS: It is important to note that Hydrogen Fluoride may react with water or moist
air to generate a hydrofluoric acid solution. Hydrofluoric acid is corrosive to all tissue. Normal atmospheric
moisture and moisture found on the skin, in the eyes, and respiratory system is sufficient to form hydrofluoric
acid. Hydrofluoric acid burns can be delayed, traveling through all tissue layers to the bone, if allowed to
remain on the skin. Burns are both not immediately visible or painful. If 20% or more of the body is
contaminated with hydrofluoric acid, hypocalcemia (a life-threatening lowering of serum calcium in the body)
HMIS RATINGS: HEALTH: = 4; FLAMMABILITY: = 0; REACTIVITY: = 1;
PPE: Level X (see Section 8, Exposure Controls/Personal protective Equipment) ROUTES OF ENTRY, SYMPTOMS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE:
ROUTE OF ENTRY: Inhalation, Skin Contact, Eye Contact
ORGANS: Respiratory system, skin, eyes, skeletal structure, cardiac and central nervous
SYMPTOMS: Repeated Hydrogen Fluoride-overexposures by inhalation can result in emphysema.
Persistent irritation and dermatitis may result from repeated exposure to low levels of Hydrogen Fluoride. Repeated over-exposure to low levels of fluorides for extended periods of time (i.e. years or decades) may lead to a condition called fluorosis, which is a weakening and degeneration of bone structure. Chronic exposure may result in the lowering of serum calcium, a potentially fatal condition. Additional symptoms of chronic exposure may include persistent nosebleeds, weight loss, anemia, and back pain. Chronic exposure may also cause reproductive effects, based on animal data. See Section 11, Toxicological Information, for more information. MEDICAL CONDITIONS AGGRAVATED BY OVEREXPOSURE: Pre-existing dermatitis, other skin conditions, and
respiratory disorders may be aggravated by over-exposure to Hydrogen Fluoride. Additionally, over-exposures may
aggravate dental problems, heart conditions, bone disorders, and eye problems.
CARCINOGENICITY: Hydrogen Fluoride is not found on the FEDERAL OSHA Z LIST, NTP, CAL/OSHA, or IARC
Carcinogenicity lists and therefore is neither considered to be nor suspected to be a cancer-causing agent by these
SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES
EYE CONTACT: If this gas contaminates the eyes, open victim's eyes while under gentle running water. Use
sufficient force to open eyelids. Have victim "roll" eyes. Minimum flushing is for 15 minutes. Administer anesthetic
eye drops after one minute of flushing if victim suffers from spasms to the eyes, in order to facilitate irrigation. Seek
immediate medical attention. If immediate medical attention is not available, continue flushing the eye(s) until
emergency personnel arrive. Do not use any type of oil or grease on the victim. In the event of eye exposure to
Hydrogen Fluoride, victim should consult with an ophthalmologist.
SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES (Continued)
INGESTION: Ingestion is an unlikely route of exposure for this gas. If ingested, do not induce vomiting. Give victim
large quantity of water or milk. Do not give anything by mouth if victim is unconscious, or if not breathing. If vomiting
occurs, a serious risk of aspiration occurs; victim should be positioned to avoid aspiration. Keep victim warm and be
observant for shock. Medical assistance must be immediately sought.
INHALATION: Remove victim(s) to fresh air, as quickly as possible. Trained personnel should administer
supplemental oxygen and/or cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, if necessary. For all suspected inhalation exposure to
Hydrogen Fluoride, even minor exposure, the victim should be given 100% oxygen, if available. Oxygen should be
administered in half-hour intervals until emergency personnel arrive. Emergency response personnel can treat
brochospasm with a bronchodilator such as Albuterol or an anticholinergic inhalant such as Atrovent. Immediate
medical treatment must be sought, as inhalation exposure can be life-threatening.
SKIN CONTACT: If Hydrogen Fluoride gas or liquid contaminates the skin, immediately begin decontamination with
running water. Immediate irrigation of any suspected burn site is essential for limiting tissue destruction. Flush
contaminated area(s) with copious quantities of water, for a minimum of 15 minutes. If exposure is extensive, victim
may go into shock. If this occurs, victim should lie on the ground in a position to prevent aspiration in the event that
victim vomits. Keep victim warm. Calcium gluconate gel should be applied to affected areas. If exposure is
extensive, areas should be treated with iced compresses of Zephran or Hyamine 1622. Do not apply any type of oil
or grease to areas of exposure. Remove exposed or contaminated clothing, taking care not to contaminate eyes.
Victim must seek immediate medical attention.
NOTES TO PHYSICIANS: For Inhalation Exposure: Administer 100% oxygen at half-hour intervals for three to
four hours for victims of minor inhalation exposure. For serious inhalation exposure, 100% oxygen administration
should begin immediately, under positive pressure for half-hour periods for at least six hours until breathing is easy
and the color of the skin and mucous membranes is normal.
For Skin Contact: For skin contamination, all areas of exposure should be flushed with copious quantities of water,
followed by an iced aqueous or alcoholic solution of 0.13% benzalkonium chloride, iced 70% alcohol, or an ice-cold
saturated solution of magnesium sulfate. If the area of burn cannot be drenched or immersed in solution, apply cold
compresses containing the materials of the solution. After the iced solution treatment, application of a paste of
powdered magnesium oxide and glycerin should be administered. The paste should be applied daily for several
days. Serious burns may be prevented by infiltration of the skin and subcutaneous tissues with a 10% calcium
gluconate solution, along with a local anesthetic. Care should be taken to see that all medical personnel providing
treatment wear chemically-impervious gloves. In cases of severe over-exposure (more than 160 cm2), there is a
potential for hypocalcemia. Therefore, systemic administration of calcium gluconate may be necessary. Frequent
monitoring of serum calcium, cardiac, renal, and hepatic functions is necessary.
For Eye Contact: Exposed eyes should be flushed for 15 minutes, and the following additional treatment be
provided: Treat with a continuous drip of 1 percent calcium gluconate in normal, sterile saline. No oils or ointments
should be used.
SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES
FLASH POINT: Not Applicable
AUTOIGNITION: Not Applicable
FLAMMABLE RANGE: Not Applicable
EXTINGUISHING MEDIA: Hydrogen Fluoride is non-flammable; use fire-
extinguishing media appropriate for the surrounding materials. However, care
See Section 16 for
should be taken when water sprays are used; Hydrogen Fluoride will react with water Definition of Ratings
to generate hydrofluoric acid solution and a small amount of heat.
SPECIAL FIRE-FIGHTING PROCEDURES: Structural fire-fighters must wear Self-
Contained Breathing Apparatus and full protective equipment. Chemical resistant clothing is necessary. Move
containers from fire area if it can be done without risk to personnel. If possible, prevent runoff water from entering
storm drains, bodies of water, or other environmentally sensitive areas. Decontaminate all equipment used in fire-
response with an appropriate, acid-neutralizing agent.
UNUSUAL FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS: Hydrogen Fluoride is very toxic via inhalation and skin contact; this
gas presents an extreme health hazard to firefighters. In the event of fire, cool containers of this product with water
to prevent failure. Use a water spray or fog to reduce or direct vapors. Do not direct a water spray at the source of a
release. Anhydrous Hydrogen Fluoride can react with water. Large volume releases which come into contact with
metal may produce hydrogen gas, which may produce or enhance a fire hazard.
EXPLOSION SENSITIVITY TO MECHANICAL IMPACT: Not sensitive.
SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES (Continued)
EXPLOSION SENSITIVITY TO STATIC DISCHARGE: Not sensitive.
HAZARDOUS COMBUSTION PRODUCTS: When heated to decomposition, hydrogen fluoride emits highly
corrosive fumes of fluorides.
SECTION 6. ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES
STEPS TO BE TAKEN IF MATERIAL IS RELEASED OR SPILLED: Large releases of Hydrogen Fluoride will be
evident by the dense, white cloud of hydrofluoric acid mist which is formed. Small releases of Hydrogen Fluoride
leaks can be detected by means of an atomizer or squeeze bottle filled with aqueous ammonia. A white cloud will
show the location of the leak. In the event of a leak of this product, operator should close the gas source if possible
to do so safely. Evacuate immediate area. Only trained personnel, wearing Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus
(SCBA) and a chemically resistant suit should re-enter a contaminated area. Persons responding to a release of a
pressurized gas should be aware of the severe hazard of mechanical injury in the event of valve failure or other
event causing a rapid release of cylinder contents.
If leak is in user’s gas handling equipment or system, close cylinder valve, safely vent high pressure and purge with inert gas, being sure to bring purge gas to near atmospheric pressure before attempting repairs. If leak is from the cylinder, cylinder valve or the valve pressure relief device (PRD), contact your supplier. Levels of Hydrogen Fluoride should be below applicable exposure levels listed in Section 2 (Composition / Information on Ingredients) before personnel can be allowed in the area without SCBA. If necessary, neutralize areas and items contaminated with hydrofluoric acid mist with sodium bicarbonate or another neutralizer appropriate for acids. DO NOT USE SAND, CLAY OR OTHER SILICATE-BASED CLEAN-UP MATERIALS. Decontaminate all equipment used in the response thoroughly. SECTION 7. HANDLING AND STORAGE
STORAGE: Cylinders should be stored upright (with valve protection caps or plugs in place) and firmly secured to
prevent falling or being knocked over. Cylinders should be stored in dry, well-ventilated areas. Protect from salt or
other corrosive materials. Storage should be away from heavily traveled areas, walkways, elevators, platform edges
or other objects or situations that could damage the cylinder wall. Do not store in a manner that will block
emergency exits, fire extinguishers or other safety equipment. Do not allow storage temperature to exceed 125°F
(52°C). Use a first-in, first-out inventory system to prevent full containers from being stored for long periods of time.
Store empty cylinders away from full cylinders. Consideration should be taken to install leak detection and alarm
equipment for storage areas. NOTE: Use only DOT or ASME code cylinders designed for compressed gas storage.
Cylinders must not be recharged except by or with the consent of owner.
WARNING: Extreme caution should be used with Hydrogen Fluoride which has been stored for extended periods. There is some evidence that Anhydrous Hydrogen Fluoride in carbon steel cylinders can generate hydrogen, thus increasing cylinder pressure over time. Be aware of pressure and flammability hazards due to the possible presence of hydrogen. Full containers of Anhydrous Hydrogen Fluoride stored longer than approximately 3 to 5 years should be approached and handled with extreme caution and appropriate protective equipment. (There have been a few reports of cylinders rupturing spontaneously after 15-25 years of storage due to the hydrogen build-up. A lecture bottle (DOT 3E) of Hydrogen Fluoride stored for approximately 14 years was found to have an approximate pressure of 2400 psig). Cylinder pressure and general cylinder condition should be monitored by trained personnel, if Hydrogen Fluoride is to be kept in long-term storage. HANDLING: This mixture can be dangerous and should only be handled by trained personnel. Wearing
contact lenses is not recommended when handling this gas mixture. When using this gas, a minimum of two
persons should be in the area. Spectra Gases, Inc., strongly recommends that this gas mixture only be handled in
areas with extensive venting capabilities, preferably a gas handling cabinet. Due to the low odor threshold of
Hydrogen Fluoride, releases are readily detected. However, due to the toxicity of Hydrogen Fluoride, consideration
should be made on monitoring all areas in which Hydrogen Fluoride is used with gas detection instruments.
Detection of concentrations below 50% of the STEL (STEL = 3 ppm, Ceiling Level) should trigger response and
corrective action. Detection of higher levels should initiate an alarm calling for evacuation of all personnel with the
potential to be exposed. Calcium gluconate gel should be available in work areas in which this product is used.
Before using this gas, meticulous leak checking using inert gas is strongly recommended, particularly after
new connections are made. Cylinder valves should be inspected regularly for physical damage or corrosion
(apparent by discoloration or rust). Care should be taken to inspect the following valve locations for corrosion: neck
(where valve inserts into cylinder); bonnet nut (where handle attaches to valve body). Close valve after each use
and when empty. Care should be taken to not trap liquid in piping, lines or gas handling equipment: a small increase
in temperature can vaporize the Hydrogen Fluoride into the gas phase, dangerously increasing pressure within the
SECTION 7. HANDLING AND STORAGE (Continued)
Do not drag, roll, slide or drop cylinder. Use a suitable hand truck designed for cylinder movement. Never attempt to lift a cylinder by its cap. Secure cylinders at all times while in use. Once cylinder has been connected to properly purged process, open cylinder valve slowly and carefully. If user experiences any difficulty operating cylinder valve, discontinue use and contact supplier. Never insert an object (e.g., wrench, screwdriver, etc.) into valve cap openings; doing so may damage valve, causing a leak to occur. Use an adjustable strap-wrench to remove over-tight or rusted caps. Do not heat cylinders by any means to increase the discharge rate of product from the cylinder. Never apply flame
or localized heat directly to any part of the cylinder. Cylinders should not be artificially cooled as certain types of
steel undergo property changes when cryogenically cooled, thus making the cylinder unstable.
PROTECTIVE PRACTICES DURING MAINTENANCE OF CONTAMINATED EQUIPMENT: Follow practices
indicated in Section 6 (Accidental Release Measures). Purge gas handling equipment with inert gas and relieve
pressure before attempting repairs.
SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS: Glass and silicate-based containers should not be used in conjunction with Hydrogen
Fluoride. All work operations should be monitored in such a way that emergency personnel can be immediately
contacted in the event of a release. Always store and handle compressed gas cylinders in accordance with
Compressed Gas Association, Inc. (telephone 703-412-0900) pamphlet CGA P-1, Safe Handling of Compressed
Gases in Containers. Local regulations may require specific equipment for storage and use.
SECTION 8. EXPOSURE CONTROLS / PERSONAL PROTECTION
VENTILATION AND ENGINEERING CONTROLS: Forced ventilation systems for the general work area should be
provided. Spectra Gases, Inc. recommends that cylinders in use be secured within a ventilated enclosure such as a
gas cabinet. OSHA recommends that the face velocity for these enclosures be 200 ft/min of air. Other forced
ventilation systems should be such that the concentration of airborne Hydrogen Fluoride be below the OSHA TWA of
3 ppm. Employee exposure should be monitored and reduced to the lowest practical levels using ventilation or other
appropriate engineering controls. If appropriate, install automatic monitoring equipment to detect the level of
RESPIRATORY PROTECTION: Maintain exposure levels of Hydrogen Fluoride below the levels listed in Section 2
(Composition / Information on Ingredients). Use supplied air respiratory protection if Hydrogen Fluoride levels
exceed exposure limits, or during emergency response to a non-incidental release of this product. If respiratory
protection is required, follow the requirements of the U.S. Federal OSHA Respiratory Protection Standard (29 CFR
1910.134), or equivalent U.S. State standards, standards of Canada, the European Standard EN149, and EC
member states. The following guidelines, based NIOSH respiratory protection recommendations, are for Hydrogen
Chemical cartridge respirator or powered air-purifying respirator with cartridges, or gas mask with canister or a Supplied Air Respirator (SAR) Emergency or Planned Entry into Unknown Concentration or IDLH Conditions: Positive-pressure, full facepiece SCBA or positive pressure, full-facepiece SAR with an auxiliary positive pressure SCBA. Gas mask or mouth-piece respirator with Hydrogen Fluoride cartridges or escape-type SCBA should be used. The IDLH concentration for hydrogen Fluoride is 30 ppm. EYE PROTECTION: Use approved safety goggles or safety glasses, as described in OSHA 29 CFR 1910.133 or
by the European Standard EN166. Safety eye-wear and a face shield attached to a wide-brimmed hard hat should
be worn whenever there is a potential for spray gas or splash of anhydrous Hydrogen Fluoride. Eye wash
stations/safety showers should be available.
SKIN PROTECTION: Work (such as leather) gloves are recommended when handling unopened containers. Wear
chemically resistant gloves appropriate for use with Hydrogen Fluoride for industrial use (materials with greater than
4 hour breakthrough resistance). Use triple gloves for spill response (see Section 6, Accidental Release Measures).
OTHER PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT: An apron, or other impermeable body protection is suggested. Sleeve
protection is recommended. Safety shoes are recommended when handling cylinders. Full-body chemical
protective clothing is recommended for emergency response procedures.
SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 20.01
GAS DENSITY @ 19.52°C (67.14°F) @ 1 atm: 0.1985 lb/ft3 (3.2 kg/m3)
BOILING POINT @ 1 atm: 19.52°C (67.14°F)
SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES (Continued)
FREEZING/MELTING POINT @ 1 atm: - 83.6°C (-118.43°F)
SPECIFIC GRAVITY (air = 1) @ 25°C (77°F): 1.858
SOLUBILITY IN WATER vol/vol at 0°C (32°F) and 1 atm: Completely soluble.
SPECIFIC VOLUME @ 21.1°C (70°F): 19.3 ft3/lb (1.2 m3/kg)
CRITICAL PRESSURE: 940.5 psia (6470 kPa abs)
ODOR THRESHOLD: 0.04-0.13 ppm (recognition)
VAPOR PRESSURE @ 70°F (21.1°C): 15.54 psia (107 kPa abs) WARNING: Cylinder pressure may be
significantly higher, due to the presence of hydrogen, which can be generated in cylinders over time.
APPEARANCE, ODOR AND STATE: Colorless, liquefied gas with extremely irritating, pungent odor. This gas is
heavier than air and fumes strongly in moist air, producing a dense, white cloud of hydrofluoric acid mist.
WARNING PROPERTIES FOR THIS SUBSTANCE: The odor and dense, white appearance of this gas when
released to air, are distinctive warning properties associated with this product. Colorimetric tubes are available for
SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY
CHEMICAL STABILITY: Normally stable but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures, or may
react non-violently with water.
CONDITIONS TO AVOID: Containers should not be exposed to water, moisture, or temperatures in excess of
MATERIALS WITH WHICH SUBSTANCE IS INCOMPATIBLE: Hydrogen Fluoride is not compatible with bases
and can react violently. Hydrogen Fluoride can dissolve metals containing silica. Hydrogen Fluoride can dissolve
glass, ceramics, metals containing silica, natural rubber and leather. Hydrogen Fluoride also reacts with many other
materials such as cyanogen fluoride, sodium (with aqueous acid), methanesulfonic acid, acetic anhydride,
chlorosulfonic acid, ethylene diamine, ethylene imine, oleum, propylene oxide, vinyl acetate, sodium tetrafluoro
silicate, n-phenyl azo piperdine.
A) HAZARDOUS DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS: None known.
B) HAZARDOUS POLYMERIZATION: Will not occur.
SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION
TOXICITY DATA: The following are specific toxicology data for Hydrogen Fluoride (some as hydrofluoric acid).
Inhalation-rat LC50: 1276 ppm/1 hour: Inhalation-Rat TCLo: 4980 mg/m3/4 hours (1-22 Inhalation-rat Cytogenetic analysis: 1 mg/m3/6 Inhalation-Human LCLo: 50 ppm/30 Inhalation-rat TCLo: 300 µg/m3/24 hours/22 alteration of classical conditioning; Inhalation-Rabbit, adult LCLo: 260 mg/m3/7 hours Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, Inhalation-Guinea Pig, adult LC50: 4327 ppm/15 Subcutaneous-Frog, adult LDLo: 112 mg/kg Inhalation-rat TCLo: 252 µg/m3/6 hours/17 Drosophila melanogaster-Inhalation 2900 ppb inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: dehydrogenases CARCINOGENICITY: Hydrogen Fluoride has not been found to be carcinogenic.
IRRITANCY OF PRODUCT: Hydrogen Fluoride is severely irritating to contaminated tissue.
SENSITIZATION OF PRODUCT: Hydrogen Fluoride is not a sensitizer.
REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY INFORMATION: Listed below is information concerning the effects of Hydrogen
Fluoride on the human reproductive system.
Mutagenicity: No human mutagenic effects have been described for Hydrogen Fluoride. Hydrogen Fluoride has been reported to cause mutagenic effects in specific animal tissues during experimental studies with exposures at relatively high doses. Embryotoxicity: No human embryotoxic effects have been described for Hydrogen Fluoride. Hydrogen Fluoride
SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION (Continued)
REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY INFORMATION (continued):
Teratogenicity: No human teratogenic effects have been described for Hydrogen Fluoride. Hydrogen Fluoride has
been reported to cause teratogenic effects in research animals at very high doses.
Reproductive Toxicity: No human reproductive effects have been described for Hydrogen Fluoride. Hydrogen
Fluoride has been reported to cause adverse reproductive effects in research animals at very high doses.
A mutagen is a chemical that causes permanent changes to genetic material (DNA) such that the changes will propagate through generational lines. An embryotoxin is a chemical that causes damage to a developing embryo (i.e., within the first eight weeks of pregnancy in humans), but the damage does not propagate across generational lines. A teratogen is a chemical that causes damage to a developing fetus, but the damage does not propagate across generational lines. A reproductive toxin is any substance that interferes in any way with the reproductive process. BIOLOGICAL EXPOSURE INDICES (BEIs): Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) are applicable for Hydrogen
Fluoride (as an inorganic fluoride), as follows.
SECTION 12. ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION
ENVIRONMENTAL STABILITY: Hydrogen Fluoride can react with a wide variety of substances in the environment.
All work practices should be aimed at eliminating environmental contamination.
EFFECT OF MATERIAL ON PLANTS or ANIMALS: Due to the corrosive nature of this product, animals exposed
to this product will experience tissue damage, burns, and may be killed. Plants contaminated with this product may
be adversely affected or destroyed.
EFFECT OF CHEMICAL ON AQUATIC LIFE: Hydrogen Fluoride is very soluble in water, and even low
concentrations of Hydrogen Fluoride in water is detrimental to aquatic life. If a release this product occurs near a
river or other body of water, the release has the potential to kill fish and other aquatic life. Threshold concentration for
fresh and saltwater fish = 1.5 ppm, Lethal (fish) time period not specified/ /fresh water = 60 ppm
MOBILITY: Hydrogen Fluoride will react with moisture in the air and soil, forming a solution of hydrofluoric acid,
which may migrate through the soil; however, the acid should be neutralized by natural alkalinity.
PERSISTENCE AND BIODEGRADABILITY: Persistence: Hydrogen Fluoride will react to form hydrofluoric acid
which will be dissipated by natural alkalinity. Biodegradation: No data are currently available.
POTENTIAL TO BIOACCUMULATE: No data are currently available.
OZONE-DEPLETION POTENTIAL: Hydrogen Fluoride is not a Class I or Class II ozone depleting chemical (40
CFR Part 82).
SECTION 13. DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS
UNUSED PRODUCT / EMPTY CONTAINER: Do not dispose of residual product. Return residual product in
cylinders to: Spectra Gases, Inc., 80 Industrial Drive, Alpha, NJ 08865 or Spectra Gases, Inc., 1261 Activity Drive,
Vista, CA 92083.
DISPOSAL INFORMATION: Hydrogen Fluoride can be disposed of by bubbling it through a scrubber containing
potassium hydroxide solution. A trap should be used to prevent hazardous backflow. This method of disposal
should only be done by appropriately trained and experienced personnel. Disposal shall be done in accordance with
U.S. Federal, State and local regulations, regulations of the provinces of Canada or EC member states.
SECTION 14. TRANSPORT INFORMATION
U.S. SHIPPING INFORMATION:
U.S. DOT PROPER SHIPPING NAME:
HAZARD CLASS NUMBER and DESCRIPTION:
UN IDENTIFICATION NUMBER:
U.S. DOT SHIPPING LABEL(S) REQUIRED:
NAERG (NORTH AMERICAN EMERGENCY RESPONSE GUIDEBOOK) #: 125
PROVISION: Hydrogen Fluoride is poisonous by inhalation. Shipments must be properly described
as “Poison Inhalation Hazard - ZONE C”. Hydrogen Fluoride
SECTION 14. TRANSPORT INFORMATION (Continued)
CANADIAN SHIPPING INFORMATION:
TRANSPORT CANADA TRANSPORTATION OF DANGEROUS GOODS REGULATIONS: Hydrogen Fluoride
is considered as dangerous goods; use the above information for the preparation of Canadian Shipments.
NOTE: 102 (Poison-Inhalation Hazard).
INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORT ASSOCIATION SHIPPING INFORMATION (IATA):
DESIGNATION: Hydrogen Fluoride is considered as dangerous goods, per the International Air Transport
PROPER SHIPPING NAME:
HAZARD CLASS NUMBER and DESCRIPTION:
UN IDENTIFICATION NUMBER:
HAZARD LABEL(S) REQUIRED:
The following Packaging Information is applicable to this product: FORBIDDEN! This commodity may be transported on passenger and on cargo aircraft, only with the prior approval of the appropriate authority of the State of origin under the written conditions established by the authority. INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION SHIPPING INFORMATION (IMO):
DESIGNATION: Hydrogen Fluoride is considered as dangerous goods, per the International Maritime
PROPER SHIPPING NAME:
HAZARD CLASS NUMBER and DESCRIPTION:
UN IDENTIFICATION NUMBER:
HAZARD LABEL(S) REQUIRED:
POLLUTANT: Hydrogen Fluoride is not designated by the IMO to be Marine Pollutants.
EUROPEAN SHIPPING INFORMATION:
EUROPEAN AGREEMENT CONCERNING THE INTERNATIONAL CARRIAGE OF DANGEROUS GOODS
BY ROAD (ADR): Hydrogen Fluoride is considered by the Economic Commission for Europe to be
dangerous goods. Additional information is as follows:
SUBSTANCE IDENTIFICATION NO.:
NAME OF SUBSTANCE:
HAZARD IDENTIFICATION NO.:
CLASS AND ITEM NUMBER:
SECTION 15. REGULATORY INFORMATION
U.S. FEDERAL REGULATIONS:
EPA - ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY:
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1990 Reportable Quantity (RQ): 100 lbs (45.5 kg) SARA TITLE III: Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act
SECTIONS 302/304: Emergency Planning and Notification (40 CFR Part 355)
Substances: Hydrogen Fluoride is listed. Threshold Planning Quantity (TPQ): 100 lbs (45.5 kg) Reportable Quantity (RQ): 100 lbs (45.5 kg) Hydrogen Fluoride
SECTION 15. REGULATORY INFORMATION (Continued)
SECTIONS 311/312: Hazardous Chemical Reporting (40 CFR Part 370)
SECTION 313: Toxic Chemical Release Reporting (40 CFR 372)
Releases of Hydrogen Fluoride require reporting under Section 313. CLEAN AIR ACT:
Risk Management Programs for Chemical Accidental Release Threshold Planning Quantity (TPQ): 1000 lbs (455 kg) (listed as hydrofluoric acid) OSHA - OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION:
29 CFR Part 1910.119: Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals.
Threshold Planning Quantity (TPQ): 1000 lbs (455 kg) U.S. STATE REGULATORY INFORMATION:
CALIFORNIA PROPOSITION 65: Hydrogen Fluoride is not listed as a listed substance which the State of California
requires warning under this statute.
Hydrogen Fluoride is listed by the following State regulations (more specific regulations exist in some States): Alaska - Designated Toxic and Hazardous
Massachusetts - Substance List: Hydrogen
North Dakota - List of Hazardous
Substances: Hydrogen Fluoride, as F.
Chemicals, Reportable Quantities:
California - Permissible Exposure Limits
Michigan - Critical Materials Register:
for Chemical Contaminants: Hydrogen
Pennsylvania - Hazardous Substance List:
Minnesota - List of Hazardous Substances:
Florida - Substance List: Hydrogen Fluoride.
Rhode Island - Hazardous Substance List:
Illinois - Toxic Substance List: Hydrogen
Missouri - Employer Information/Toxic
Substance List: Hydrogen Fluoride.
Texas - Hazardous Substance List:
Kansas - Section 302/313 List: Hydrogen
New Jersey - Right to Know Hazardous
Substance List: Hydrogen Fluoride.
West Virginia - Hazardous Substance List:
New Jersey - Toxic Catastrophe
Prevention Act: Hydrogen Fluoride -
Wisconsin - Toxic and Hazardous
Substances: Hydrogen Fluoride.
CANADIAN FEDERAL REGULATIONS:
CANADIAN DSL INVENTORY STATUS: Hydrogen Fluoride is listed on the Canadian DSL Inventory.
OTHER CANADIAN REGULATIONS: Hydrogen Fluoride would be categorized as a Controlled Product, Hazard
Classes A, D1A and E, as per the Controlled Product Regulations. Hydrogen Fluoride (as an Inorganic Fluoride
compound) would be on the First Priorities Substances List (Toxic).
CANADIAN WHMIS SYMBOLS:
Class A: Compressed Gas
Class D1A: Toxic Material/Immediate and Serious Effects
Class E: Corrosive Material
EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY REGULATIONS:
EC EINECS/ELINCS NUMBER: 231-634-8
EC LABELING AND CLASSIFICATION: Hydrogen Fluoride meets the following definitions, per the European
Community Council Directive 67/548/EEC.
EC CLASSIFICATION: Toxic; Corrosive [T+; C]
EC RISK PHRASES: Very toxic by inhalation, in contact with the skin and if swallowed. Causes burns. [R:
SECTION 15. REGULATORY INFORMATION (Continued)
EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY REGULATIONS (continued):
EC SAFETY PHRASES: Keep locked up and out of the reach of children.* Keep container tightly closed and in a well-ventilated place. In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice. Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves. In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show label where possible). [S:(1/2-)*-7/9-26-36/37-45]. *This safety phrase can be omitted from the label when the substance or preparation is sold for industrial use only. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY ANNEX II HAZARD SYMBOLS: COMMENTS: In terms of Hydrogen Fluoride toxicity, use the following concentration limits:
C ≥ 10%: Very toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin, or if swallowed. Causes severe burns. [R: 26/27/28-35] 1% ≤ C < 7%: Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin, or if swallowed. Causes burns. [R: 23/24/25-34] ≤ C < 1%: Harmful by Inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed. Irritating to eyes. [R: SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION
Information contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet is provided to our customers so they may comply with 29 CFR 1910.1200, Hazard Communication Standard, the Canadian WHMIS Standard, and the requirements of the European Community Directives. The intent of this Material Safety Data Sheet is to provide end users of this product with the health and physical hazards associated with possible exposure to this product. All statements, technical data and recommendations are based on readily available texts and data that Spectra Gases, Inc., believes to be reliable and accurate. Spectra Gases, Inc., makes no warranties, guarantees or representations of any kind with respect to this product or this data. It is the responsibility of the user to obtain and use the most recent version of this MSDS. PREPARED BY:
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
A large number of abbreviations and acronyms appear on a MSDS. Some of these which are commonly used include the following: CAS #: This is the Chemical Abstract Service Number which uniquely identifies each constituent. It is used for computer-related searching.
EXPOSURE LIMITS IN AIR:
FLAMMABILITY LIMITS IN AIR:
ACGIH - American Conference of Governmental Industrial
Much of the information related to fire and explosion is derived from Hygienists, a professional association which establishes exposure the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Flash Point -
Minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off sufficient vapors to TLV - Threshold Limit Value - an airborne concentration of a
form an ignitable mixture with air. Autoignition Temperature: The substance which represents conditions under which it is generally minimum temperature required to initiate combustion in air with no believed that nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed without other source of ignition. LEL - the lowest percent of vapor in air, by adverse effect. The duration must be considered, including the 8- volume, that will explode or ignite in the presence of an ignition hour Time Weighted Average (TWA), the 15-minute Short Term
source. UEL - the highest percent of vapor in air, by volume, that will Exposure Limit (STEL), and the instantaneous Ceiling Level (C).
explode or ignite in the presence of an ignition source. Skin absorption effects must also be considered. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION:
OSHA - U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
Possible health hazards as derived from human data, animal PEL - Permissible Exposure Limit - This exposure value means
studies, or from the results of studies with similar compounds are exactly the same as a TLV, except that it is enforceable by OSHA. presented. Definitions of some terms used in this section are: LD
The OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits are based in the 1989 Lethal Dose (solids & liquids) which kills 50% of the exposed PELs and the June, 1993 Air Contaminants Rule (Federal Register: 58: 35338-35351 and 58: 40191). Both the current PELs and the animals; LC50 - Lethal Concentration (gases) which kills 50% of the
vacated PELs are indicated. The phrase, “Vacated 1989 PEL,” is exposed animals; ppm concentration expressed in parts of material
placed next to the PEL which was vacated by Court Order. per million parts of air or water; mg/m3 concentration expressed in
IDLH - Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health - This level
weight of substance per volume of air; mg/kg quantity of material,
represents a concentration from which one can escape within 30- by weight, administered to a test subject, based on their body weight minutes without suffering escape-preventing or permanent injury. in kg. Data from several sources are used to evaluate the cancer- The DFG - MAK is the Republic of Germany’s Maximum Exposure
causing potential of the material. The sources are: IARC - the
International Agency for Research on Cancer; NTP - the National
NIOSH is the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health,
Toxicology Program, RTECS - the Registry of Toxic Effects of
which is the research arm of the U.S. Occupational Safety and
Chemical Substances, OSHA and CAL/OSHA. IARC and NTP rate
Health Administration (OSHA). NIOSH issues exposure guidelines
chemicals on a scale of decreasing potential to cause human called Recommended Exposure Levels (RELs). When no exposure
cancer with rankings from 1 to 4. Subrankings (2A, 2B, etc.) are guidelines are established, an entry of NE is made for reference.
also used. Other measures of toxicity include TDLo, the lowest dose
to cause a symptom and TCLo the lowest concentration to cause a
symptom; TDo, LDLo, and LDo, or TC, TCo, LCLo, and LCo, the
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM: Health
lowest dose (or concentration) to cause lethal or toxic effects. BEI -
Hazard: 0 (minimal acute or chronic exposure hazard); 1 (slight
Biological Exposure Indices, represent the levels of determinants acute or chronic exposure hazard); 2 (moderate acute or significant
which are most likely to be observed in specimens collected from a chronic exposure hazard); 3 (severe acute exposure hazard;
healthy worker who has been exposed to chemicals to the same onetime overexposure can result in permanent injury and may be extent as a worker with inhalation exposure to the TLV. Ecological fatal); 4 (extreme acute exposure hazard; onetime overexposure
Information: EC is the effect concentration in water. can be fatal). Flammability Hazard: 0 (minimal hazard); 1 (materials
that require substantial pre-heating before burning); 2 (combustible
U.S. and CANADA: This section explains the impact of various
liquid or solids; liquids with a flash point of 38-93°C [100-200°F]); 3
laws and regulations on the material. EPA is the U.S.
(Class IB and IC flammable liquids with flash points below 38°C Environmental Protection Agency. WHMIS is the Canadian
[100°F]); 4 (Class IA flammable liquids with flash points below 23°C
Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System. DOT and TC
[73°F] and boiling points below 38°C [100°F]. Reactivity Hazard: 0
are the U.S. Department of Transportation and the Transport (normally stable); 1 (material that can become unstable at elevated Canada, respectively. Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization temperatures or which can react slightly with water); 2 (materials
Act (SARA); the Canadian Domestic/Non-Domestic Substances List
that are unstable but do not detonate or which can react violently (DSL/NDSL); the U.S. Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA); Marine
with water); 3 (materials that can detonate when initiated or which
Pollutant status according to the DOT; the Comprehensive
can react explosively with water); 4 (materials that can detonate at
Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund); and various state regulations. This
NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION: Health Hazard: 0
section also includes information on the precautionary warnings (material that on exposure under fire conditions would offer no which appear on the material’s package label. hazard beyond that of ordinary combustible materials); 1 (materials
EUROPEAN: EC is the European Community (formerly known as
that on exposure under fire conditions could cause irritation or minor the EEC, European Economic Community). EINECS: This the
residual injury); 2 (materials that on intense or continued exposure
European Inventory of Now-Existing Chemical Substances. The under fire conditions could cause temporary incapacitation or ARD is the European Agreement Concerning the International
possible residual injury); 3 (materials that can on short exposure
Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road and the RID are the
could cause serious temporary or residual injury); 4 (materials that
International Regulations Concerning the Carriage of Dangerous under very short exposure could cause death or major residual injury). Flammability Hazard and Reactivity Hazard: Refer to definitions for “Hazardous Materials Identification System”.
Begreppen existentialism och existentialfilosofi associeras kanske främst till Kierkegaard, Heidegger och Sartre. Existentialismen innebär en uppmaning: varje individ bör ta det ansvar som följer av insikten om utkastadhet och frihet. Vad det innebär att vara en människa undandrar sig möjligen objektiv undersökning, men bara därför upphör inte exemplar av vår art att födas ut i til