REVIEW ARTICLE Osteoporosis: Beyond Bone Mineral Density (Part II) John Neustadt, ND, and Steve Pieczenik, MD, PhD Primary osteoporosis occurs with bone loss as people age, and life-shortening fractures in patients. Early detection and while secondary osteoporosis is caused by other factors such as treatment of risk factors for osteoporosis and osteoporotic frac-medications and medical condit
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Twra.bizAeromonas Infections 1
Aeromonas infections are caused by bacteria Some strains of Aeromonas are more virulent, which are present in the water all of the time. which means that they possess special properties Usually, when fish get sick with an Aeromonas which enable them to cause more serious disease infection, something has happened to make them outbreaks. If these more damaging strains become susceptible to bacterial invasion. There are several endemic in a population of fish (which means that species of Aeromonas which can infect fish. The first they are there all of the time and the fish develop an is Aeromonas salmonicida, which causes a disease immunity to them), it becomes difficult to introduce called furunculosis in salmon and trout. This bacteria new fish into the water body without suffering major is not usually of concern for producers of warmwater fish and will not be discussed further in this publication. The two species of Aeromonas which do Signs of Aeromonas infection
cause disease in warmwater fish are Aeromonas There is no single physical or behavioral sign hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria. The difference specific for Aeromonas infections. Infected fish between these two bacteria is of greater interest to frequently have: small pinpoint hemorrhages at the scientists than of practical importance to producers; base of the fins or on the skin, distended abdomens, thus, they will be referred to collectively as and protruding eyes. Internal signs include: fluid in Aeromonas infections or Motile Aeromonas the abdomen, swollen liver and spleen, and the intestines are distended and fluid-filled. Aeromonas infections are probably the most common bacterial disease diagnosed in cultured Submission of suspect fish to a
warmwater fish. Usually, mortality rates are low diagnostic laboratory
(10% or less) and losses may occur over a period of It is important to submit fish suspected of being time (2 to 3 weeks or longer). In these instances, infected with Aeromonas to a diagnostic laboratory to some factor; usually stress, has caused the fish to confirm the disease, and to determine the antibiotic become more susceptible to the bacteria. Common sensitivity of the strain of Aeromonas causing the sources of stress are poor water quality, problem. In addition, because Aeromonas is a 1. This document is FA14, one of a series of the Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date June, 1991. Reviewed July, 2002. Visit the EDIS Web Site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.
2. Ruth Francis-Floyd, IFAS Extension Veterinarian, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Employment Opportunity - Affirmative Action Employer authorized to provide
research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, creed, color, religion,
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publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural
Sciences / University of Florida / Larry R. Arrington, Interim Dean
stress-mediated disease, it is not unusual to find that infected fish are heavily parasitized or concurrently infected with another systemic disease agent. Contact your county extension agent for assistance and common bacterial disease, caused by Aeromonas, information on where and how to submit samples for which affects warmwater fish, both in commercial production systems and in natural waters. Frequently, MAS outbreaks are stress-related and elimination of Management of an Aeromonas
the underlying stress factor may be sufficient to outbreak
resolve the disease outbreak. It is important to run antibiotic sensitivity tests prior to using antibiotics When MAS, or any bacterial infection, is for controlling Aeromonas outbreaks. Many strains of suspected in your fish, you should immediately Aeromonas are resistant to commonly-used submit a live, sick fish to the nearest diagnostic antibiotics, and it is important to determine which facility. If Aeromonas is diagnosed, you need to drug should be used before spending time and money know what legal drug the isolate is sensitive to and whether or not other infectious agents are present. There are two antibiotics legal for the treatment of Anytime an Aeromonas infection persists as a bacterial diseases of channel catfish. Both of these chronic problem, it is important to make an effort to are administered in the feed. The first, Terramycin, determine if an underlying stress factor is causing the has been available for many years and many strains fish to have insufficient immune protection from the of Aeromonas are resistant to it. If the bacteria is bacteria. Evaluate the water quality, nutrition, resistant to the drug then there is no benefit attained handling, and use of drugs and chemicals. by feeding that medication. Terramycin~, an Deficiencies in any of these areas could predispose oxytetracycline product, is available in sinking feed fish to Aeromonas infections. Cleanliness and good only, and is fed for 10 days followed by a 21-day management practices will reduce Aeromonas withdrawal time. The other product, Romet-30 , a potentiated sulfonamide, has only been available since 1985. It is available in a floating feed, and is fed for 5 days, followed by a 3-day withdrawal period. The withdrawal period is the time you need to wait after feeding the medicated feed for the last time until the fish can be sold for human consumption. In many cases, it may not be necessary to treat Aeromonas infections with medicated feeds. For example, if fish are heavily parasitized, they may resist the bacterial disease if the parasites are removed. Similarly, if disease susceptibility is attributed to poor water quality, then correction of the basic husbandry problem could result in a resolution of the bacterial disease outbreak. Keep in mind that the purpose of antibiotics is to keep disease-causing bacteria at bay long enough for the fish to heal itself. In addition, if the affected system is an indoor or closed system, good sanitation is essential to decrease the number of bacteria in the system.
Case Report Received: August 28, 2002Accepted: April 10, 2003 Delusional Paralysis: An Unusual Variant of Cotard’s Syndrome Andreas Reif Waldemar M. Murach Bruno PfuhlmannDepartment of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany Key Words drome: anxious melancholy, ideas of damnation or pos-Coenaesthesic hallucination W Cotard’s syndrome Wsession, a te