A Guide for Classroom – Stage 4 Oxford Reading Tree is the most popular reading programme in the UK, and used in approximately 14,000 primary schools. Its balanced approach, which provides a range of skills and strategies for reading, has proved highly successful at teaching children to read. Oxford Reading Tree is divided into stages. Stage 1 teaches children important pre-reading skil
Microsoft word - nsaids.docVeterinary Surgical Services
A WARNING CONCERNING ARTHRITIS MEDICATION Etogesic (etodolac) tablet, Rimadyl (carprofen) caplet, chewable tablet or injection, Deramaxx (deracoxib) chewable
tablet, Metacam (meloxicam) oral drop or injection, Zubrin (tepoxalin) disintegrating tablet, Previcox (firocoxib) chewable
tablet and Novox (generic carprofen) caplet all belong to a class of drugs called non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. The
action of these drugs is similar to aspirin, which is also a NSAID. It should be given under the advice of a veterinarian
since overdoses can cause symptoms of bleeding and stomach ulcers.
Aspirin can inhibit inflammatory substances called prostaglandins (PGEs), which cause Pain, inflammation, and fever.
These drugs are safer than aspirin because they are more selective for the harmful prostaglandins (COX 2 PGEs) and
spare certain prostaglandins (COX 1 PGEs) which are essential to protect the G.I. tract, kidneys, and other organs.
There is risk of liver failure with all NSAIDs. Liver necrosis in Labrador Retrievers caused by Rimadyl has been
reported in large numbers. The manufacturer of Rimadyl alleges these reactions are attributed to the fact that Labs are
the most common breed, and Rimadyl was the first and most commonly prescribed NSAID. All NSAIDs have the potential
to cause liver failure and other side effects. Blood tests before administration of NSAIDs can not predict this liver
reaction. The risk of this reaction is small. (1:10,000 with Rimadyl)
NSAIDs are relatively new to veterinary medicine. Veterinarians have little clinical experience with these drugs.
Although every manufacturer has data that alleges their drug is safer than the others, no creditable non-manufacturer
sponsored data exists which accurately compares these drugs.
Do you ask your Vet for a written warning about side effects, and read this warning. Ask to see the manufacturer’s
Do test your pet for kidney problems before starting NSAIDs. This is especially important in older pets, which are prone
to kidney failure. A urinalysis and a series of blood tests called an “NSAID Profile” are essential. The NSAID Profile
checks the BUN, ALT, urine specific gravity, and Complete Blood Count.
Do monitor kidney and liver function IF YOUR PET IS ON THESE DRUGS FOR A PROLONGED PERIOD OF TIME.
An NSAID Profile is mandatory every year, and strongly recommended every six months.
Do give Pepsid AC® 10mg tablet every time you administer an NSAID in order to prevent duodenal ulcers and diarrhea,
which are common side effects of all NSAIDs. Unfortunately, this antacid will not prevent gastric ulcers.
Do give Polysulfated glucosamines, also called PSGAGs (Chondroprotec, Chondroflex, or Cosequin) with
prolonged use of NSAIDs for arthritis and degenerative joint disease. NSAIDs relieve pain, but unfortunately over a long
period of time, NSAIDs can contribute to cartilage degeneration. PSGAGs help cartilage to heal. NSAIDs can cause
ulceration of the gasrto-intestinal tract. PSGAGs are part of the protectant lining of the gastro-intestinal tract. NSAIDs are
tolerated with PSGAGs. PSGAGs also protect the kidney.
Do stop the medication at the first signs of gastric upset, nausea, lack of appetite, vomiting, or diarrhea. Advise your
boarding kennel of this important fact.
Do not mix NSAIDs. Do not give NSAIDs with steroids like dexamethasone, prednisone, Vetalog or Depomedrol.
Gastro-intestinal ulceration and bleeding can result. A 3-5 day withdrawal period is necessary if you switch from one
NSAID to another. A 14 day withdrawal period is necessary if switching to an NSAID from a steroid such as
aspirin. Tramadol can be used for pain during the withdrawal period.
Do not give NSAIDs in patients with unknown impaired gastro-intestinal, kidney, cardiovascular, or coagulation
functions. If liver enzymes are evaluated, use only at a lowered dose and with liver treatment medication (i.e.
SAM-E). In these cases, Tramadol can be used as a substitute pain reliever.
Do not give NSAIDs with Enalapril or other ACE inhibitors, Lasix, or with nephrotoxic drugs like aminoglycoside
antibiotics, or psycotropic drugs such as Prozac or Clomicalm.
Do not give NSAIDs in dogs with Cushing’s disease, Heartworm disease, Immune Mediated Hemolytic Anemia or
other diseases where the patient is predisposed to blood clots called thromboembolisms.
Etodolac has been shown to cause Kerato conjunctivitis Sicca, also known as dry eye. Watch for signs of
sqinting or a white discharge coming from the eyes. If these symptoms occur, stop the drug immediately and call
A FINAL NOTE:
Relief from pain by NSAIDs is an individual response. If your pet does not get adequate relief from pain and return to
normal function with one NSAID, it is worth trying a different NSAID. Never increase the dose on your own or give
another drug for pain without first discussing with your veterinarians. Reactions to NSAIDs are comparable. If your
pet has an adverse reaction to one NSAID, another NSAID should not be used. Another class of pain reliever drug
(Tramadol) should be used.
Assessment of prescribed herbal medicine on liver function in korea: a prospective observational study
THE JOURNAL OF ALTERNATIVE AND COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINEVolume 14, Number 9, 2008, pp. 000–000© Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. DOI: 10.1089/acm.2008.0053 Original Papers Assessment of Prescribed Herbal Medicine on LiverFunction in Korea: A Prospective Observational StudyYoung-Ju Yun, M.D., K.M.D.,1,* Seong-Su Nah, M.D., K.M.D.,2,* Jae-Hyun Park, K.M.D., Ph.D.,3Seul-Ki Jung, K.M.D.,3 Eun-Kyung Paec