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Microsoft word - yerba mate – healthy energy beverage07-11.docYerba Mate – Healthy Energy Beverage
100% Organic Energy Fueled by Vitamins and Nutrients – Higher Antioxidant
Levels than even Green Tea
Yerba Mate Defined.
Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is a small tree native to the subtropical Atlantic forests
of Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina. This evergreen member of the holly family was
introduced to modern civilizations by the indigenous Guarani of Paraguay, Argentina and
Brazil. An infusion, brewed from the dried leaves and stems of the tree, is consumed by
millions of South Americans as a healthful alternative to coffee. Deemed “The Drink of
the Gods” by many indigenous groups in South America and “the green gold of the
Indios” by Europeans, yerba mate possesses a multitude of health benefits that have
begun to attract the attention of American scientists and consumers.
The nutritional value associated with Yerba Mate.
While yerba mate has been used as a base for herbal medicines in South America for
centuries, the plant’s benefits and therapeutic properties have recently been verified by a
number of scientific studies. The chemical components of yerba mate are similar to
those found in green tea; however, yerba mate is much more nutritious.
Each infusion of yerba mate contains:
• Vitamins: A, C, E, B1, B2, Niacin (B3), B5, B Complex
• Minerals: Calcium, Manganese, Iron, Selenium, Potassium, Magnesium,
• Additional Compounds: Carotene, Fatty Acids, Chlorophyll, Flavonols,
Polyphenols, Inositol, Trace Minerals, Antioxidants, Tannins, Pantothenic Acid
and 15 Amino Acids.
Clinical Studies of Antioxidant Properties of Yerba Mate.
Yerba mate has significant antioxidant activity. In a study published in 1995 by
Biochemicaland Molecular Biology International, researchers concluded that water
extracts of yerba mate “were more potent antioxidants than either ascorbic acid
(vitamin C) or butylated hydroxytoluene.” A few years later, a group of researchers
embarked on a study to again investigate the antioxidant properties of Ilex paraguariensis
infusions. Those findings were published in March of 2000 in the journal Biochemical and
Biophysica Research Communications. Their results suggest “that ingestion of extracts
of Ilex paraguariensis could contribute to increase the antioxidant defense of an
organism against free radicals attack.” In a more recent study, published in the
November 2001 issue of Fitoterapia, researchers took a look at seven different plant
species in South America. They found that yerba mate “contained a higher content of
flavonoids and caffeoyl derivatives than any other assayed species.”
Yerba Mate Provides a Wealth of Nutrients
The Pasteur Institute and the Paris Scientific society in 1964 were interested in this healthy
source of vitamins and did a thorough study of its properties. The investigators concluded "it
is difficult to find a plant in any area of the world equal to mate in nutritional value" and that
yerba mate contains "practically all of the vitamins necessary to sustain life."
In addition, results from a study done by researchers at the University of Madrid assert a
high content of mineral elements, especially K, Mg, and Mn, in mate. They considered
those findings “to be of great relevance” to the nutritional value of mate infusions.
Health Benefits From Drinking Yerba Mate.
There are many positive effects of mate drinking that have been observed by
consumers, and further confirmed in scientific studies. The positive effects listed below
have been directly or indirectly attributed to drinking yerba mate infusions.
Induces Mental Clarity - Yerba mate has the ability to quicken the mind and increase
mental alertness and acuity. Yerba mate also provides sustainable energy due to its
complex combination of xanthine alkaloids and caffeine. Although its caffeine content is
comparable to coffee, the stimulation is balanced by yerba mate’s nutritional content.
Clinical studies have shown that caffeine-sensitive individuals generally have very
positive results and don’t experience the hard side effects (jitters, stomach discomfort,
headache) commonly associated with caffeine.
Sustains Energy Levels/Reduce Fatigue -Yerba mate is a central nervous system
stimulant. The metabolic effects of mate appear to include the ability to maintain aerobic
breakdown of carbohydrates during exercise for long periods of time. As a result, more
calories are burned, thereby increasing cardiac efficiency and delaying the build-up of
lactic acid. Additionally, mate’s blend of xanthine alkaloids: caffeine, theophylline and
theobromine, provide sustaining energy.
Aids in Weight Control - For many years now, physicians in Europe have been
incorporating yerba mate in treatments for obesity. In 2000, a research team studying
obesity at the Charlottenlund Medical Center in Denmark tested an herbal preparation of
Yerba Maté, Guarana, and Damiana (YGD) for gastric emptying and subsequent weight
loss. They concluded that the herbal preparation, YGD capsules, significantly delayed
gastric emptying, reduced the time to perceived gastric fullness and induced
significant weight loss over 45 days in overweight patients treated in a primary health
care context. In addition, maintenance treatment given in an uncontrolled context
resulted in no further weight loss, nor weight regain in the group as a whole. Guayaki
recommends that the product be used as part of a program that includes a healthy diet
and sufficient exercise.
Aids in Elimination -The indigenous of South America traditionally use yerba mate to
treat gastrointestinal disorders as eupeptic and choleretic agent. Research conducted by
a team at Catedra de Farmacologia in Buenos Aires, Argentina found that yerba mate
does in fact induce an increase in bile flow and enhance intestinal transit.
Fights Bad Breath - Polyphenols found in tea and yerba mate have been shown to
prevent both the growth of bacteria responsible for bad breath and the bacteria’s
production of odorous compounds.
Bracesco N, Dell M, Rocha A, Behtash S, Menini T, Gugliucci A, Nunes E.
“Antioxidant Activity of a Botanical Extract Preparation of Ilex paraguariensis: Prevention
of DNA Double-Strand Breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Human Low-Density
Lipoprotein Oxidation.” J Altern Complement Med. 2003 Jun;9(3):379-87. Actis-Goretta L, Mackenzie GG, Oteiza PI, Fraga CG. “Comparative study on the antioxidant capacity of wines and other plant-derived beverages.” Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 May;957:279-83. Gugliucci A, Menini T. “Three different pathways for human LDL oxidation are inhibited in vitro by water extracts of the medicinal herb Achyrocline satureoides.” Life Sci. 2002 Jun 28;71(6):693-705. Filip R, Lopez P, Giberti G, Coussio J, Ferraro G. “Phenolic compounds in seven South American Ilex species.” Fitoterapia. 2001 Nov;72(7):774-8. Andersen T, Fogh J. “Weight loss and delayed gastric emptying following a South American herbal preparation in overweight patients.” J Hum Nutr Diet. 2001 Jun;14(3):243-50. Gorzalczany S, Filip R, Alonso MR, Mino J, Ferraro GE, Acevedo C. “Choleretic effect and intestinal propulsion of 'mate' (Ilex paraguariensis) and its substitutes or adulterants.” J Ethnopharmacol. 2001 May;75(2-3):291-4. Athayde ML, Coelho GC, Schenkel EP. “Caffeine and theobromine in epicuticular wax of Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil” Phytochemistry. 2000 Dec;55(7):853-7. Schinella GR, Troiani G, Davila V, de Buschiazzo PM, Tournier HA. “Antioxidant effects of an aqueous extract of Ilex paraguariensis.” Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Mar 16;269(2):357-60. Martinet A, Hostettmann K, Schutz Y. “Thermogenic effects of commercially available plant preparations aimed at treating human obesity.” Phytomedicine. 1999 Oct;6(4):231-8. Vera Garcia R, Basualdo I, Peralta I, de Herebia M, Caballero S. “Minerals content of Paraguayan yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, S.H.).” Arch Latinoam Nutr. 1997 Mar;47(1):77-80. Gugliucci A. “Antioxidant effects of Ilex paraguariensis: induction of decreased oxidability of human LDL in vivo.” Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996 Jul 16;224(2):338-44. Kraemer KH, Taketa AT, Schenkel EP, Gosmann G, Guillaume D. “Matesaponin 5, a highly polar saponin from Ilex paraguariensis.” Phytochemistry. 1996 Jul;42(4):1119-22. Schenkel EP, Montanha JA, Gosmann G. “Triterpene saponins from mate, Ilex paraguariensis.” Adv Exp Med Biol. 1996;405:47-56. Gosmann G, Guillaume D, Taketa AT, Schenkel EP. “Triterpenoid saponins from Ilex paraguariensis.” J Nat Prod. 1995 Mar;58(3):438-41. Gugliucci A, Stahl AJ. “Low density lipoprotein oxidation is inhibited by extracts of Ilex paraguariensis.” Biochem Mol Biol Int. 1995 Jan;35(1):47-56. Tenorio Sanz MD, Torija Isasa ME. “Mineral elements in mate herb (Ilex paraguariensis St. H.)” Arch Latinoam Nutr. 1991 Sep;41(3):441-54. Spanish. MacMahon B, Yen S, Trichopoulos D, Warren K, Nardi G. ”Coffee and cancer of the pancreas.” N Engl J Med. 1981 Mar 12;304(11):630-3. Zhu M et al. Effect of Tea Polyphenols on Growth and H2S Production of Halitosis Causing Bacteria. University of Illinois at Chicago. Presentation at the 2003 annual meeting of the American Society for Microbiology. Alcohol, tobacco, diet, mate drinking, and esophageal cancer in Argentina. Castelletto R, Castellsague X, Munoz N, Iscovich J, Chopita N, Jmelnitsky A. Departamento de Patologia, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas de la Plata, Argentina.
BRIEF OF EVIDENCE FOR THE MINISTERIAL INQUIRY INTO THE UNDER-REPORTING OF CERVICAL SMEAR ABNORMALITIES IN THE GISBORNE REGION Dr Gerard V. Wain 1. My name is Gerard Vincent Wain. I am currently the Director of Gynaecological Oncology atWestmead Hospital in Sydney and a Senior Lecturer in Gynaecological Oncology at the Universityof Sydney. I am a gynaecological oncologist and hold the Ce