Breeding cowpea for resistance to insect pests: attempted crosses between cowpea and Vigna vexillata Abstract Cowpea is grown mainly for its protein-rich grains, which is consumed in various forms in sub-Saharan Africa. Average grain yield in farmers’ ﬁ elds is generally low due to a number of biotic and abiotic stresses. The most important of the biotic stress factors causing ext
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Microsoft word - nitro_science_white_paper-2.12-en-allKyäni Nitro FXTM and Kyäni Nitro XtremeTM: The Science Behind Kyäni’s Nitric Oxide Precursors The statements and products referenced in this document and have not been evaluated by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The Kyäni products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition. The information in this document is intended as a source of reference materials and scientific data for educational purposes only. If you have any diagnosed medical condition we recommend you consult your individual health care provider with specific questions before using any new dietary supplement. Kyäni Nitro FXTM and Kyäni Nitro XtremeTM: The Science Behind Kyäni’s Nitric Oxide Precursors Nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived gaseous molecule that plays a key role in numerous biological processes
essential for human health. As of late October 2011, over 112,000 papers discussing NO were listed on
PubMed, the National Library of Medicine’ s web site. Kyäni Nitro FXTM and Kyäni Nitro XtremeTM both
contain concentrates of the noni plant, which has high levels of nitrates and nitrites. These molecules
serve as precursors of NO. This paper will discuss the biochemical processes whereby nitrates and
nitrites are converted into NO, as well as the physiological functions served by NO throughout the body.
In addition, this paper will discuss the additional ingredients that make Kyäni Nitro XtremeTM even more
powerful than Kyäni Nitro FXTM. Please note this document discusses the formulation of Kyäni Nitro FXTM
and Kyäni Nitro XtremeTM for the United States. Some foreign countries may have formula variations.
The key role that NO plays in human biology was first recognized in 1980 (1-3) and was reviewed in the
New England Journal of Medicine in 1993 and 2006 (4,5). The importance of this discovery was
underscored in 1998 by the awarding of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to three scientists
involved in its discovery: Robert Furchgott, Louise Ignarro and Ferid Murad.
Nitrogen gas (N2) is the most abundant element in the atmosphere and in this form represents the largest
pool of nitrogen on our planet. The nitrogen cycle serves to convert N2 to a form that can be used in
biological processes. In the first step, atmospheric nitrogen is converted into the ammonium ion i(NH4+),
a process called nitrogen fixation. Ammonium is then modified to a number of different nitrogen oxides,
including nitrites (NO -
2 ) and nitrates (NO3 ). The process of denitrification completes the cycle: Nitrates are reduced first to nitrites, nitric oxide, nitrous oxide and finally back to nitrogen gas (N2), which can then
diffuse back into the atmosphere. As a gas, NO has an extremely short half-life but even during that short
time it can activate a number of enzymes. These activated enzymes cause NO-mediated effects that can
last for several hours. Any NO that is not used immediately in a biologic process is rapidly converted
back to nitrites and nitrates. The metabolic steps in the nitrogen cycle depend heavily on bacteria, which
have metabolic pathways not found in plants or animals to catalyze the different steps of the cycle.
Pathways for NO Production:
The amino acid arginine was the first recognized precursor of nitric oxide synthesis. A metabolic pathway
catalyzed by enzymes called nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) converts arginine to nitric oxide through a
complex five-step process. However, in 1994 it was found by two independent research groups that nitric
oxide could be made independent of the NOSs and arginine (6,7). These groups found that ingestion of
nitrates greatly enhanced production of nitric oxide. High concentrations of nitric oxide are produced
from nitrates by the acidity in the stomach. This process depends, in part, on nitrites derived from saliva.
In the gastrointestinal tract, circulation of nitrogen containing molecules occurs in the following manner:
Any nitrates that escapes conversion to NO in the stomach enters the circulation or passes into the small
intestine and is absorbed into the circulation; subsequently nitrates are delivered to the salivary glands
and the saliva containing nitrates are actively secreted into the mouth. Bacteria in the mouth then convert
(“reduce”) nitrates to nitrites (8). The process of nitrate reduction also occurs in the heart (9) and multiple
other organ systems throughout the body.
The generation of NO is thought to be involved in multiple biological processes. Among those physiologic
functions known to be dependent on NO signaling are regulation of blood flow (10), cellular signaling, and
response to hypoxia, or low oxygen levels (11,12). (Unlike the arginine-based pathway for generation of
NO, the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway is up-regulated in the hypoxic state.) Other functions known to be
highly dependent on NO concentrations include the inhibition of platelet stickiness (13), lung function (14),
immunity (15), metabolic (energy) regulation (16), nerve transmission (17), and pain perception (18).
Low NO levels are thought to play a key role in a number of different diseases of the cardiovascular
system as well as in the metabolic syndrome of obesity, hypertension and hyperlipidemia.
However NO is produced (either from L-arginine or nitrates), it is can be rapidly oxidized to produce
nitrates and nitrites, with concentrations of nitrates being at least two orders of magnitude higher than
those of nitrites. This is due, in part, to the differences in the half-lives of these two molecules; the half-
life for a nitrate is 5-6 hours, while the half-life for a nitrite is only 20 minutes.
In humans, vegetables, especially green leafy vegetables, are a rich source of nitrates. Studies have
found that systemic concentrations of nitrates increase markedly following ingestion of these vegetables.
In fact, one study found that one serving of a green leafy vegetable contains more nitrates than the
nitrates formed from L-arginine by all the NOS enzymes in the body combined during a day (12). The noni
plant, from which Kyäni Nitro FXTM and Kyäni Nitro XtremeTM are made, is a particularly good source of
nitrates and nitrites.
Up to 25% of circulating nitrates are taken up by the salivary glands, and nitrates are concentrated 10-20
fold in saliva (8). After nitrates are ingested and absorbed through the stomach and small intestines,
salivary concentrations become very high (19,20). Bacteria in the mouth convert nitrates to nitrites by
means of a particular set of enzymes that are not found in human cells. When saliva is swallowed and
enters the acidic environment of the stomach, part of the nitrites are converted to nitrous acid (HNO2) that
decomposes to form nitric oxide (6,7). Low pH (the acidity of the stomach) and reducing compounds
such as ascorbic acid and polyphenols enhance this reaction. Most of the nitrites in the saliva, however,
are not converted to NO but is absorbed into the bloodstream. Interestingly, the circulating nitrites can be
taken up by cells lining the blood vessels and converted to nitric oxide.
Nitric Oxide in the Stomach:
It is thought that the high concentrations of nitric oxide in the stomach may constitute a first line of
defense against potential pathogens, as nitric oxide in high concentrations is known to kill bacteria (21).
Gastric nitric oxide is also thought to play a role in the control of blood flow to the cells of the stomach, as
well as the production of mucus, which is very important for protecting the lining of the stomach wall from
damage by the acid environment (22,23).
Seriously ill patients in intensive care unit settings who are on ventilators do not produce much saliva, and
they do not swallow much of what they produce. Moreover, they are often treated with potent antibiotics
to prevent infection, as well as H2 blockers or proton-pump inhibitors which increase the pH in the
stomach. These patients have extremely low levels of nitric oxide in the stomach (24, 25), and they are at
high risk of developing stomach ulcers and bacterial infections in the stomach. One study found that nitric
oxide levels in the stomach may be increased by putting nitrites directly into the stomach through a
feeding tube; circulating levels of nitrites are also increased in these patients (24). The advantage of any
maneuver which increases nitric oxide in extremely ill patients should be obvious.
Bioactivation of Nitrites:
Beyond the simple process that occurs in the stomach to add a proton to nitrites and create nitrous acid,
there are multiple different enzymatic pathways in the body that serve to convert systemic nitrites to nitric
oxide (11,12). Molecules and enzymes including hemoglobin, myoglobin, neuroglobin, xanthine
oxidoreductase, aldehyde oxidase, carbonic anhydrase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the
enzymes in the mitochondria all play a role in activation of nitrites in the body. Different pathways play
different roles in different tissues at different times, depending on numerous factors including pH, oxygen
status, and the concentration of oxygen free radicals.
While the important role of hemoglobin in transporting oxygen throughout the body has long been
recognized, the interaction between hemoglobin and NO was recognized much more recently. The
oxygen binding status of hemoglobin affects its ability to convert nitrites to NO (26-28). Gladwyn and his
colleagues demonstrated that nitrites bioactivation (that is, conversion to NO) is most active during
periods of rapid deoxygenation. This provides a mechanism whereby the body is able to produce more
NO in times of low oxygen, resulting in increased dilation of the blood vessels, more blood flow and hence
more oxygen delivery to hypoxic tissues. The authors suggest that this may be one of the mechanisms
used by the body to increase vasodilation in times of hypoxia (26). Another route of NO production
occurs in red blood cells that use the enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to produce NO
from L-arginine. Patients who are anemic are known to be at risk from the events associated with low NO
availability including hypertension. Given the evidence that NO can be generated by leafy green
vegetables and by Kyäni Nitro FXTM and Kyäni Nitro XtremeTM, this may provide a nutritional way to help
support optimal health in patients who are anemic.
Myoglobin is also known to play a role in nitrites bioactivation. In the instance of myocardial ischemia,
myoglobin converts nitrites to NO in the heart muscle in much the same way that hemoglobin does in the
intravascular space. Studies have demonstrated that nitrites have a cardio-protective effect mediated
through myoglobin (29). A similar molecule in the nervous system, called neuroglobin, also has the
ability to convert nitrites to NO through the process of reduction. Several other proteins, including
xanthine oxidase (30), several different mitochondrial enzymes (31-35), and the mammalian cytochrome
P450 enzymes (36) also play a role in reduction of nitrites to NO. As mentioned above, one of the
enzymes involved in the generation of NO from arginine, eNOS, can also convert nitrites to NO under the
right conditions, including low oxygen levels and low pH.
There are multiple mechanisms whereby nitrites can be converted to nitric oxide and other nitrogen
oxides. NOS-dependent production of NO is somewhat dependent on oxygen levels and pH. However the
enzymatic pathways involved in nitrite reduction are highly dependent on low oxygen levels and low pH,
situations in which the nitric oxide synthases may not be working optimally.
Nitrates, Nitrites and the Cardiovascular System:
The first reports of dilating the coronary arteries by pharmacologic doses of inorganic nitrites were
published almost 100 years ago (37). Recent studies have found a vasodilatory effect of much lower
levels of circulating nitrites (38-41). Organic nitrites, derived from plants, are much more potent than
inorganic nitrites. The preferential conversion of nitrites to NO under conditions of hypoxia may well have
important clinical applications in the care of patients with myocardial ischemia (39, 40, 42).
Multiple studies have demonstrated that increased consumption of fruits and vegetables provides a
cardio-protective effect (43-46). It has also been shown that inorganic sodium nitrate, administered in the
quantities corresponding to the amount present in a serving of nitrate-rich vegetable, reduced diastolic
blood pressure by 4 mm Hg in one study (47) and had a comparable effect on systolic pressure in a later
study with a larger number of participants (48). In a model of high blood pressure and renal disease
induced by chronic blockage of NOS, nitrite supplementation ameliorated the blood pressure and a low
dose of oral nitrites protected against kidney injury (49).
Administration of nitrates, either inorganic or through natural sources, has been shown to have
demonstrable therapeutic effects in multiple organ systems in many different species, including humans.
These include improved cardiovascular parameters in mouse and rat models of cardiac ischemia (50-52),
decreased ulcer formation and improved mucus secretion in the stomach in a rat model of gastric ulcers
(53, 54), decreased platelet aggregation, decreased blood pressure, improved endothelial function,
decreased oxygen consumption with moderate or maximal exercise, and improved work efficiency in
human studies (55-62). Administration of inorganic nitrites has been found to have a similarly wide-
ranging list of benefits in rodent, canine and human studies (29,36,38, 49, 63-75).
In studies involving mouse models of sepsis, or disseminated bacterial infection, causing dangerously low
blood pressure or septic shock, administration of nitrites improved survival and reduced mitochondrial
damage, tissue damage from infarction, hypothermia and oxidative stress (75).
Because nitric oxide is a gas, it is possible to administer it through inhalation, and this approach has been
used to treat babies with high blood pressure in the pulmonary circulation (76). In animal studies, inhaled
nitrites have improved hypertension in the pulmonary circulation as well (42).
In a rat model of cardiac transplantation, oral supplementation of nitrites prolonged graft survival from
50 days in animals on a control diet to over 120 days in animals receiving nitrite supplementation in their
drinking water. Animals receiving a low-nitrite diet had reduced survival of the allograft, to an average of
31 days (64).
The ability of NO to act against multiple bacterial pathogens has been well established (77-79). In an
animal model of cystic fibrosis, nitrites were successfully used to clear Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a
common bacterial infection in this disease (80).
The conversion of nitrites to nitric oxide in acidified urine may be why vitamin C and Cranberry juice are
successful in preventing and treating urinary tract infections (81). In the laboratory setting, the
combination of vitamin C with nitrites is comparable to antibiotics (82). Carlsson and colleagues used
nitrites and ascorbic acid in a laboratory model of the urinary tract, successfully killing two different forms
of E. Coli growing in the urine (83).
Because there are ample data that administration of nitrates and/or nitrites provide substantial benefit in
multiple clinical situations, and because many epidemiological studies have demonstrated similar benefit
from diets rich in fruits and vegetables, it has been speculated that nitrates may be the active ingredient in
diets such as the Mediterranean diet (43) or the fruit- and vegetable-rich diet advocated by the Dietary
Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) program (44).
Kyäni Nitro XtremeTM:
Kyäni Nitro XtremeTM contains a greater concentration of nitrates than Kyäni Nitro FXTM. In fact, Kyäni
Nitro XtremeTM contains at least three and one-half times more nitrates than Kyäni Nitro FXTM. The higher
nitrates content helps produce a more profound effect in the body. In addition, Kyäni has included five
additional ingredients in Kyäni Nitro XtremeTM. These ingredients are CoQ10, Niacin, Magnesium, Zinc
and Chromium. Each ingredient was included to further enhance the production of nitric oxide in the body.
Coenzyme Q10 is a natural, fat-soluble nutrient present in virtually every cell in the body but often it can
be depleted by various drugs, including statins used to treat high cholesterol (84). Since it is vital to the
production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (X), which is 90% of the energy in the body, one can see that
anyone who exercises needs to produce as much ATP as possible (85). ATP is necessary for nerve and
muscle function…with diminished ATP, you will “hit the wall” more quickly. CoQ10 has been shown to
reduce atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), angina and congestive heart failure. Therefore CoQ10
is beneficial in treating and preventing cardiovascular disorders (CVD) (86). Finally CoQ10 is beneficial
for patients with diabetes, immune dysfunction, periodontal disease, breast and prostate cancer, and
those with different neurological conditions. There were 353 reviews on the medical effects of CoQ10 as
of October 1, 2011. The reader who is interested in a particular problem is encouraged to do a search on
PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/). The noni, nitrate-based, related improvement in
circulation speeds the delivery of CoQ10 to all cells in the body so that it can carry out the important
functions mentioned above.
Niacin plays an important role in the release of energy from carbohydrates. It also aids in the breakdown
of protein and fats, in the synthesis of fats and certain hormones and in the formation of red blood cells.
Red blood cells carry oxygen and nitric oxide so adding niacin to Kyäni Nitro XtremeTM increases the
likelihood that nitric oxide will be available for delivery to all peripheral tissues. Niacin also increases skin
blood flow, called “flushing” through increases in arachidonic acid and prostaglandins. Therefore
vasodilation is achieved by niacin in Kyäni Nitro XtremeTM as well as from the nitrates and nitrites. Several
studies also show that niacin is effective against more than one type of carcinogen. One example notes
that breast cancer patients have lower than normal levels of niacin. If all this wasn’t enough, niacin
decreases both cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. There is evidence that niacin may prevent
cardiovascular disease, specifically the risk of a heart attack; it also may be an adjunct in the treatment of
coronary artery disease. Many physicians suggest that starting niacin supplementation early in life may
even prevent, or markedly delay the onset and development of heart disease. In fact, the FDA has
recently approved a drug based on niacin for this very indication. Finally, niacin is a building block in
nucleosides, nucleotides, nucleic acids, RNA and DNA. To summarize, it may help in preventing several
forms of cancer, it stabilizes the nervous system, ensures motility and absorption of nutrients in the
intestine and helps regulate hormone production (87-91).
A meta-analysis of 20 randomized trials suggests that magnesium helps to maintain systolic and diastolic
blood pressure (92). In addition, magnesium promotes glucose metabolism thus delaying or preventing
increases in blood glucose (hyperglycemia/diabetes). This is not a short-term phenomenon. In one 15-
year study involving 4,637 young adults, higher intakes of magnesium were associated with healthy
cardiovascular function and glucose utilization. Magnesium also plays an important role in the conversion
of carbohydrates, protein and fats to energy, in the synthesis of proteins and the synthesis of genetic
material within each cell. It also supports muscle relaxation and contraction and nerve transmission. It
appears certain that people in the US are either not consuming enough magnesium or are losing it in the
urine at too high a rate because plasma levels are uniformly low in most adults (93).
Zinc is a component of numerous enzymes and which play a role in protein synthesis, in controlling blood
sugar, in stimulating wound healing, and maintaining brain function. Zinc is important in the maintenance
of healthy skin, the immune system, nervous, digestive and reproductive systems, the genetic code and
normal blood levels of vitamin A. Finally, zinc is necessary for a healthy, growing fetus and in men, a
healthy prostate. The National Institutes of Health has beautifully summarized the benefits of diets
containing zinc and the devastating consequences of zinc deficiency (94). Please look at this easy to
read summary; you can see why Kyäni has incorporated zinc into the Kyäni Nitro XtremeTM formula.
The second most serious problems facing people (after cardiovascular disease) is obesity/diabetes.
Chromium helps in the uptake of blood sugar into muscle and other cells and therefore helps to maintain
blood sugar levels. It also reduces the risk of insulin resistance. Therefore it may reduce the risk of people
in developing type 2 diabetes. Less diabetes means less cardiovascular disease, less vision problems
(retinopathy), less kidney disease, less, gastrointestinal problems, less neuropathy (pain and loss of
sensation), fewer falls, and a better chance of actually engaging in exercise that is recommended by the
American Diabetes Association (95). Finally, chromium helps control weight and supports the
maintenance of a lean body mass. The value of chromium to the obesity problem faced by the western
world cannot be over emphasized (96)
Thus, there are multiple studies in the medical literature clearly documenting numerous health benefits of
ingested nitrates and nitrites. Kyäni Nitro FXTM and Kyäni Nitro XtremeTM provide a ready source of
organic nitrates and nitrites in a convenient, easily accessible form. Both are produced in a GMP
manufacturing facility with highly reproducible concentrations of nitrates and nitrites. Kyäni Nitro
XtremeTM, which contains somewhat higher amounts of the noni plant, is designed to provide a stronger
boost in nitric oxide production over a longer period of time and has additional ingredients to aid in the
production and utilization of NO in the body. These include CoQ10, magnesium, zinc, chromium and
niacin, as well as a proprietary ingredient designed to enhance absorption.
Kyäni recommends that Kyäni Nitro FXTM be employed for regular daily use, while Kyäni Nitro XtremeTM
be reserved for more demanding days. Kyäni Nitro FXTM has a milder flavor and has the benefits of NO
production. Kyäni Nitro XtremeTM has a quicker result with a longer duration of NO production. The taste
is bolder. Also, there are additional ingredients that increase Nitric Oxide production and improve the
body’s ability to use the NO. Those who have demanding lives or circumstances, such as athletes,
business professionals, even busy parents will more fully benefit from using Kyäni Nitro XtremeTM.
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Br J Haematol 142:971-8, 2008. 39. Ingram TI, Pinder AG, Bailey DM, et al. Low-Dose sodium nitrite vasodilates hypoxic human pulmonary vasculature by a means that is not dependent on a simultaneous elevation in plasma nitrite. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 298:H331-9, 2010. 40. Maher AR, Milsom AB, Gunaruwan P, et al. Hypoxic modulation of exogenous nitrite-induced vasodilation in humans. Circulation 117:670-7, 2008. 41. Dejam A, Hunter CJ, Tremonti C, et al. Nitrite infusion in humans and nonhuman primates: Endocrine effects, pharmacokinetics, and tolerance formation. Circulation 116:1821-31, 2007. 42. Hunter CJ, Dejam A, Blood AB, et al. Inhaled nebulized nitrite is a hypoxia-sensitive NO- dependent selective pulmonary vasodilator. Nat Med 10:1122-7, 2004. 43. Willett WC. Diet and health: What should we eat? Science 264:532-7, 1994. 44. Liese Ad, Nichols M, Sun X, D’Agostino RB Jr, Haffner SM. Adherence to the DASH Diet is inversely associated with incidence of type 2 diabetes: The insulin resistance atherosclerosis study. Diabetes Care 32:1434-6, 2009. 45. Joshipura KJ, Hu FB, Manson JE, et al. The effect of fruit and vegetable intake on risk for coronary heart disease. Ann Intern Med 134:1106-14, 2001. 46. Joshipura KJ, Ascherio A, Manson JE, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake in relation to risk of 47. Larsen FJ, Ekblom B, Sahlin K, Lundberg JO, Weitzberg E. Effects of dietary nitrate on blood pressure in healthy volunteers. N Eng J Med 355:2792-3, 2006. 48. Larsen FJ, Weitzberg E, Lundberg JO, Ekblom B. Dietary nitrate reduces maximal oxygen consumption while maintaining work performance in maximal exercise. Free Radic Biol Med 48:342-7, 2010. 49. Kanematsu Y, Yamaguchi K, Ohnishi H, et al. Dietary doses of nitrate restore circulating nitric oxide level and improve renal injury in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 295:F1457-62, 2008. 50. 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Case Report Received: August 28, 2002Accepted: April 10, 2003 Delusional Paralysis: An Unusual Variant of Cotard’s Syndrome Andreas Reif Waldemar M. Murach Bruno PfuhlmannDepartment of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany Key Words drome: anxious melancholy, ideas of damnation or pos-Coenaesthesic hallucination W Cotard’s syndrome Wsession, a te