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Ittoday.info2012 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government works Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper International Standard Book Number: 978-1-4398-5066-4 (Hardback) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, micro- filming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers.
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Library of Congress Cataloging‑in‑Publication Data
Next-generation batteries and fuel cells for commercial, military, and space applications / A.R. Jha.
Summary: “Next-generation batteries have higher power density and higher energy density and can be put into new forms with lower-cost mass production. This book focuses on technologically advanced secondary (rechargeable) batteries in both large and small format. It covers advanced technologies as replacements for NiCd and NiMH, especially advanced lithium-ion batteries that make use of new electrode materials and electrolytes. The author discusses printable batteries and thin-film battery stacks as enablers of micropower applications as well as hybrid battery/fuel cell systems, which are emerging as complements to consumer electronics batteries”-- Provided by Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Storage batteries. 2. Fuel cells. 3. Electric batteries. I. Title. Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at
and the CRC Press Web site at
This book comes at a time during which high global demand for oil is coupled with the anticipation of a shortage in the near future. To reduce this dependency on foreign oil and eliminate the greenhouse effects associated with oil, several automobile-manufacturing companies have been engaged in the mass develop- ment and production of electric vehicles (EVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). To address these objectives, the author of this book, A. R. Jha, gives serious attention to cutting-edge battery technol- ogy. Advanced material technology must be given consideration in the develop- ment of next-generation batteries and fuel cells for deployment in EVs and HEVs. In addition, Jha identifies and describes next-generation primary and secondary (rechargeable) batteries for various commercial, military, spacecraft, and satellite applications for covert communications, surveillance, and reconnaissance missions. Jha emphasizes the cost, reliability, longevity, and safety of the next generation of high-capacity batteries that must be able to operate under severe thermal and This book addresses nearly every aspect of battery and fuel cell technology involving the use of the rare earth materials that are best suited for specific compo- nents and possible applications in EVs, HEVs, and PHEVs. Use of certain rare earth materials offers significant improvement in electrical performance and a reduction in the size of alternating current induction motors and generators that will yield additional space inside these vehicles. Jha proposes ultra-high-purity metallic nano- technology PVD films in the design and development of the low-power batteries best suited for implantable medical devices and diagnostic applications. This par- ticular technology can be used in the near future in the development of noninvasive medical diagnostic equipment such as magnetic resonance imaging and computed Jha continues, throughout this book, his distinguished track record of distilling complex theoretical physical concepts into an understandable technical framework that can be extended to practical applications across a wide array of modern indus- tries. His big-picture approach, which does not compromise the basic underlying science, is particularly refreshing. This approach should help present-day students, xxii ◾ Foreword
both undergraduate and graduate, master these difficult scientific concepts with the full confidence they will need for commercial engineering applications to benefit This book is well organized and provides mathematical expressions to estimate the critical performance parameters of rechargeable batteries. Jha covers all of the important design aspects and potential applications of rechargeable batteries with an emphasis on portability, reliability, longevity, and cost-effective performance. This book also provides a treatment of the underlying thermodynamic aspects of cells housed in a battery pack that contains several cells. Jha identifies their adverse heating effects on the reliability and electrical performance of the battery pack. Notably, thermodynamic evaluation of the battery pack assembly is of criti- cal importance because it can affect the reliability, safety, and longevity of the pack. Jha’s background enables him to provide an authoritative account of many of the emerging application requirements for small, lightweight, high-reliability rechargeable batteries, particularly for portable and implantable medical devices and diagnostic capsules. Jha summarizes the benefits of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries for low-power medical devices, such as cardiac pacemakers, cardioverters, and implantable cardioverter defibrillators.
Critical performance parameters and the limits of rechargeable batteries, includ- ing state of charge, depth of discharge, cycle life, discharge rate, and open-circuit voltage, are identified. The aging effects of various batteries are identified as well. Rechargeable battery requirements for EVs, HEVs, and PHEVs are summarized with an emphasis on reliability, safety, and longevity. Memory effects resulting from voltage depression are discussed in great detail. The advantages of solid poly- mer electrolyte technologies are briefly mentioned because the polymer electrolytes tend to increase room temperature iconic conductivity. This increase in ionic con- ductivity offers improved battery performance at medium to high temperatures Performance capabilities of long-life, low-cost, rechargeable batteries, includ- ing silver zinc and other batteries, are summarized. Such batteries are best suited for aerospace and defense applications. Batteries for unmanned underwater vehicles, unmanned air vehicles, anti-improvised explosive devices, and satellites or spacecraft capable of providing surveillance, reconnaissance, and tracking of space-borne targets are identified with an emphasis on reliability, longevity, safety, weight, and size. Cathode, anode, and electrolyte materials are summarized for Jha dedicates a chapter specifically to fuel cells and describes the three dis- tinct types of practical fuel cells, including those that use (1) aqueous electrolytes, (2) molten electrolytes, and (3) solid electrolytes. The fuel cell is an electricity gen- eration system that combines an oxidation reaction and a reduction reaction. In a fuel cell, both the fuel and oxidant are added from an external source to react at two separate electrodes, whereas in a battery, the two separate electrodes are fuel and oxidant. Therefore, in the fuel cell in an energy conversion device, chemical energy Foreword ◾ xxiii
is isothermally converted to direct current electricity. These devices are bulky and heavy and operate mostly at high temperatures (500° to 850°C). Hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells generate high power with maximum economy and are best suited for transport buses. Electrode kinetics play a key role in achieving the most efficient operation of a fuel cell. Jha identifies the basic laws of electrochemical kinetics and notes that a superior nutrient-electrolyte media is essential for generating higher electrical power in biochemical fuel cells.
A wide variety of readers will benefit from this book, in particular the advanced undergraduate and graduate students of mechanical and materials engineering who wish to pursue a career in designing next-generation batteries and fuel cells. In view of the critical interdependencies with other technical disciplines, however, this book also is of interest to a wider variety of engineering students or practicing engineers in such industries as medical equipment, defense electronics, security, and space as well as in other yet-to-be-established disciplines. This book is par- ticularly useful for research scientists and engineers who are deeply involved in the design of the portable devices best suited for medical, military, and aerospace systems. Technical managers will also find this book useful for future applications. I strongly recommend this book to a broad audience, including students, project managers, aerospace engineers, life-science scientists, clinical scientists, and project engineers immersed in the design and development of compact, lightweight batter- ies best suited for industrial, commercial, military, and space applications.
Dr. A. K. Sinha
The publication of this book comes at a time when free nations are at odds with oil- producing nations and can be threatened with an interruption of the continuous flow of oil because of political differences and prevailing conditions in these respective regions. Western and other free nations are looking for alternative energy sources to avoid the high cost of oil and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This book briefly summarizes the performance capabilities and limitations of existing primary and sec- ondary (rechargeable) batteries for the benefits of readers. I address critical and vital issues affecting the performance capabilities of next-generation batteries and fuel cells for commercial, military, and aerospace applications and propose cutting-edge bat- tery technology best suited for all-electric and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in an effort to help eliminate dependency on unpredictable foreign oil sources and supplies.
I also identify the unique materials for electrolytes, cathodes, and anodes that are most cost-effective for next-generation rechargeable batteries with significant improvements in weight, size, efficiency, reliability, safety, and longevity. Likewise, I identify rechargeable batteries with minimum weight, size, and form factor that are most ideal for implantable medical devices, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and space system applications. I identify battery designs using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanotechnologies, which are best suited for applications where weight, size, reliability, and longevity are of critical importance. Integration of these technologies would lead to significant improvements in weight, size, and form factor without compromising the electrical performance and reliability of the battery.
I propose high-power battery technologies best suited for automotive-, aircraft-, and satellite-based system applications with an emphasis on reliability, safety, and consistent electrical performance over long durations. In such applications, I recommend unique battery technologies that offer exceptionally high-energy densities that exceed 500 Wh/kg. I also describe the performance capabilities of next- generation rechargeable sealed nickel-cadmium and sealed lead-acid batter- ies that are most ideal for satellite communications, space-based surveillance and reconnaissance systems, unmanned ground combat vehicles (UGCVs), UAVs, and other battlefield applications where high energy density, minimum weight and size, and reliability under harsh conditions are the principal performance requirements.
xxvi ◾ Preface
This book summarizes the critical performance parameters of rechargeable bat- teries developed for various commercial, military, and space applications backed by measured values of parameters obtained by reliable sources through actual laboratory measurements. The book is well organized and contains reliable rechargeable battery performance characteristics for a wide range of applications, including commercial, military, and aerospace disciplines. Cutting-edge battery design techniques are dis- cussed in the book backed by mathematical expressions and derivations wherever possible. The book provides mathematical analysis capable of projecting the critical performance parameters under various temperatures. It is especially prepared for design engineers who wish to expand their knowledge of next-generation batteries.
I have made every attempt to provide well-organized materials using conven- tional nomenclatures, a constant set of symbols, and easy-to-understand units for rapid comprehension. The book provides state-of-the-art performance parameters of some batteries from various reference sources with due credit given to the authors or organizations involved. It comprises eight distinct chapters, each of which is dedicated to a specific application.
Chapter 1 presents the current status of various primary and secondary (rechargeable) batteries and fuel cells for various applications. The performance capabilities and limitations of batteries and fuel cells are summarized for the benefits of readers and design engineers. The current energy sources suffer from weight, size, efficiency, discharge rates, disposal issues, and recharge capacity, thus making them unsuitable for medical, battlefield, and aerospace applications. General Motors and Siemens have invested a significant amount of money in research and develop- ment of rechargeable lithium-based rechargeable batteries for possible applications in electric vehicles (EVs) and HEVs. Current fuel cells generate electrical energy by using electrochemical conversion techniques that have serious drawbacks. I discuss direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) for future applications that will be found most ideal for high-, portable-power sources. DMFC technology offers improved reli- ability, compact form factor, and significant reduction in weight and size. I identify appropriate anode, cathode, and membrane electrode assembly configurations that will yield significantly improved electrical performance over long durations with Chapter 2 briefly describes the performance capabilities and limitations of cur- rent rechargeable batteries for various applications. Performance requirements and projections for next-generation primary and secondary batteries are identified with an emphasis on cost, reliability, charge rate, safety, reliability, and longevity. I dis- cuss the performance requirements for next-generation high-power rechargeable lithium-based batteries and sealed nickel-cadmium and lead-acid batteries best suited for applications requiring high-energy and -power densities. Battery design configurations for some specific applications are identified with a particular empha- sis on safety, reliability, longevity, and portability.
In Chapter 3 I discuss fuel cells that are best suited for applications where electri- cal power requirements vary between several kilowatts (kW) to a few megawatts (MW). Preface ◾ xxvii
Fuel cells generate electrical power by an electrochemical conversion technique. The early fuel cells deploy this technique, and the devices using this technique suffer from excessive weight, size, and reliability problems. In past studies I have indicated that DMFC technology offers the most promising fuel cell design con- figuration for applications where compact form factor, enhanced reliability, and sig- nificant reduction in weight and size are the principal fuel cell design requirements. DMFC is a system that combines an oxidation reaction and reduction reaction in a most convenient way to produce electricity with minimum cost and complexity. Such fuel cells are expected to be used extensively in the future. Studies performed by C. H. J. Broers and J. A. A. Ketelaar (Proceedings of the IEEE, May 1963) indi- cate that the fuel cells developed before 1990 used high temperatures and semisolid electrolytes. Even earlier fuel cells, such as the Bacon HYDROXZ fuel cells, were designed to operate at medium temperatures and high pressures. It was reported by C. G. Peattie (IEEE Proceedings, May 1963) that such fuel cell operations are difficult to maintain and require constant monitoring to ensure that the fuel cell is reliable. I discuss next-generation fuel cell design configurations capable of operat- ing with high efficiency and high power output levels over long durations.
Chapter 4 describes the high-power batteries currently used by EVs and HEVs. Performance reviews of these batteries indicate that the rechargeable batteries suffer from poor efficiency as well as excessive weight, size, and operating costs. I describe various next-generation rechargeable batteries best suited for all-electric cars, EVs, and HEVs. Some next-generation batteries might deploy rare earth materials to enhance the battery’s electrical performance and reliability under harsh operating environments. I propose rechargeable battery design configurations capable of pro- viding significant improvements in depth of discharge, state of charge, and service Chapter 5 focuses on low-power battery configurations that are best suited for compact commercial, industrial, and medical applications. I identify the design aspects and performance characteristics of micro- and nanobatteries best suited for detection, sensing, and monitoring devices. These batteries offer minimum weight, size, and longevity that are highly desirable for certain applications such as perime- ter security devices, temperature and humidity sensors, and health monitoring and diagnostic medical system applications. I identify compact, low-power batteries using unique packaging technology for emergency radios and security monitoring devices operating under temperatures as low as −40°C. Most batteries cannot oper- ate under such ultra-low temperatures.
Chapter 6 describes rechargeable batteries for military and battlefield applica- tions where sustainable performance, reliability, safety, and portability are principal operating requirements. Sustaining electrical performance, reliability, safety, and longevity are given serious considerations for rechargeable batteries operating in battlefield environments that involve severe thermal and structural parameters. I emphasize the reliable electrical performance, safety, longevity, compact packag- ing, advanced materials, and portability for the batteries capable of operating in xxviii ◾ Preface
military and battlefield systems such as tanks, UAVs, UGCVs, and robot-based Chapter 7 is dedicated to rechargeable batteries for possible applications in aerospace equipment and space-based surveillance, reconnaissance, and track- ing systems of space-based targets. Stringent performance requirements for the rechargeable batteries deployed in commercial aircraft and military aircraft— including fighter aircraft, helicopters, UAVs for offensive and defensive missions, electronic attack drones, and airborne jamming equipment—are defined to ensure sustainable electrical energy and significantly improved reliability, safety, and longevity, which are essential for carrying out successful missions. I suggest that stringent safety and reliability requirements are needed in severe vibration, shock, and thermal environments. Improved design concepts for aluminum-air batteries using alkaline electrolyte are identified for communication satellite applications, where high-energy density (>500 Wh/kg), ultra-high reliability, and high portabil- ity are the principal performance specifications. Reliable modeling and stringent test requirements are defined for the sealed nickel-cadmium and lead-acid batter- ies because these batteries are ideal for next-generation communications satellites, supersonic fighters, and space-based systems for precision surveillance, reconnais- Chapter 8 deals with low-power batteries that are widely used for various com- mercial, industrial, and medical devices that can operate with electrical power ranging from nanowatts to microwatts. Low-power batteries are widely used consumer electronic products such as in infrared cameras, smoke detectors, cell phones, medical devices, minicomputers, tablets, iPhones, iPads, and a host of elec- tronic components. These low-power batteries must meet minimum weight, size, and cost requirements in addition to being exceptionally safe and long-lasting. In past studies, I have indicated that advances in materials and packaging technology can play a significant role in the performance improvements in existing batteries such as nickel-cadmium, alkaline manganese, and lithium-based batteries. I briefly summarize the performance characteristics of low-power batteries in this chapter.
I want to express my sincere gratitude to Ed Curtis (Project Editor) and Marc Johnston (Senior Project Manager) for their meaningful suggestions and assistance in incorporating last-minute changes to the text, completing the book on time, and seeing everything through to fruition—all of which they did with remarkable Last, but not least, I also want to thank my wife Urmila D. Jha, my daughters Sarita Jha and Vineeta Mangalani, and my son U.S. Army Captain Sanjay Jha for their support, which inspired me to complete the book on time despite the tightly A. R. Jha received his BS in engineering (electrical) from Aligarh Muslim University
in 1954, his MS (electrical and mechanical) from Johns Hopkins University, and Dr. Jha has authored 10 high-technology books and has published more than 75 technical papers. He has worked for companies such as General Electric, Raytheon, and Northrop Grumman and has extensive and comprehensive research, develop- ment, and design experience in the fields of radars, high-power lasers, electronic warfare systems, microwaves, and MM-wave antennas for various applications, nanotechnology-based sensors and devices, photonic devices, and other electronic components for commercial, military, and space applications. Dr. Jha holds a pat- ent for MM-wave antennas in satellite communications.
Preface . xxv
1 Current Status of Rechargeable Batteries and Fuel Cells .1
1.2 Fundamental Aspects of a Rechargeable Battery .2 1.2.1 Critical Performance Characteristics of Rechargeable 1.2.2 Capabilities of Widely Used Rechargeable Batteries in 184.108.40.206 Toxicity of Materials Used in Manufacturing 220.127.116.11 Safe Toxicity Limits for Workers.8 1.2.4 Three Main Characteristics of a Rechargeable Battery .9 1.2.5 Cost-Effective Justification for the Deployment of a Specific Rechargeable Battery for a Specified Application .10 18.104.22.168 Techniques to Improve Battery Performance 22.214.171.124 Why Use Pb-Acid Batteries for Automobiles? .14 126.96.36.199 Description of Flow Batteries .14 1.3 Rechargeable Batteries Irrespective of Power Capability .15 1.3.1 Rechargeable Batteries for Low- and Moderate-Power 1.4 Rechargeable Batteries for Commercial and Military Applications .16 1.4.1 High-Power Batteries for Commercial Applications .17 1.4.2 Critical Role of Ni-Cd in Rechargeable Batteries for 1.4.3 Benefits of Ni-MH Rechargeable Batteries for Military viii ◾ Contents
188.8.131.52 Electrode Material Cost and Characteristics 184.108.40.206 Impact of Temperature on Discharge 220.127.116.11 Charging Procedure for a Ni-MH Battery .22 18.104.22.168 Degradation Factors in Ni-MH Battery 1.4.4 Thermal Batteries for Aerospace and Defense 22.214.171.124 Batteries for Space Applications .24 1.4.5 Rechargeable Batteries for Commercial Applications .24 126.96.36.199 Ni-Zn Batteries for Commercial Applications.26 1.4.6 Rechargeable Battery Requirements for Electric and 188.8.131.52 Test Requirements for Rechargeable Batteries Needed for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles .28 184.108.40.206 Predicting the Battery Life of Electric and 220.127.116.11 Performance Capabilities of Batteries 1.5 Batteries for Low-Power Applications . 34 1.5.1 Batteries Using Thin-Film and Nanotechnologies .35 1.5.3 Charge-Discharge Cycles and Charging Time of 1.5.4 Structural Configuration for Low-Power Batteries .38 1.5.5 Most Popular Materials Used for Low-Power Batteries .38 1.5.6 Low-Power Batteries Using Nanotechnology . 40 1.5.7 Paper Batteries Using Nanotechnology . 40 1.6.1 Description of the Most Popular Fuel Cell Types and 2 Batteries for Aerospace and Communications Satellites .45
2.2.1 Electrical Power-Bus Design Configuration . 46 Contents ◾ ix
18.104.22.168 Solar Panel Performance Requirements to 2.3 Battery Power Requirements and Associated Critical 2.3.1 Solar-Array Performance Requirements .51 2.3.2 Electrical Power Requirements from the Solar Arrays 2.3.3 Solar Panel Orientation Requirements to Achieve 2.3.4 Solar-Array Configurations Best Suited for Spacecraft 2.4 Cost-Effective Design Criterion for Battery-Type Power Systems 2.4.1 Method of Comparison for Optimum Selection of 22.214.171.124 Step-by-Step Approach for Power System 126.96.36.199 Modeling Requirements to Determine I-V 188.8.131.52 Impact on Battery Electrical Parameters 2.5 Spacecraft Power System Reliability .59 2.5.1 Failure Rates for Various System Components.60 2.5.3 Reliability Improvement of the Spacecraft Power System Using CC and PWM Regulator Techniques .61 2.5.4 Reliability Improvement of the Spacecraft Power System Using DET System, CC, and Battery Booster Techniques . . 64 2.5.5 Weight and Cost Penalties Associated with Redundant 184.108.40.206 Total System Weight and Cost as a Function 220.127.116.11 Reliability Degradation with the Increase in 18.104.22.168 Increase in Weight and Cost due to 2.6 Ideal Batteries for Aerospace and Communications Satellites .69 2.6.1 Typical Power Requirements for Space-Based Batteries . . . . .69 2.6.2 Aging Effect Critical in Space-Based Batteries .72 2.7 Performance Capabilities and Battery Power Requirements for the Latest Commercial and Military Satellite Systems .72 x ◾ Contents
2.7.1 Commercial Communication Satellite Systems .73 22.214.171.124 Performance Capabilities of the Commercial 2.8 Military Satellites for Communications, Surveillance, 2.8.1 Military Communications Satellites and Their 126.96.36.199 DSCS-III Communication Satellite System .76 188.8.131.52 Power Generation, Conditioning, and 2.8.3 European Communications Satellite System .78 2.9 Batteries Best Suited to Power Satellite Communications 2.9.1 Rechargeable Batteries Most Ideal for Communications 184.108.40.206 Performance Capabilities of Ni-Cd Rechargeable Batteries for Space Applications . . . 79 220.127.116.11 Performance Parameters of Ni-H2 Batteries .80 18.104.22.168 Performance Capabilities of Ag-Zn Batteries .81 22.214.171.124 Space Applications of Lithium-Ion Batteries .82 3 Fuel Cell Technology .85
126.96.36.199 Aqueous Fuel Cell Using Specific Electrolyte .86 188.8.131.52 Fuel Cells Using Semisolid Electrolyte .86 184.108.40.206 Fuel Cells Using Molten Electrolyte .87 3.1.2 Classifications of Fuel Cells Based on Electrolytes .88 3.2 Performance Capabilities of Fuel Cells Based on Electrolytes .89 3.2.1 High-Temperature Fuel Cells with Semisolid Molten 3.3 Low-Temperature Fuel Cells Using Various Electrolytes .91 3.3.1 Performance of Low-Temperature and Low-Pressure Fuel Cells Using Aqueous Electrolyte .92 3.3.2 Output Power Capability of Aqueous Fuel Cells.93 3.4 Fuel Cells Using a Combination of Fuels .94 3.4.2 Performance of Liquid-Liquid Fuel Cell Design .94 3.5 Fuel Cell Designs for Multiple Applications .95 3.5.1 Fuel Cells for Electric Storage Battery Applications .95 Contents ◾ xi
3.5.2 DSK-Based Fuel Cells Using Hydrogen-Based DSK Electrodes and Operating under Harsh Conditions .95 220.127.116.11 Performance of DSK-Based Fuel Cells with 3.6.1 Performance Specifications for IEM Fuel Cells and 3.6.2 Fuel Cells Using Low-Cost, Porous Silicon Substrate 18.104.22.168 Hydrogen-Oxygen Power Fuel Cell Using 22.214.171.124 Fuel Cell Reactions and Thermodynamic 126.96.36.199 DMFC Devices Using a PEM Structure .102 188.8.131.52 Silicon-Based DMFC Fuel Cells .107 3.7 Potential Applications of Fuel Cells .110 3.7.1 Fuel Cells for Military and Space Applications .110 184.108.40.206 Fuel Cells for Battlefield Applications .110 220.127.116.11 Deployment of Fuel Cells in UAVs 18.104.22.168 Why Fuel Cells for Counterinsurgency 3.8 Fuel Cells for Aircraft Applications .116 3.8.1 Performance Capabilities and Limitations of 3.8.2 Fuel Cells for Electric Vehicles and Hybrid Electric 3.9 Fuel Cells for Commercial, Military, and Space 3.9.1 Fuel Cells for Automobiles, Buses, and Scooters . 118 22.214.171.124 Design Aspects and Performance Parameters of a Low-Cost, Moderate-Temperature Fuel 126.96.36.199 Design Requirements for Cost-Effective 3.9.2 Ideal Fuel Cells for the Average Homeowner .125 188.8.131.52 Design Requirements for Fuel Cells for xii ◾ Contents
184.108.40.206 Compact Fuel Cells for Cars, Scooters, and 220.127.116.11 Fuel Cells for Portable Electric Power Systems . . 128 3.10 Fuel Cells Capable of Operating in Ultra-High-Temperature 3.10.1 Types of Materials Used in Ultra-High-Temperature 3.10.2 Solid Electrolyte Most Ideal for Fuel Cells Operating at Higher Temperatures (600–1,000°C) .130 18.104.22.168 Molten Electrolytes Offer Improved Efficiencies in High-Temperature Operations . . .130 22.214.171.124 Performance Capabilities of Porous Electrodes . .131 3.10.3 Electrode Kinetics and Their Impact on High-Power 3.10.4 Polarization for Chemisorption-Desorption Rates .132 3.11 Fuel Cell Requirements for Electric Power Plant Applications .133 3.11.1 Performance Requirements of Fuel Cells for Power 4 Batteries for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles .137
4.2 Chronological Development History of Early Electric Vehicles 4.2.1 Electric-Based Transportation Means .139 4.3 Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles Developed Earlier by Various Companies and Their Performance Specifications .140 4.4 Development History of the Latest Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Types and Their Performance Capabilities and Limitations . . 143 126.96.36.199 Ford C-Max and Ford C-Max Energi .148 4.5 Performance Requirements of Various Rechargeable Batteries .149 4.5.1 Battery Pack Energy Requirements . 151 Contents ◾ xiii
4.5.2 Battery Materials and Associated Costs . 151 188.8.131.52 Materials for Rechargeable Batteries 184.108.40.206 Impact of Road and Driving Conditions on 4.6 Materials for Rechargeable Batteries .156 4.6.1 Materials Requirements for Three Functional 4.6.2 Major Performance Characteristic of Li-Ion 4.6.3 Characteristic of Nickel-Metal-Hydride Rechargeable 4.6.4 Zinc-Air Rechargeable Fuel Cells for EVs and HEVs.158 4.6.5 Energy Density Levels for Various Rechargeable 220.127.116.11 Li-Ion Battery Pack Configuration .160 18.104.22.168 Some Unique Problems Associated with 4.6.6 Design Concept Incorporating the Smart Grid 22.214.171.124 Charging-Load Impact on the Utility 126.96.36.199 Typical Charging Rates for Rechargeable 4.6.7 Materials and Their Properties Best Suited for 188.8.131.52 Major Material Costs for a 100 Ah High- 184.108.40.206 Estimated Costs for Battery Packs Widely Used in All-Electric and Hybrid Electric 4.6.8 Impact of Component Costs on the Procurement Cost 220.127.116.11 Estimated Current and Future Component 4.7 Critical Role of Rare Earth Materials in the Development of 4.7.1 Identification of Various Rare Earth Materials Used in xiv ◾ Contents
4.7.2 Impact of Future Rare Earth Materials on the 4.7.3 Costs Associated with Refining, Processing, and Quality Control Inspection of Rare Earth Materials .177 5 Low-Power Rechargeable Batteries for Commercial, Space, and
Medical Applications .183
5.2 Low-Power Battery Configurations .186 5.2.1 Low-Power Batteries Using Cylindrical 5.2.2 Carbon-Zinc Primary Low-Power Batteries and Their 5.2.3 Performance Capabilities and Limitations of Alkaline 5.2.4 History of Primary Lithium-Based Batteries and Their 5.2.5 Nickel-Metal-Hydride, Nickel-Cadmium, and 18.104.22.168 Peculiarities in Rechargeable Batteries .193 22.214.171.124 Design Considerations for Small Low-Power 126.96.36.199 Frequent Mathematical Expressions Used in 188.8.131.52 Contributing Factors to Battery Weight .195 5.3 Batteries for Miniaturized Electronic System Applications .195 5.3.1 Brief Description of Rechargeable Batteries Best Suited 184.108.40.206 Characteristics of an Alkaline Battery for a 220.127.116.11 Performance Characteristics of a Battery Best 18.104.22.168 Characteristics of a Battery Best Suited 5.3.2 Battery Suitability and Unique Performance Requirements for Aerospace Applications . 200 22.214.171.124 Potential Applications of Lithium, Alkaline, 5.4 Batteries for Medical Applications . 204 Contents ◾ xv
5.4.1 Recently Developed Batteries for Specific Medical 126.96.36.199 Performance Characteristics of Li-I2 Batteries . . . 206 5.4.2 Microbattery and Smart Nanobattery Technologies Incorporating Lithium Metal for Medical and Military 5.4.3 Low-Power Zinc-Air, Nickel-Metal-Hydride, and Nickel-Cadmium Rechargeable Batteries .210 188.8.131.52 Zinc-Air Rechargeable Batteries .210 184.108.40.206 Nickel-Cadmium Rechargeable Batteries .211 220.127.116.11 Nickel-Metal-Hydride Rechargeable Batteries. . . .212 5.5 Selection Criteria for Primary and Secondary (Rechargeable) Batteries for Specific Applications . 220 5.5.1 How to Select a Battery for a Particular Application . 220 6 Rechargeable Batteries for Military Applications .227
6.2 Potential Battery Types for Various Military System 6.2.1 Aluminum-Air Rechargeable Batteries for Military 18.104.22.168 Description of Key Elements of These 22.214.171.124 Performance Capabilities, Limitations, and 126.96.36.199 Performance Capabilities and Uses of 188.8.131.52 Bipolar Silver-Metal-Hydride Batteries for 184.108.40.206 Rechargeable Silver-Zinc Batteries for 6.3 Low-Power Batteries for Various Applications .247 6.3.1 Thin-Film Microbatteries Using MEMS Technology .248 6.3.2 Microbatteries Using Nanotechnology Concepts .248 6.3.3 Critical Design Aspects and Performance Requirements for Thin-Film Microbatteries .249 6.4 High-Power Lithium and Thermal Batteries for Military 6.4.1 Materials Requirements for Cathode, Anode, and Electrolyte Best Suited for High-Power Batteries .251 xvi ◾ Contents
220.127.116.11 Cathode Materials and Their Chemistries .251 18.104.22.168 Anode Materials and Their Chemistries .252 22.214.171.124 Electrolytes and Their Chemistries .252 6.4.2 Design Requirements for Thermal Batteries for 126.96.36.199 Design Requirements for TB1 Battery Systems . . . 254 188.8.131.52 Design Requirements for TB2 Battery 6.4.3 Environmental Requirements for Thermal Battery 6.4.4 Structural Description of the Batteries and Their 6.4.5 Actual Values of Performance Parameters Obtained 6.4.6 Conclusive Remarks on Thermal Battery Systems .257 6.5 High-Power Rechargeable Batteries for Underwater Vehicles .259 6.5.1 Performance Capability and Design Aspects of 6.5.2 Characteristics of Electrolytes Required to Achieve 6.5.3 Effects of Thermal Characteristics on the Flowing 6.5.4 Output Power Variations as a Function of Discharge Duration in Volta Stack Batteries Using Flowing 6.5.5 Impact of Temperature and DOD on the Thermal Conductivity and the Specific Heat of the Electrolytes 6.5.6 Impact of Discharge Duration on the Battery Power 6.5.7 Electrolyte Conductivity and Optimization of 6.6 High-Power Battery Systems Capable of Providing Electrical Energy in Case of Commercial Power Plant Shutdown over a 6.6.1 What Is a Vanadium-Based Redox Battery? .267 6.6.2 Potential Applications of Vanadium-Based Redox 6.6.3 Structural Details and Operating Principles of 6.7 Batteries Best Suited for Drones and Unmanned Air Vehicles .269 6.7.1 Battery Power Requirements for Electronic Drones .269 Contents ◾ xvii
6.7.3 Batteries for Countering Improvised Explosive Devices .271 184.108.40.206 History of Property Damage and Bodily 220.127.116.11 Anti-IED Techniques to Minimize Property 18.104.22.168 Battery Performance Requirements for 7 Batteries and Fuel Cells for Aerospace and Satellite System
7.2 Rechargeable or Secondary Batteries for Commercial and 7.2.1 Sealed Lead-Acid Batteries for Commercial and 22.214.171.124 Optimum Charge, Discharge, and Storage 126.96.36.199 Pros, Cons, and Major Applications of 188.8.131.52 Life Cycle of SLABs for Aircraft 184.108.40.206 Effect of Depth of Discharge on Life Cycle 7.3 Aluminum-Air Batteries for Aerospace Applications .285 7.3.1 Performance Capabilities and Limitations of Al-Air 7.3.2 Impact of Corrosion on Al-Air Battery Performance as a Function of Anode Current Density . 286 7.3.3 Outstanding Characteristics and Potential Applications of Al-Air Rechargeable Battery Systems .287 7.4 Long-Life, Low-Cost, Rechargeable Silver-Zinc Batteries Best Suited for Aerospace and Aircraft Applications .288 7.4.1 Vented Secondary Batteries Best Suited for Aircraft 7.4.2 Typical Self-Discharge Characteristics of an Ag-Zn 7.4.3 Safety, Reliability, and Disposal Requirements for 7.4.4 Typical Battery Voltage Level and Cycle Life .290 7.5 SLABs for Commercial and Military Aircraft Applications .291 xviii ◾ Contents
220.127.116.11 Performance of the EaglePicher Battery 18.104.22.168 SLAB from EaglePicher for Commercial 7.5.2 Test Procedures and Conditions for SLABs .293 7.5.3 Impact of Charge Rate and Depth of Discharge on the 7.6 Thermal Battery for Aircraft Emergency Power and 7.6.1 Performance Capabilities of LiAl/FeS2 Thermal 7.7 Rechargeable Batteries for Naval Weapon System Applications .297 7.7.1 Performance Characteristics of Li-SOCL2 Batteries .298 7.8 Thermal Battery Design Configurations and Requirements for 7.8.1 Design Aspects and Performance Capabilities of 7.8.2 Unique Performance Capabilities of Thermal 7.9 High-Temperature Lithium Rechargeable Battery Cells . 300 7.9.1 Unique Performance Parameters and Design Aspects 7.10 Solid Electrolyte Technology for Lithium-Based Rechargeable 7.10.1 Critical Role of Solid Electrolytes .301 7.10.2 Improvement in Performance Parameters of Lithium 7.10.3 Impact of Lithium Chloride Oxide Salt Concentration in the Solution of Liquid Plasticizer on Room- 7.11 Rechargeable Batteries for Electronic Drones and Various 7.11.1 Performance Requirements for Batteries Best Suited 7.11.2 Rechargeable Battery Requirements for UAVs, Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles, and MAVs . 304 7.11.3 Rechargeable Batteries for Glider Applications . 306 7.12 Rechargeable Batteries for Space-Based Military Systems and 7.12.1 Rechargeable Battery Requirements for Military Space-Based Sensors Requiring Moderate Power Levels .307 7.13 High-Power Fuel Cells for Satellites with Specific Missions .310 Contents ◾ xix
7.13.1 Performance of the MSK Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell for Communications Satellite Applications .313 7.14 Classification of Fuel Cells Based on the Electrolytes .314 7.14.1 Performance Parameters of Fuel Cells Using Various Fuels and Their Typical Applications .314 7.14.2 Comparing Fuel Cell Parameters . 315 7.15 Battery Sources for Spacecraft Applications .316 7.15.1 Application of the First Principle Model to Spacecraft 7.15.2 Typical Performance Characteristics of the 40 Ah 8 Low-Power Batteries and Their Applications .321
8.2 Performance Capabilities of Lithium-Based Batteries 8.2.1 Benefits of Solid Electrolytes in Lithium-Based 8.2.2 Total Conductivity of the Battery Material .324 8.3 Batteries for Low-Power Electronic Devices .327 8.3.1 Impact of Materials and Packaging Technology on 8.3.2 Glossary of Terms Used to Specify Battery 8.3.3 Fabrication Aspects of Batteries for Low-Power 8.3.4 Performance Capabilities and Limitations of Various Primary and Secondary Batteries for Low-Power 22.214.171.124 Carbon-Zinc Primary Batteries .330 126.96.36.199 Alkaline-Manganese Batteries .331 8.4 Performance Capabilities of Primary Lithium Batteries .331 8.4.3 Lithium-Carbon Fluoride Battery .333 8.4.4 Lithium-Sulfur-Dioxide Battery .334 8.4.5 Lithium-Thionyl-Chloride Battery .334 8.4.6 Lithium-Ferrous Sulfide (Li-FeS2) Battery .335 8.4.7 Conclusions on Lithium-Based Batteries .336 8.5 Applications of Small Rechargeable or Secondary Cells .337 xx ◾ Contents
8.5.2 Small Li-Ion Rechargeable Batteries .338 8.5.3 S-Ni-Cd Rechargeable Batteries .339 8.5.4 Nickel-Metal-Hydride Rechargeable Batteries . 340 8.5.5 Lithium-Polymer-Electrolyte Cells . 340 8.6 Thin-Film Batteries, Microbatteries, and Nanobatteries . 342 8.6.1 Structural Aspects and Performance Capabilities of 8.6.2 Thin-Film Metal-Oxide Electrodes for 8.6.3 Performance Capabilities and Applications of 8.6.4 Electrical Performance Parameters of Nanobatteries .352 8.7 Batteries for Health-Related Applications .353 8.7.1 Battery Requirements for Cardiac Rhythm–Detection 8.7.2 Various Batteries Used to Treat Cardiac Diseases .356 188.8.131.52 Li-Ion Batteries Best Suited Primarily for Diseases and to Detect Unknown Ailments .356 184.108.40.206 Li-I2 Batteries for Treating Cardiac Diseases .357 220.127.116.11 Li-AgVO2 Batteries for Treatment of Cardiac 18.104.22.168 Batteries for Critical Diagnostic Procedures .359 8.8 Batteries for the Total Artificial Heart . 360 8.8.1 Major Benefits of Li-Ion Batteries Used for Various 8.8.2 Limitations of Li-Ion Batteries .362 8.8.3 Cell-Balancing Requirements for Li-Ion Rechargeable Index .369
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