Proper usage of drugs, chemicals and feed additives in food animals

Proper Usage of Drugs, Chemicals and
Feed Additives in Show Market Animals

Floron (Buddy) C. Faries, Jr., DVM, MS
Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Definition of a Drug: Based on Usage
Any compound administered or applied
with the intent:
Approved Drug Types
 Vaccines  Antibiotics/Antibacterials  Chemicals  Hormones/Steroids Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank
Within-Label Drug Usage
 Approved drug for animal species on label  Correct route on label  Correct dosage on label  Usage on label  Withdrawal time on label Drug Withdrawal Time
 Drug elimination time for safe level in body  Drug below tolerant level in tissues  Time more than 24 hrs – not considered safe  Total drug elimination time longer than WT  Do not enter show until WT and ET expired  Drug in urine  Urine must be drug negative  Drug above tolerant level in tissues Drug Elimination Time
 Time to be eliminated from body  Do not enter show until expired  Time more than 24 hrs – considered safe Prescription Drugs
Caution: Federal law restricts this drug to
use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian Unapproved Drug Types
 Tranquilizers (ace, thorazine)  Natural tranquilizers (vitamin B6, tryptophan, herbs)  Local anesthetics (procaine, lidocaine)  Diuretics (except Lasix®, Diuril® for udder edema)  Natural dewormers (tobacco, garlic, DE)  Caffeine diuretics (coffee, tea, chocolate, soda)  Alcohol tranquilizers (beer, whiskey)  Human drugs (topical, oral, parenteral) Prohibited Drug Types
 Diethylsilbestrol  Chloramphenicol  Nitroimidazoles  Clenbuterol  Dipyrone  Fluoroquinolines  Glycopeptides  Nitrofurans (oral, topical, parenteral)  Gentian Violet  Sulfonamide (adult dairy cattle)  Phenylbutazone (adult dairy cattle) Extra-Label Drug Usage
 Approved animal drugs and human drugs
 Federal law restricts extra-label drug use by or on the order  Dispensed: Veterinarian Label  Prescribed: Veterinarian Prescription  Not permitted in feed and water  Ractopamines (Paylean®, Optaflexx®, Topmax®)  The Houston Livestock Show™ will not be testing for the presence of zilpaterol hydrochloride (Showmaxx®) in market steers.  Additionally, the Show will not be testing for the presence of ractopamine hydrochloride in market steers (Optaflexx™), market barrows (Paylean®), or market turkeys (Topmax™).  Exhibitors who choose to use these products are expected to follow all label directions, including any published withdrawal times.  The Show will not tolerate the presence of zilpaterol hydrochloride or ractopamine hydrochloride in species or classes within species for which they are not FDA approved.  The use of all other drugs, both unapproved and FDA approved, will be governed by the Junior Show Rules published in the Exhibitor Handbook. Medicated Feed
 Goats
Medicated Feed

Approved Drugs for Rabbits
 No medicated feed antibacterials  No antibiotics  No dewormers References
 Use of Preventative and Therapeutic Drugs in Show  Proper Usage of Drugs and Chemicals in Food  Proper Use of Sulfonamides in Market Show Animals LIQUAMYCIN
Each ml contains 200mg of oxytetracycline base as oxytetracycline amphoteric
For Use in Beef Cattle,
Nonlactating Dairy Cattle and Swine
injection) is a sterile, ready-to-use solution refrigeration; however, it is recommended for the administration of the broad-spectrum that it be stored at room temperature, 15°- antibiotic oxytetracycline (Terramycin) by 30°C (59°-86°F). The antibiotic activity of injection. Terramycin, discovered by Pfizer scientists, is an antimicrobial agent that is diminished in the presence of body fluids, effective in the treatment of a wide range of Discontinue treatment at least 28 days prior
LIQUAMYCIN® LA-200 ® administered to
to slaughter of cattle and swine.
cattle or swine for the treatment of
bacterial pneumonia at an intramuscular
dosage of 9 milligrams of oxytetracycline

per pound of body weight, has been
demonstrated in clinical trials to be as
effective as two or three repeated, daily
treatments of Terramycin ® Injectable at
3 to 5 milligrams per pound of body


Exceeding the highest recommended dosage level of drug per pound of body weight per day,
administering more than the recommended number of treatments, and/or exceeding 10 ml
intramuscularly per injection site in adult beef cattle and nonlactating dairy cattle, and 5 ml
intramuscularly per injection site in adult swine, may result in antibiotic residues beyond the
withdrawal period.

Reactions of an allergic or anaphylactic nature, sometimes fatal, have been known to occur in hypersensitive
animals following the injection of oxytetracycline. Such adverse reactions can be characterized by signs such as restlessness, erection of hair, muscle trembling; swelling of eyelids, ears, muzzle, anus and vulva ( or scrotum and sheath in males); labored breathing, defecation and urination, glassy-eyed appearance, eruption of skin plaques, frothing from the mouth, and prostration. Pregnant animals that recover may subsequently abort. At the first sign of any adverse reaction, discontinue use of this product and administer epinephrine at the recommended dosage levels. Call a veterinarian immediately. Shock may be observed following intravenous administration, especially where highly concentrated materials are involved. To minimize this occurrence, it is recommended that LIQUAMYCIN® LA-200 ® be administered slowly by this route. Shortly after injection, treated animals may have transient hemoglobinuria resulting in darkened urine. As with all antibiotic preparations, use of this drug may result in overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms, including fungi. A lack or response by the treated animal, or the development of new signs, may suggest that an overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms has occurred. If any of these conditions occur, consult your veterinarian. Since bacteriostatic drugs may interfere with the bactericidal action of penicillin, it is advisable to avoid giving LIQUAMYCIN® LA-200 ® in conjunction with penicillin.
STORAGE: Store at room temperature, 15°-30°C (59°-86°F). Keep from freezing.
Lasix® (furosemide)
A diuretic-saluretic for prompt relief of
Lasix ® (furosemide), a diuretic, is an anthranilic acid derivative with the following structural Caution: Federal law restricts this drug to
use by or on the order of a licensed
Lasix ® (furosemide) is a chemically distinct diuretic and saluretic pharmacodynamically characterized by the following: 1) A high degree of efficacy, low-inherent 3) A pharmacological action in the functional area of the nephron, i.e., proximal and distal tubules and the ascending limb of the loop 4) A dose-response relationship and a ratio of minimum to maximum effective dose Generic name: Furosemide (except in United Kingdom-frusemide). Chemical name: 4-chloro-N-furfuryl-5-sulfamoylanthranilic acid. 5) If may be administered orally or parenterally. It is readily absorbed from the intestinal tract and well tolerated. The intravenous route produces the most rapid diuretic response. INDICATIONS
Dogs Cats & Horses
(furosemide) is from the activity of the range. Pharmacologically it promotes the extracellular fluids. The rationale for the a result of the drug's rapid absorption producing the edema. Lasix® furosemide) excretion minimize the possibility of its associated with cardiac insufficiency and crystalluria. Lasix® (furosemide) has no inhibitory effect on carbonic anhydrase or aldosterone activity in the distal tubule. The drug possesses diuretic activity either in presence of acidosis or alkalosis 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 DOSAGE ORAL
Lasix ® (furosemide) is indicated for the
treatment of physiological parturient
One-half to one 5O mg scored tablet per 25 edema of the mammary gland and associated
pounds body weight. One 12.5 mg tablet per 5 structures.
to 10 pounds body weight. Administer once or twice daily permitting a 6- to 8-hour interval CONTRAINDICATIONS - PRECAUTIONS
between treatments. In refractory or severe Lasix ® (furosemide) is a highly effective edematous cases the dosage may be doubled or diuretic-saluretic which it given in excessive increased by increments of 1 mg per pound body electrolyte imbalance Therefore, the dosage and paragraphs “Dosage and Administration“ patient's needs. The animal should be observed PARENTERAL:
for early signs of electrolyte imbalance and DOG AND CAT
corrective measures administered. Early signs Administer intramuscularly or Intravenously 1/4 of eleclrolyte imbalance are increased thirst, lethargy, drowsiness or restlessness fatigue, Administer once or twice daily, permitting a 6- to oliguria, gastro-intestinal disturbances and 8-hour interval between treatments. In refractory tachycardia. Special attention should be given to or severe edematous cases the dosage may be potassium levels. Lasix ® (furosemide) may doubled or increased by increments of 1 mg per lower serum calcium levels and cause tetany in rare cases of animals having an existing HOW SUPPLIED
The individual dose is 250 to 500 mg (5 to Parental: Lasix ® (furosemide) injection intravenously once or twice daily at 6- to 8- hour intervals until desired results are stabilized with myristyl-gamma-picolinium evaluate the degree of edema present and adjust dosage schedule accordingly. Do
sodium sulfite 0.1% with sodium chloride not use in horses intended for food.
0.2% in distilled water pH adjusted with Tablets:
intramuscularly or intravenously is 500 mg twice daily at 12-hour intervals. Treatment 4-chloro-N-furfuryl-5-sulfamoylanthranilic not be used for food. Cattle must not be
4-chloro-N-furfuryl-5-sulfamoylanthranilic slaughtered for food within 48 hours
following last treatment.
CAUTION. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on
the order of a licensed veterinarian
Acepromazine Maleate, a potent neuroleptic agent with a low order of toxicity, is of particular value In the tranquilization of dogs, cats, and horses. Its rapid action and lack of hypnotic effect are added advantages. According to Baker,' the scope of possible applications for this compound in veterinary practice is only limited by CHEMISTRY
Acepromazine (10.(3.(dimethylamino) propyl) phenothiazin-2-yl-methyl ketonel Maleate has the ACTIONS:
depressant effect on the central nervous system and therefore causes sedation, muscular PromAce Injectable can be used as an aid in relaxation and a reduction in spontaneous activity It acts rapidly, exerting a prompt and transportation. Particularly useful when used in conjunction with local anesthesia for INDICATIONS:
firing, castration, neurectomy, removal of DOGS AND CATS
skin tumors, ocular surgery and applying casts. PromAce Injectable and Tablets can be used as an aid in controlling intractable animals during examination, treatment. grooming, x.ray, and minor surgical procedures; to alleviate itching as a result of skin irritation; as an antie-metic to control vomiting associated with motion sickness. PromAce Injectable is particularly useful as a preanesthetic agent (1) to enhance and prolong the effects of barbiturates, thus reducing the requirements for general anesthesia; (2) as an adjunct to surgery under Local anesthesia.


Case report Clin Ter 2013; 164 (3):e207-209. doi: 10.7417/CT.2013.1570 A case of sensitization to Alitretinoin T. Grieco, V. Faina, L. Dies, M. Milana, L. Alei, E. Silvestri, S. Calvieri Department of Dermatology, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy Abstract Case report Alitretinoin is a unique retinoid authorised for the treatment of adults with severe chronic hand eczem

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