Chapter 17
Review 17.1 : Psychoanalysis
At his friends’ urging, Barney has decided to seek help for the depression he has been struggling with ever since
moving away from home and starting college two months ago. He’s heard a lot about Sigmund (1) Freud’s
therapy, called (2) psychoanalysis, in which patients use (3) free association to express whatever comes to
mind in order to uncover their (4) repressed unconscious conflicts. In this therapy, analysts traditionally would
interpret their patients’ tendency to change the subject in response to difficult questions as (5) resistance, and if
a patient’s anger toward abusive family members began to be directed at the therapist, that defense would be
interpreted as (6) transference. Barney finds, however, that this therapy is practiced by only a very few
therapists and that most are instead offering an updated version called (7) psychodynamic therapy. In this
therapy, current symptoms are analyzed to consider themes across important (8) relationships, such as those
between Barney and his family members back home. Or, Barney might be helped best by the brief variation
known as (9) interpersonal psychotherapy, which may enable him to gain (10) insight into the root of his
Review Humanistic Therapies
Megan has been researching the history of therapy and has become fascinated by the therapies that emphasize
people’s inherent potential for (1) self-fulfillment, which are known as (2) humanistic therapies. These
therapies have several important characteristics that differentiate them from psychoanalysis, including focusing
on the (3) present and future rather than on the (4) past, promoting (5) growth in their clients rather than
trying to cure (6) illnesses and emphasizing (7) conscious rather than (8) unconscious thoughts. Megan further
learns that therapists such as Carl (9) Rogers, who founded (10) client-centered therapy, encouraged all
therapists to exhibit (11) genuineness —expressing their true feelings, (12) acceptance —allowing clients to
feel unconditional positive regard, and (13) empathy —sensing and reflecting their clients’ feelings, Together,
these features form Rogers’ concept of (14) active listening.
Review 17.3: Behavior Therapies
Trish recently moved across Canada for her studies, but she is so afraid of flying that she now rarely sees her
family and friends at home. This fear is interfering with her life, so Trish decides to seek help from a therapist
who uses (1) classical conditioning principles to pair the stimulus that triggers her fear (flying) with a new
response that is incompatible with that fear (relaxation), which is referred to as (2) counterconditioning. The
therapist proposes a technique called systematic (3) desensitization, which is a lype of (4) exposure therapy
that pairs (5) relaxation with gradually increasing (6) anxiety triggering stimuli (going to the airport, going to
the gate, getting on the plane, learning about flight procedures, actually taking a flight). However, Trish is
embarrassed by the idea of exposing her fears in public (at the airport). So, the therapist suggests (7) virtual
exposure therapy, which would allow Trish to work through her fears by way of vivid, three-
dimensional, computer (8) simulations.
Review 17.4: Cognitive Therapy for Depression
Lola is searching for a therapist. After her father and mother divorced, and he moved away, she began reading
about cognitive therapies, hoping those techniques might help her move on with her life. Lola learned that one
famous cognitive therapist, Aaron (1) Beck, analyzed the dreams of depressed people and found recurring
themes of loss and rejection. This famous psychologist’s goal in therapy was to reverse clients’ (2)
beliefs by questioning their (3) irrational thinking. Lola decides to try an approach in which
she will be trained to alter the way she acts ((4) behavior therapy) and the way she thinks ((5) cognitive
therapy). This (6) integrated approach is called (7) cognitive-behavior therapy. Lola’s friend Moira has been
undergoing treatment using this therapeutic approach for her obsession with germs and her compulsive hand-
washing. Moira is learning to (8) relabel her compulsive thoughts about germs. For example, she says to herself
am having a compulsive urge that is due to my (9) brain’s abnormal activity. Instead of giving in to the urge to
wash my hands, I will engage in an alternative (10) behavior, such as taking a walk.”
Review 17.5: Biomedical Therapies
Jessica’s therapist has diagnosed her with major depressive disorder and has suggested that her recovery may be
expedited if she takes an (1) antidepressant drug such as Prozac. Because her therapist is a (2) psychiatrist, he
can prescribe drugs to his patients. Unlike the (3) antianxiety drugs, which depress central nervous system
activity, these drugs work by increasing the availability of (4) norepinephrine or (5) serotonin, which are
neurotransmitters that elevate (6) mood and arousal and are (7) scarce in depression. Prozac is called a (8)
inhibitor (SSRI) because it partially blocks the reabsorption of (9) serotonin from
neural (10) synapses. If the drugs and psychotherapy together don’t work for Jessica, her therapist may suggest
the most controversial treatment for depression, (11) electroconvulsive therapy, which involves sending a brief
electrical current through the patient’s brain. Alternatively, Jessica might try (12) repetitive transcranial
stimulation (rTMS), which produces fewer side effects such as (13) seizures or (14) memory loss.


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