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Microsoft word - biology 12 biological molecules review key.docBiology 12 - Biologically Important Molecules!
Use this repeatedly this term to quiz yourself on biologically important molecules.
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Biology 12 – Biological Molecules – Review Worksheet
Part A: Mix and Match: Match the term on the right with the definition on the left. Each term can be used
only once. Write the letter of the best answer in the box to the left of the definition. (1/4 mark each -- total of 10 marks for this section) 3) two or more polypeptide chains coming together and bonding with each other 4) to permanently change the 3 dimensional structure of a protein 5) the subunit that makes up nucleic acids - 4 types in DNA are A C G T 6) the smallest unit of matter that cannot normally be broken into smaller particles 7) the process of breaking down large fat droplets into smaller fat droplets 8) the loose association of amino acids in a polypeptide chain with each other, usually through H-bonds. e.g. alpha helix, beta pleated sheet 9) the linear sequence of amino acids in a protein, which ultimately determines its shape 10) the building block of protein -- there are 20 different kinds normally found in nature 11) the bond that forms between two amino acids joined by dehydration synthesis 12) the 3-D shape of a polypeptide chain due to it folding back on itself and forming bonds. 13) creating a bond between two atoms by taking OH from one atom and H from the other 14) breaking a bond between two atoms by adding OH to one atom and H to the other 15) biological catalysts, composed of protein, that speed up chemical reactions 16) ATP - the molecule that carries energy in the cell 17) any molecule with the molecular formula Cn(H2O)n Q) 18) an important component of cell membranes, has a hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tail 19) an enzyme that breaks down maltose to two glucose molecules 20) an atom or molecule that has either lost or gained electrons 21) a weak bond due to the attraction between partial charges on hydrogen, oxygen, and 22) a polymer of glucose, used as a structural component of plant cell walls 23) a polymer of glucose, used as a storage form for glucose in animals HH 24) a polymer of glucose, used as a storage form for glucose in plants 25) a loss of Hydrogen atoms (or electrons) 26) a lipid that is an important component of cell membranes and from which steroid 27) a lipid composed of glycerol joined to 3 fatty acids 28) a large organic molecule formed from a chain or chains of amino acids AA 29) a large molecule made by joining together smaller identical (or similar) molecules EE 30) a gain of Hydrogen atoms (or electrons) 31) a fatty acid whose carbons are all joined to the maximum number of hydrogens 32) a fatty acid that has a "kink" in it due to a double bond between carbon atoms 33) a disaccharide consisting of two glucose molecules 34) a class of molecules that includes neutral fats and steroids 35) a chemical that resists changes in pH 36) a 6 carbon sugar that forms a 6-membered ring -- used as energy source by cells 37) three carbon that joins with fatty acids to produce triglycerides KK 38) molecules that store genetic information (e.g. DNA and RNA) Part B - Short Answers - 1/2 Mark for each blank
1. At pH of 7, [H+] = [OH-]. Below pH 7, which of these is greater? [H+]. Bases have a pH that is
GREATER than 7.
2. The primary structure of a protein is a polymer of AMINO ACIDS. The secondary structure is
characterized by the alpha HELIX. The tertiary structure is its 3-D shape, and the quarternary
structure is the association of more than ONE polypeptide chains.
3. The molecule that cells "burn" during respiration to produce ATP is GLUCOSE.
4. An unsaturated fatty acid contains less HYDROGEN than a saturated one.
5. Both DNA and RNA are polymers of NUCLEOTIDES, each of which contains a nitrogenous
BASE, a 5-carbon SUGAR, and a PHOSPHATE group.
6. The molecule on the right is what type of molecule? AMINO ACID. What is
the empirical formula of the "R" group? CH3S. Which side, left or right is the
amino group? RIGHT Which side, left or right is the acid group? LEFT
7. What are the four classes of organic compounds? PROTEINS,
CARBOHYDRATES, LIPIDS, NUCLEIC ACIDS
8. The molecule below belongs to what class of molecule? CARBOHYDRATE
The hydrolysis of this molecule would produce what molecule? GLUCOSE
9. Of the classes listed in question 12, which is: a) most concerned with energy transformations CARBOHYDRATES
b) the class that forms enzymes PROTEINS
c) makes up genes NUCLEIC ACIDS
d) the class that is capable of storing the most energy per gram LIPIDS
10. What type of molecule is the molecule to the right? MONO-UNSATURATED FATTY
ACID. Molecules made of these molecules joined to glycerol would be at what state at
room temperature? LIQUID
The molecule at left is what type of molecule? PURINE
NUCLEOTIDE Label the parts of this molecules:
5-CARBON SUGAR (DEOXYRIBOSE)
Nucleotides are connected together by bonds that form between the PHOSPHATE of one nucleotide and the SUGAR of
13. Three molecules composed of nucleotides are DNA, RNA, ATP
14. PHOSPHOLIPIDS are lipids containing phosphorous that are particularly important in the
15. EMULSIFICATION is the act of dispersing one liquid in another, as fat in water.
16. Inorganic compounds are compound that do not contain CARBON atoms.
17. List 5 function of proteins, along with an example of each:
MALTASE, TRYPSIN, PEPSIN
IMMUNE SYSTEM COMPONENTS
MUSCLE (e.g. ACTIN & MYOSIN FIBRES)
PEPTIDE HORMONES (e.g. INSULIN)
18. There are a total of EIGHT amino acids that the human body can't manufacture, and so must be
obtained from food. These are called ESSENTIAL amino acids.
19. Use the following words to describe the making of a protein (an expression may be used more tertiary structure, hydrophobic interactions, water,-COOH, polypeptide chain, Dehydration synthesis, -NH2, secondary structure, hydrogen bonding, covalent bonds, helix, primary structure, peptide bonds DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS between amino acids joins -NH2 groups to -COOH groups (in the
process WATER molecules are removed) to form a POLYPEPTIDE CHAIN. The bonds so
formed are called PEPTIDE BONDS. The sequence of amino acids is called the PRIMARY
STRUCTURE. The SECONDARY STRUCTURE is often in the form of an alpha helix, which is
due to HYDROGEN BONDING between amino acids in the chain. The TERTIARY STRUCTURE
is the three dimensional shape of the protein as it folds back on itself. This structure is held
together by HYDROGEN BONDING, HYDROPHOBIC INTERACTIONS, and COVALENT
BONDS between R groups. The shape of the protein is determined by its PRIMARY
STRUCTURE. The function of the protein is determined by its PRIMARY STRUCTURE.
20. A protein that has lost its precise three dimensional shape has become DENATURED. Three
things that can cause a protein to become denatured are HEATING, PH CHANGES,
METABOLIC POISONS (LIKE HEAVY METALS E.G. LEAD, MERCURY, CADMIUM)
21. Two main functions of carbohydrates in living systems are in SHORT-term energy sources, and
structural components of cell WALLS in plants.
22. STARCH has few side branches of glucose chains, and is the storage form of glucose in plants.
Since it contains many glucose molecules joined together, it is called a POLYSACCHARIDE.
23. GLYCOGEN has many side branches of glucose chains, and is the storage form of glucose in
ANIMALS. The LIVER is the main organ that produces, breaks down, and stores this
24. "Roughage" or "Fibre" in our diet is actually due to the presence of CELLULOSE, another polymer
of glucose found only in PLANTS.
25. A pentose sugar contains FIVE carbons, while a hexose sugar contains SIX. An example of a
pentose monosaccharide is RIBOSE OR FRUCTOSE. An example of a hexose is GLUCOSE.
26. Table sugar is a DISACCHARIDE made of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of the
27. Lipids are organic compounds that are INSOLUBLE in water. In the body, they serve as LONG-
term energy storage molecules. Lipids include fats, OILS, and WAXES.
28. The 3 most important classes of lipids are neutral fats, PHOSPHOLIPIDS, and STEROIDS.
29. Oil, fat, butter are all composed of lipid molecules called TRIGLYCERIDES (or NEUTRAL FATS).
Neutral fats are composed of two types of molecules: GLYCEROL and FATTY ACIDS.
30. Most fatty acids contain about 16 TO 18 carbon atoms in a long chain. Saturated fatty acids have
no DOUBLE bonds between carbon atoms, and tend to be solid at room temperature.
Unsaturated fatty acids are most often found in vegetable oils, and account for the fact that they
are liquid at room temperature.
31. Butter contains a large proportion of UNSATURATED fatty acids. Excess intake of this type of
fatty acid is known to cause HEART attacks and strokes.
32. Soap is a MOLECULE formed when a FATTY ACID is reacted with an inorganic base such as
NaOH. Soap allows oils to be mixed with water by EMULSIFYING the oils.
33. A phospholipid is a lipid made of glycerol, 2 fatty acids, and a phosphate group. It is the primary
component of membranes. The phosphate "head" is HYDROPHILIC, the tail is HYDROPHOBIC.
34. STEROIDS are small lipids containing rings that are all derived from cholesterol. An important
function of these compounds are sex HORMONES like progesterone.
35. Place the following terms in order of increasing size: DNA, nucleus, RNA, cell, nucleotide, gene, chromosome: NUCLEOTIDE, RNA, DNA, GENE, CHROMOSOME, NUCLEUS, CELL
36. DNA stores genetic information. RNA carries a copy of that information (e.g. a message to make
insulin) to the ribosomes where PROTEINS are assembled.
37. What type of molecule is the molecule drawn below? PHOSPHOLIPID
38. What is the best one-word description for the molecule to the right? DIPEPTIDE
Circle the bond that was created when this molecule was formed. What is the name of this type of
39. a) To what class of molecules does the molecule below belong? STEROID
b) Why are these molecules grouped with lipids? BECAUSE
THEY ARE NON-POLAR AND INSOLUBLE IN WATER
40. What type of molecule is the one below? NUCLEOTIDE What is its full name? ADENOSINE
TRIPHOSPATE (ATP). Circle the bond that stores the most energy.
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