sécurité alimentaire en Afrique Synthèse des principaux résultats et recommandations. Contexte Devant le poids écrasant des famines qui à faire face à de nombreux déﬁs, tels que les L’évaluation a été conduite dans trois pays de ont frappé l’Afrique subsaharienne dans les difﬁcultés constantes de l’agriculture africaine trois régions d’Afrique subsaharienne
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prairie dog towns, or from infected wild Don’t Catch That -or-
Disease Risk Reduction & Rodent
Pets can also contract plague, and plague WITHIN THIS
can be transmitted from mammal to mammal via inhalation (hence the term It has been four days since you filled kill jars with rare, inquiline Aphodius and “epizootic”) will course through a rodent Onthophagus you so painstakingly exca- white-tailed prairie dogs was tracked as it slowly spread across northeast Arizona during 1995. After mass die-offs of their started running a fever. After some aspi- infected fleas will concentrate near the rin and a few restless hours of sleep you mal passing by or entering the burrow is like ringing the flea dinner bell—in the The Plague Scooper 2000™
Malaysian Jungle Rumble
you have to get to the hospital soon. You dog towns. You can still get plague from know you will have to explain to the doc- fleas even in active burrows, however.
tors what you no doubt have, because if you don’t you could die before they get the diagnosis correct. You know that anti- albeit the incidence of infection is low, Sweet Smellin’ Stuff
grisly death. You also know that you will States, so obviously, rubbing Triatoma or Nikon 200 mm Close-Up Lens
Rhodnius feces into an open wound or historical killer of millions, is the only Bugs on the Net
solace is knowing that “. at least it isn’t tracting Chagas, various fungal diseases and Hanta viruses via inhaling dust dur-ing burrow excavations. The highest The Ultimate Collecting Hat?
This is not as unlikely a scenario as one potential mortality from these is perhaps so far been isolated only from field mice Rich and Barney’s Excellent
(Peromyscus). At least one wood rat Adventure
(Neotoma) has tested positive for expo- sure, but it was believed to be infected, man. Fleas of prairie dogs, ground squir- not infectious. Still, although inquiline rels, marmots, wood rats, rock squirrels, scarab collectors would normally not tar- use Neotoma mounds and other larger rodent nests as sites for their own nests, Infection Prevention
some side-to-side play in the connection so that the ladle can go around mild bur- 5) To use, simply jam the ladle end down a burrow, turn it so that the ladle scoop is labeled ectoparasite repellents for appli- cation to human clothing. Permethrin has an advantage in that, in addition to hav- ing repellent activity, it is also an insecti- and overkill given the low probability of scraped-up fleas too), or you dump it into a five-gallon pail and move quickly to the next burrow. The pail’s contents can be with the very high mortality experienced between yourself and the potentially haz- ardous burrow biota,” Scarabs would through a Berlese funnel later. I found a States, it might be prudent to err to the five-gallon pail more than sufficient to interested in collecting the fleas, simply blow onto the dirt in the pail and fleas lon plastic pail, will keep you about as far will start “popping” about in response to tried-and-true Aphodius collecting cally possible. It has been successfully method that, for lack of a better name, we used in its first outings in Arizona and will call “Gordoning.” This consists of Colorado to collect series of a new Aph- around rodent dung (or any dung, for that lying down on the ground at the entrance odius and Aphodius dentigerulus in white-tailed and black-tailed prairie dog yourself to diseases and parasites. Being arm into the burrow as deeply as you can, prepared and taking a few simple steps to and scraping back the soil on the bottom avoid inhalation or ingestion of the “bee- of the burrow with your hand or a spoon. host to ectoparasites of the “medium’s toring fleas, as history has proven. It also 1) Go to the “dollar store” and buy a ladle with a scoop diameter of about 2.5 inches breathing in airborne pathogens, finding (~ 7 cm.). You can also steal the one in the business end of a rattlesnake by the Scarab Collecting in Malaysia -or-
with a pair of large incisors belonging to The Rumble. In the Jungle
bacilli can survive in soil for a little while. So, if you do this, I recommend you wash it well prior to that next bowl still get the beetles? The answers lie in proper clothing, chemical repellents, and self and the potentially hazardous burrow inch electrical conduit, or similar diame- ter stiff, lightweight piping. The end of a pants, with the cuffs stuck into the socks, and preferably a long-sleeved, light-col- 3) Drill a hole through both walls of the ored shirt with the cuffs inside of gloves. (FAX). Of all the trips offered, the trip to Generally, most collectors will skip the about once inch (2-3 cm.) from one end.
gloves and long-sleeved shirts and opt for blue jeans. I can tell you from per- 4) Fit the ladle handle inside the pipe and I was fortunate enough to save up for the sonal experience (with a severe cat flea affix it to the pipe with a cotter pin, bolt, not-insignificant cost ($2,940.00 per per- infestation at a dairy I visited a few years ago) that fleas are very difficult to dis- holes in the tube and the hole in the end of the ladle handle. (Drill one if there is is an account of this trip in hopes of sup- not one there already.) It is best to have to make any future trips productive, pre- great right there in the hotel, offering forewarned, this drug is very expensive.
Even though this trip is designed for lep- Two tablets of the antibiotic Cipro were Kuala Lumpur - The Capital
idopterists, I reasoned that, “Where there dispensed in case of traveler’s diarrhea, are great butterflies, there will be great scarab beetles.” This assumption, as we shall see, proved to be true, not only for Getting There
The Big Question
Airlines was memorable. It should be, as Los Angeles, for a nine hour difference. friend, Sandra. At some point during this be struck by the appearance of the flight way of discovering new localities. If the plant is known, the collectors will look up references to the distribution records time to “pop the question” would be. for that plant in botanical books. Go find the plant, and whamo!, there’s the bug! Wouldn’t life be simple if we could sim- ply do this for Bolbolasmus variabilis your choice of two entrees. Red or white So, I took his advice and asked her on the elettes (hot or cold) are offered at appro- The first day was spent touring the capi- soned, probably correctly, that if I asked priate times, as well as a nice, malty beer her after I set out my own human dung Vaccinations and Medicines
the capital city of Malaysia. This trip was In preparation for this trip, Expedition attended by only four people, so we were were a few small displays of insects. The on our own for the first day. Travelers to main thrust of this museum is the anthro- cholera and (2) yellow fever. This infor- After lunch, Batu Cave, a fantastic lime- here in Tucson. Cholera inoculations are inside was visited. The cave entrance is infested steps. Next we toured the Royal booster, (2) polio booster (needed if you After a rest at the hotel, we walked to a have not had a booster as an adult) (3) the So, guess what country in Southeast Asia fers lifelong immunity) and (4) Japanese At the airport, you can exchange dollars for ringgits, the Malaysian equivalent of three shots, with the last two given one our dollar. The ringgit is designated as Cameron Highlands
“RM” on merchandise, to distinguish it Japanese encephalitis inoculation is rec- the ringgit was worth just under 40 cents, all months of the year, according to the getting you roughly 2.5 ringgits per dol- rolling hills of oil palm plantations. We lar. We traded $300 dollars, and used less than half of it, as credit cards are widely Malaria protection is best offered by the (Trogonoptera brookiana) were abun- protects against the new strains resistant Instead, they tend to flit around in a lei- sticks. Nets were fashioned from plastic bags, attached to a wire hoop taped to a Rover (driven at Indianapolis 500 speeds ings. The term “resort” is a bit of a mis- roadside, probably a paradise for collec- bungalows. The best collecting is at the A Neat Extendable Net
Our lodging was at the finest place in the Contact information is P. O. Box 81, Lot 195 & 196, Tanah Rata, 39000 Cameron glass telescoping net from Japan. It tele- scopes with a quick twist of the wrist to they are forewarned first. The toilets are flush. By “flush” I mean they are embed- ded flush in the floor. This is the only sea level. My second-floor room (#421 in night. It has a covered porch, facing jun- with a large plastic cup, which is filled gle, where a sheet can be taped. I ran a parents live in Taiping, so he visited each day while we collected. He returns late in the afternoon with fresh fruit and fantas- Cheirotonus parryi, belonging to the dynastid Xylotrupes gideon flew in as were big, varied and spectacular. The same can be said of the moths, which A Local Dealer
at this high elevation, yielding only a few Sphingidae, the Atlas Moth (Attacus), specimens of Onthophagus. It should the Comet Moth (Argema) and the large also be mentioned that I set out ferment- stopped for a short visit at the home of Urania Moth (Lyssa). The big saturniids ing malt and banana traps at the three pri- mary localities visited this trip. These yielded no specimens. Yet, at the butter- Chalcosoma atlas (both sexes) and many bag the rare Elephant Beetle, an unusual rutelinid with a long, recurved head horn lands, side trips included the BOH (Best of the genus Ceropleophana. I also took dom-collected Fruhstorferia, which Falls; and a drive to the top of Brinchang looks more like a male stag beetle than a Mountain, where Lepidoptera hilltop.
insects stored bulk in alcohol, and also Another interesting trip was at the 31 km board rectangles. At no time did I see any here as well. Forget cheesecloth or gauze small village of aboriginal people behind mens. Perhaps they were all collected at for holding the bait in Malaysia—it rains jungle along a stream. At a couple spots, ably. “Barney Bags” are the only way to the locals collect insects for a dealer in Maxwell Hill Resort
for large, iridescent Buprestidae, adults and children net butterflies along stream Hill Resort, near the city of Taiping. This clearings, others bring in giant walking At the bottom of the hill, the big black white plates) and Volume II (384 pp. plus Kudos to Cheng
and yellow birdwing Troides helena was well Hill area, but never came across any. A book titled The Butterflies of the Malay Peninsula by A. S. Corbet and H. M. Pendleberry (595 pp. plus 69 plates), side of the road. The roads are not well marked, and it would have been difficult tographing a spectacular green damselfly (Neurobasis chinensis chinensis) he gave though, we visited a bookstore. I picked lecting sites, and tutored us beforehand. about $10. Of most interest is Common At the conclusion of the trip, he gave us Malaysian Beetles, by Vincent Weng- North, to Langkawi
a list of all the localities we collected, for $RM 26.40. Of lesser interest is Com- After a quick tour at a place where batik mon Malaysian Moths, by Avril Fox (105 prints are made and sold, we took a short Cheng’s “real” job is a quality control pp. plus 32 color plates) for $RM 25.20, flight to Langkawi Island, situated in the manager in a Japanese textile factory in and also Common Malaysian Butterflies, loves old American pop and 50’s music. plates) for $RM 25.20. These handy little der, in the Indian Ocean. A short taxi ride Your Cheatin’ Heart, by Ray Charles, is from the airport brought us to Best West- ern’s luxurious Berjaya Langkawi Beach Resort. The lodgings here are very nice, buffets included. There is a beach, three him several months’ notice. His address pools, tennis courts, a gym, and all the Dung trapping is good here, but I did no light collecting, as our chalet was in the middle of the resort, in disrupted forest, but with a beautiful view of the ocean. I should I ever return. With this in mind, I wrote down the numbers of some of the chalets I think would be ideal—they are If I Did It Again
-12, -14, -19, -20, -21, -22, -30, -31, -32 lighter. Though I brought no generator, I two little 20-30 foot cords should do, and needed. I taped the sheet to a window in A little time can be spent at a crocodile discounted price, which is the first price “kicks the bucket” they use its hide for apparel, which is sold at their gift shop at exorbitant prices, along with a certificate Coleopterists should note that taxis are Moths are covered by An Introduction to available by the hour at reasonable rates. the Moths of South East Asia, by H. S. Barlow (305 pp. plus 51 color plates) for roadside cutdown, I would not hesitate to may be the two-volume set Wayside Trees of Malaysia, by E. J. H. Conner. terfly collectors. It will be a trip you will ness (first) class, a nice added touch.
referred to as “dog-nose distortion.” The New Address
narrower angle of view also means that there will be less of the background in life schooling and has taken a position in lens brings. For general photography, it gly or in combination, will yield all sorts of other higher magnification ranges. Of Getting the flash out over the lens, where it belongs, is another consideration. For company called Really Right Stuff (P. O. tifully on lenses of other manufacturers.
phone (805) 528-6321, FAX (805) 528-7964). Though extremely well made, it is Avon Skin-So-Soft
not cheap either, selling for $186.00. The flash must be connected to the camera by Effective insect repellents are worth their weight in gold, especially while collect- 3670). They carry all sorts of nifty acces- ing in the tropics. Trouble is, whatever is in those concoctions that repels critters Bugs on the Net
Original Scent (#315-262) and Herbal Fresh Scent (#315-277). It is touted as an effective moisturizer plus a repellent of said this newsletter was occasional), the mosquitoes, fleas and deer ticks by virtue this setup. It is heavy, bulky, and takes of a plant-based insect repellent. It also time to assemble, even if the flash arm if left screwed onto the tripod socket of the their e-mail address listed in a forthcom- fluid ounce tube normally sells for $9.95, but often is sold on sale for $7.95.
The “ED IF” designation denotes that this lens is made of expensive extra-low In the equestrian world, this material is dispersion glass and focuses internally. mixed with traditional insect repellents These are desirable qualities. The special has several web sites that may be of inter- glass scatters light less than regular opti- beater. Now, anything that can keep flies cal glass, yielding brighter, truer colors. The Coleopterists’ Society has a page at main page offers the following headings: hands (or on the tripod) because it does Nikon’s New Macro Lens
not grow longer or shorter as you focus.
Officers, The Coleopterists’ Bulletin, Upcoming Meetings, News and Notices, “Big Daddy” of its famed macro lenses, a couple of things. You can achieve a 1:1 this a lens that scarabaeologists should reproduction ratio at a staggering 19 plus inches from the subject. But getting close, say with a shorter 105 mm lens, is tion, and can afford the hefty cost, the answer is decidedly “No.” As of this writing, this piece of glass was selling at proportions of the subject are truer, in that the part of the subject closest to the this is the “gray market” price, including lens will not be disproportionately larger only the international warranty. You must Of more general interest, the Department Tilley also sells other apparel designed with the traveler in mind: pants and shirts authored the popular book An Inordinate Fondness for Beetles. The Los Angeles Rich and Barney’s Adventure
have seen this book for sale at Barnes & Discover magazine (May, 1997, page 108) and included a collage of Plusiotis Speaking of Chuck Bellamy, check out the page from the Department of ing, Inc. is the company that reprints important, previously published works find links to most any web site of inter- page listing their publications, as well as est. The world still awaits Bill Warner’s software specially written for generating Wolfsgarden Books is the company that publishes new projects. The Ceramby- cidae was the focus of the first efforts, relationships of Coleoptera (and the sub- The Ultimate Collecting Hat?
y.arizona.edu/tree/eukaryotes/animals/arthropoda/ We have all been there: you buy a cheapo The Occasional Papers of the Consor- bug hat, wear it, then get rained on (or tium Coleopterorum is the journal we are This page originates from the University put it in the wash) and presto! Your hat no omy, etc. This would have a fairly short expect, U of A has a large collection.
review time with a limited subscription to some major institutions and a large Billed as the world’s finest hat, “The so they can fill requests for their articles. Our motivation is to get monographs into tion System) has a home page of the ITIS instructions for ordering, as your tradi- tional hat size will often be too small. ton, is insured against loss, has a lifetime Longicornia Malayana by Francis Pas- windy weather. The brim stiffens in the rain, which is great for Pleocomaniacs The Tribe Onciderini, Parts. I & II by Monographie Des Cetoines by H. Gory Wolfsgarden Books has these titles avail-able: Checklist of the Cerambycidae and Dis-teniidae of the Western Hemisphere. by Miguel Monné & Edmund Giesbert. This project is updated each year.
Natural History Books
Illustrated Revision of the Cerambycidae of North America, Volume I, by John Chemsak.
The titles now available from L.A. Out-of- Print, On-Demand Publishing, Inc. From Miguel A. Monné, Catalogue of From Gayle Nelson, Catalogue of the Buprestidae of North America. This Neuroptera, Ephemeridae, Odonata, etc.
Rhyncota: Homoptera-Cicadidae, Fulgoridae Museum, South Africa) and Henry Hespenheide (Life Sciences, UCLA), Systema Cerambycidarum by James Thomson, 1866; 540 p. $156 The Buprestidae of Mexico, a multi-vol-ume set, with illustrated keys and color Cerambycidae Of North America by E. G. Linsley & J. A. Chemsak Parandrinae, Prioninae, Spondylinae, Aseminae, 1962 $78 Also from Charles Bellamy, Catalogue of Buprestidae of World, two volumes.
Cerambycinae (Elaphidioni-Rhinotragini), 1963 Cerambycinae (Callichromini-Ancylocerini), 1964 A monograph on Scarabaeidae of North America, a multi-volume work contain- ing illustrated keys and color photos of the species is still in formative stages.
Wolfsgarden Books has these titles available: Checklist of the Cerambycidae and Disteniidae of the Western Hemisphere. by Martins in Brazil, The Cerambycidae of Miguel A. Monné & Edmund Giesbert, 1995 edition. Price $74.60.
South America, a multi-volume set, of course.
Illustrated Revision of the Cerambycidae of North America, Volume I, by John A. Chemsak. Price $138.60 From John A. Chemsak, Illustrated Revi-sion of the Cerambycidae of North America, Volume II, the Lepturinae. We are making good progress on this number of species that appeared in the first volume. The following volume will We are looking forward to the release later this year of the French translation of the Illustrated Revision of the Ceramby-cidae of North America. Vol. I, by John A. Chemsak, translated by D. Keith.
Integrating linguistic and domain knowledge for spoken dialogue systems in multiple domains Myroslava O. Dzikovska, James F. Allen, Mary D. Swift Abstract comes with its own ontology, many aspects of spoken dia-logue interaction are common across domains. This obser-One challenge for developing spoken dialogue sys-vation has led us to develop a new method that customizes atems in mu