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Technical Data Report
GUACATONGA
(Casearia sylvestris)
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P re prin te d f ro m He rba l Se cre ts of th e R ain fore st, 2nd edition, by Leslie Taylor Published and copyrighted by Sage Press, Inc., 2002 Guacatonga
Fam ily:
Flacourtiaceae
Genus: Casearia
Species: sylvestris
Synonyms: Samyda parviflora L., Casearia parviflora L., Anavinga samyda Gaertn. f.
Common Names: Burro-kaa, café-bravo, cafeiillo, café silvestre, congonhas-de-bugre, corta-
lengua, crack-open, dondequiera , erva-de-bugre, erva de pontada, guayabillo, guacatonga,
guassatonga, mahajo, papelite, pau de lagarto, piraquina, raton, sarnilla, ucho caspi, wild coffee
Parts Used: Bark, leaves, root
Guacatonga grows as a shrub or small tree usually 2 or 3 meters tall, but sometimes grows up to 10 meters in undisturb ed areas of the A ma zon. In the clay soils of the Amazon, the plant hasadapted for ab sorption and support b y form ing extensive lateral roots that are w hite, stiff, andcovered with a corky bark. The tree produces small white, cream, or greenish flowers, which smelllike a mixture of honey and urine, crowded on short stalks on the leaf axils. After flowering itproduces small fruits, 3–4 mm in diam eter, which split open to reveal three brown seeds coveredwith a red -to-orange aril. Guacatonga grows wild throughout the tropics, adapting to both forestsand plains. It is native to Cuba, Jam aica, Hispaniola, Puerto R ico, the Caribbean, Central America,and So uth America (including Brazil, Peru, Argentina, Uruguay, and Bolivia ).
Guacatonga has a rich history in herbal m edicine systems in nearly every tropical country where it grow s. The Karajá Indians in Brazil prepa re a b ark m aceration to treat diarrhea; the Shipibo-Conibo Indians of Peru use a decoction of the bark for diarrhea, chest colds and flu. Other Indiantribes in Brazil mash the roots or seeds of guacatonga to treat wounds and leprosy topically.
Indigenous peoples throughout the Ama zon rainforest have long used guacatonga as a snakebiteremedy. A leaf decoction is brewed that is applied topically and also taken internally. The samejungle remedy is used topically for bee stings and other insect bites. This native use found its wayout of the rainforest and into current herb al m edicine practices in cities and villages in SouthAmerica. It has been validated by scientists in the last several years who documented the leafextract as capable of neutralizing several types of bee and snake venoms.1–3 Guacatonga has a long history of use in Brazilian herbal medicine, documented in early folk medicine books as an antiseptic and cicatrizant for skin diseases (in 1939), as a topical anesthetic(in 1941), and as an anti-ulcer drug (in 1958). It is currently used in Brazilian herbal medicinesystems as a blood purifier, anti-inflam ma tory, and antiviral to treat rheum atism, syphilis, herpes,stomach and skin ulcers, edema, fevers of all kinds, diarrhea, and as an anesthetic and hemostaticfor m ucous and skin lesions. It is also employed topically for burns, wounds, rashes, and such skindisorders as eczema and vitiligo. The natural herbal remedy calls for 20 grams of dried leavesinfused in 1 liter of water; quarter-cup amounts are taken orally 2–3 times daily.
The plant is also a popula r herbal remedy employed in Bolivian herbal medicine, where it is considered to be analgesic, antacid, anti-inflammatory, antiulcerous, antimutagenic, antitumorous,vulnerary, and hemo static. There it is used to treat skin diseases, canc er, stomach ulcers,snakebite and bee stings, herpes, and in dental antiseptic mouthwash products.
The chemical makeup of guacatonga is quite complex. Scientists conducting the antivenin research discovered that the leaves and tw igs of the plant co ntain a phytochemical called lapachol.3This is the well known and studied anticancerous/antifungal compound from which anotherrainforest plant, pau d’arco (Tab eb uia impetiginosa), gained much renown. (Pau d’arco is alsofeatured in this book.) W hile other researchers have been studying the antica ncerous andantitum orous properties of guacatonga, a completely different set of phytochemicals has fueled their interest. These compounds, called clerodane diterpenes, are found abundantly in guacatonga.
Clerodane diterpenes have been tested for a wide range of biological activities ranging from insectantifeedants, to antitumorous, anticancerous, and antibiotic agents, to H IV replication inhibitors. Someof the clerodane diterpenes documented in guacatonga are novel chemicals which scientists havenamed casearins (A thru S). The research on guacatonga’s anticancerous properties began in 1988 by Japanese researchers from the Tokyo College of Pharmacy and Pharmacognosy . They published oneprelim inary trial in 1988 on their disco very of these novel clerodane diterpenes and their cytotoxicand antitum orous activities. The study indicated that an ethanol extract of the leaf showed strongantitumorous activity in laboratory mice with sarcomas.4 As soon as they made this discovery, theyrushed to patent it, filing a Japanese patent for the casearin chemicals they’d discovered as newantitumorous agents.5 They published a follow-up study in 1990, again reporting their results frominjecting mice with sarcomas with an ethanol extract of guacatonga leaves (100 mg per gram ofbody weight) and confirm ing their previous findings.6 They then tested individual casearins againstvarious human cancer cell lines and published two more studies in 1991 and 1992.7,8 These studiesreported new casearin chemicals and their antitum orous and cytotoxic actions against canceroustumors. Oddly, the Japanese researchers have not published any further studies and, since theyhad already filed patents, other research groups have not been forthcoming in funding researchdolla rs on these patented antitum orous phytochem icals. In 20 02, however, a well-known researchgroup in North Carolina discovered three new casearins in the leaves and stems of guacatonga thatthe Japanese had not (and, obviously, hadn’t patented). They named the new chemicalscasearvestrin A, B and C, and published their fi rst study in February, 2002, stating: “All threecompounds displayed prom ising bioactivity, b oth in cytotoxicity assays against a panel of tumor celllines and in antifunga l assays . . .”9 Their rese arch tested the new plant chem icals against humanlung, co lon and ovarian tumor cells and indicated all three com pounds had com para ble IC values ranging from 0.2 and 0.8 :M. This research was supported by a grant from the National CancerInstitute, National Institutes of Health (NC I) and performed by a non-profit biotech company, a largepharmaceutical company and a major university. The NCI has also performed research in-houseon clerod ane diterpenoid s found in another Casea ria plant species documenting the antitumorproperties of its novel diterpenoids10 and another university research gro up has documented thecytotoxic properties of this class of chemicals in a Casearia plant from the Madagascar rainforestas well.11 It will be interesting to see if this diversified group will actually develop these chemicalsinto new effective chemotherapeutic agents; their research is ongoing.
All other research on the chemicals and activities of guacatonga has been performed by Brazilian research groups over the years. T he first published toxicity study with rats indicated notoxicity with an ethanol extract of the leaves at 1840 mg/kg.12 This research group, at the U niversityof Saõ Paulo, studied the antiulcerogenic properties of the plant (based on its long history of useas an effective herbal remedy for ulcers). They published two studies confirming these benefits. T hefirst study, with rats (in 1990), showed that a crude leaf extract reduced the volum e of gastricsecretion by 42%, but had little effect on pH. The extract also prevented lab-induced acute gastricmucosal injury at 57.5 mg/kg, which was equivalent to the antiulcer drug ci me tidine (Tagamet®).12Ten years later they published a second rat study, documenting that a crude leaf extract protectedthe stom ach m ucosa without changing gastric pH and sped healing of acetic acid-induced chroniculcers and H. pylori ulcers.13 Another Brazilian researcher documented that a bark-and-leaf infusiondemonstrated analgesic and mild anti-inflammatory properties in mice.14 A university researcherfollowed up on the anti-inflam ma tory re search, publishing in her dissertation that a hydroalcoholicextract of the leaves was as effective against inflammation in mice as the NSAID drugs Prioxicam ®and Meloxicam ®.15 Leaf extracts have also been shown by two research groups to be active againstcommon food poisoning bacteria strains, Bacillus cerus and B. su btilis, but inactive against suchother common bacteria as Staphylococcus, Streptoccoccus, and E. co li.16,17 It will be interesting to see what happens with guacatonga’s ongoing cancer research. In the me antime, guacatonga is considered a safe plant and a natural herbal remedy for ulcers, inflammations, and pain, and will continue to be used as a snakebite rem edy throughout theAmazon jungles by the indigenous peoples.
Documented Properties and Actions: Analgesic, anesthetic, antacid, antifungal, anti-
inflammatory, anti-ulcerogenic, antivenin, antiviral, antimutagenic, antitumorous, cicatrizant,
cytotoxic, depurative, hemostatic, vulnerary
Ma in Phytochemicals: Caprionic acid, casearin A thru S, casearia clerodane I thru VI,
casearvestrin A thru C, hesperitin, lapachol, vicenin
Traditional Remed y: Twenty grams of dried leaves are infused in a liter of water and quarter-cup
am ounts are taken 2–3 times daily. Since most of the chemicals are water sol uble , powdered
leaves in tablets or capsules (2–4 grams daily) can be substituted if desired.
Contraindications: None known.
Drug Interactions: None reported.
WORLDWIDE ETHNOBOTANICAL USES
Analgesic, antacid, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antimutagenic, antitumorous, antiseptic (dental), cicatrizant, depurative,hemos tatic, insec t bite, skin diseas es, sna kebite Anti-inflammatory, depurative, diarrhea, chest and body pains,eczem a, fevers, flu, herpes, leprosy, male sexual stimulant, rheumatism, sedative, skin diseases, snakebite, syphilis, tonic,wounds Colombia
Elsew here
References
1. Borges, M., et al. “Neutralization of proteases from Bothrops snake venoms by the aqueous extract from Ca se aria sylve stris (Flacourtiaceae).” Toxicon 2001; 39(12): 1863–69.
2. Borges , M., et al. “Effects of aqueous extract of Ca se aria sylve stris (Flacourtiaceae) on actions of snake and bee v enom s and on activity of phos pholipases A (2).” Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B. 2000 Sep 1; 127(1): 21–30.
3. Borges , M., et al. “Partial purification of Casearia sylvestris Sa. extract and its anti-PLA 2 Ac tion.” Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Ser. B. 2000; 127b(1): 21–30.
4. Itokawa, H., et al. “Antitumor principles from Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Flacourtiaceae), structure elucidation of new clerodane diterpe nes by 2-D NM R spectroscopy.” Che m. Pharm . Bu ll. (Tokyo) 1988 March; 36(4): 1585–88.
5. Itokawa, H., et al. “Isolation of diterpenes as antitumor agents from plants.” Patent—Japan Kok ai Tokyo Koho–01 1989; 149, 779: 6pp.
6. Itokaw a, H., et al. “New antitumor principles, cas earins A –F, for Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Fla- courtiaceae)” Che m. Pharm . Bu ll. (Tokyo) 1990; 38(12): 3384–88.
7. Morita, H., et al. “Struc tures and c ytotoxic activity relationship of cas earins, new clerodane diter- penes from Casearia sylvestris Sw.” Che m. Pharm . Bu ll. (Tokyo) 1991 Dec; 39(3): 693–97.
8. Itokawa, H., et al. “Antitumo r subs tances from Sou th Am erican plants.” J. Pharmacobio. Dyn. 1992; 9. Oberlies, N. H., et al. “Novel bioactive clerodane diterpenoids from the leaves and twigs of Cas earia sylvestris.J. Nat. Prod. 2002; 65(2): 95–99.
10. Be utler, J. A., “Novel cytotoxic diterpenes from Ca searia arborea.” J. Nat. Prod. 2000 63 (5): 657- 61.
11. Sai Prakash, C. V., et al. “Structure and stereochemistry of new cytotoxic clerodane diterpenoids from the bark of Cas earia lucida from the M adag asc ar rainforest.” J. Nat. Prod. 2002 65 (2):100- 7.
12. Bas ile, A. C., et al. “Pharmacological assay of Casearia sylvestris. I: P rev entive anti-ulcer activity and toxicity of the leaf crude extract.” J. E thnopharm acol. 1990; 30(2):185–97.
13. Sertie, J. A., et al. “Antiulcer activity of the crude extract from the leave s of Case aria slyvestris.” Pharm aceutical B iol. 2000; 38(2): 112–19.
14. Ru ppelt, B. M ., et al. “Pharmac ologic al screening of plants reco mm ended by folk medicin e as a nti- snake venom—I. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.” Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 1991; 86,203–05.
15. Almeida, A. (Dissertation, 4/02/99) “Antitumor and anti-inflammatory effects of extract from Case- aria sylvestris: comparative study with Piroxicam and Meloxicam.” Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas,University of Saõ Paulo.
16. Chiappeta, A . D., et al. “Higher plants with biological activity—plants of P ernam buco. I.” Rev. Ins t. Antibiot. 1983; 21(1/2): 43–50.
17. de A lmeida Alves, T . M., “B iological screening of B razilian medicinal plants.” Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. May/Jun. 2000; 95(3): 367–73.
The information contained herein is intended for education, research, and informational purposesonly. This information is not intended to be used to diagnose, prescribe or replace proper medicalcare. The statem ents contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food and DrugAdministration. The plant descri bed herein is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, mitigate, orprevent any disease.
Ethnomedical Information on Guacatonga (Casearia sylvestris)
Plant Part / Location
Documented Ethnic Use
Typ e Ex tract / Ro ute
Used as an anti-inflammatory and febrifuge.
Used to treat snakebite, herpes, and syphilis.
Used as a blood purifier, skin diseases, and syphilis.
Used as a tonic, and anti-iflammatory; used to treat Used as a febrifuge, depurative; used for fevers, rheumatism, ulcers, syphilis, and eczema.
Use d for skin diseases and fev er.
Used to treat ulcers and other skin afflictions.
Us ed as an analgesic, antacid, an ti-inflam matory, antiulce r, antimu tagenic , antitumo rous , antise ptic(dental), cicatrizant, depurative, hem ostatic, used totreat insect bite, skin diseases, snakebite.
Us ed to trea t wounds and lepros y.
Presence of Compounds in Guacatonga (Casearia sylvestris)
Compound
Compound
Case aria Clerodane IICase aria Clerodane IIICase aria Clerodane IVCasearia Clerodane VCasearia Clerodane VI Biological Activities for Extracts of Guacatonga (Casearia sylvestris)
Plant Part - Origin
Activity Tested For
Type Extract
Test Model
Notes/Organism tested
panel of tumor cell linesincluding human lung, colon,and ovarian cancer.
Herpes simplex 2 in vero cells.
Plant Part - Origin
Activity Tested For
Type Extract
Test Model
Notes/Organism tested
(water-immersion) & vs. stress-induced(restraint) ulcers ulcers(water-immersion), andvs. acetic acid-induced ulcers at the same rate as the drugsPiroxicam and Meloxicam.
Escherichia coliPseudomonas aeruginosa Bothrops jararacussu venomand 48% for Lachesis mutavenom.
Plant Part - Origin
Activity Tested For
Type Extract
Test Model
Notes/Organism tested
hemorrhagic, coagulant andproteolytic activity on casein orfibrinogen induced by fivesnake venoms and two beevenoms.
Artemia salina & B. glabra Literature Cited - Guacatonga
FLORA MEDICINAL DE COLOMBIA. VOL.2/3 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL, BOGOTA. GARCIA-BARRIGA,H: BOOK : - (1975) (SECBOTANICA INST DE CIENC NAT UNIV NACL COLOMBIA BOGOTA COLOMBIA) SURVEY OF PLANTS FOR ANTIMALARIAL ACTIVITY. SPENCER,CF., ET AL., LLOYDIA 10 : 145-174 (1947) ( RES LAB MERCK +CO,INC RAHWAY NJ USA) PLANTAS MEDICINAIS BRASILEIRAS, CONHECIMENTOS POPULARES E CIENTIFICOS, DE ALMEIDA,ER: HEMUS EDITORA LTDA,SAU P AULO, BRA ZIL (1993) W ILD COFFEE, CASEARIA SYLVESTRIS SW . FRANCIS, J.K. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TROPICAL FORESTRY, U.S. DEPT OFAGRICULTURE , FOREST S ERVICE, [PO B OX 25000, RIO PIEDRA S, PR 00928-5000] ANTITUMOR AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF EXTRACT FROM CASEARIA SYLVESTRIS: COMPARATIVE STUDY WITHPIROXICAM AND MELOXICAM. ALMEIDA,A., (DISSERTATION. 4/02/99) (INSTITUTO DE CIENCIAS BIOMEDICAS) UTILIZA CAO POP ULA R DA S P LANTA S DO CE RRA DO. SIQ UEIRA , JC.: B OO K : 60- (1981) ( LO YOLA. S AO PA ULO , BRAZ IL).
PARTIAL PURIFICATION OF CASEARIA SYLVESTRIS SA. EXTRACT AND ITS ANTI-PLA2 ACTION. BORGES,MH. COMP BIOCHEMPHYSIOL SE R B 127B 1: 21-30 (2000) (DEPT G ENET B IOQUIM UNIV FED UBERLA NDIA UBERLA NDIA BRAZIL) DESCRIPCION TAXONOMICA DE ESPECIES UTILIZADAS COMO MEDINALES EN EL TROPICO DE COCHABAMBA. BAYA, A.
(DISSERTATION 2001) (JOURNAL OF THE UNIDAD DE QUIMICA FAMACEUTIC Y FRAMACOGNOSIA. UNIVERSIDAD PRIVADA DELVALLE, COCHABAMABA, BOLIVA) BIOLOGICAL S CREENING O F BRAZ ILIAN MEDICINAL PLAN TS. DE ALM EIDA ALV ES, TM., ME M INST OS W ALDO CRUZ. 95(3): 367-373MAY/JUN. 2000 (BELO HORIZON TE, MG B RAZIL) USO TOPICO DE EXTRATO FLUIDO DE FOLHA DE GUACATONGA (CASEARIA SYLVESTRIS SWARTZ) TOPICAMENTE EM LESOESDE ESTOM ATITE HEPETICA. DE CARMARGO , G. REVISTA DE FARMACIA E BIOLOGIA VOL 11:1 121-127 JAN 1993) (EDITORA DAUNIVERSIDA DE SA O FRANCISC O)(LECTA-USF BRA ZIL) MANUAL DE FITOTERAPIA 2ND EDITION (BOOK 1994) COIMBR A, R 1994 (CAMARA B RASILEIRA DO LIVRO, SP BRA ZIL) ANTITUMOR PRINCIPLES FROM CASEARIA SYLVESTRIS SW. (FLACOURTIACEAE), STRUCTURE ELUCIDATION OF NEWCLERO DANE DITERP ENE S BY 2-D NM R SP ECTR OSC OPY. ITO KAW A,H: ET A L., CHEM PHA RM B ULL 36 4: 1585-1588 (1988) ( TOKYOCOLL PHARM TOKYO 192-03 JAPAN) STR UCTURE S A ND CYTOT OXIC ACTIV ITY RE LAT IONS HIP O F CA SE ARIN S, NE W CLEROD ANE DITE RPE NES FRO M CA SE ARIASYLVES TRIS SW . MORITA,H., ET AL., CHEM PHA RM BULL 39 3: 693-697 (1991) (DEPT P HARM TOKYO CO LL PHARM TOKYO 19203JAPAN) NEW ANTITUMOR PRINCIPLES, CASEARINS A-F, FOR CASEARIA SYLVESTRIS SW.(FLACOURTIACEAE). ITOKAWA,H., ET AL., CHEMPHARM BULL 38 12: 3384-3388 (1990) ( TOKYO COLL PHARM TOKYO 192-03 JAPAN) ACE TYLA TED DNA -DAM AG ING CL ERO DAN E DIT ERP ENE S FR OM CSE ARIA SYLV ES TRIS . DE CA RVA LHO,PRF : ET A L.,PHYTOCHE MISTRY 49 6: 1659-1667 (1998) ( INST QUIM UNIV ESTA DUAL PA ULISTA ARA RAQUA RA BRAZ IL) NOVEL BIOACTIVE CLERODANE DITERPENOIDS FROM THE LEAVES AND TWIGS OF CASEARIA SYLVESTRIS. OBERLIES,NH: ETAL., J NAT PROD 65 2: 95-99 (2002) ( RESEARCH TRIANGLE INST RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK NC 27709 USA) PHARMACO LOGICAL SCREENING OF PLANTS RECOM MENDED BY FOLK M EDICINE AS ANTI-SNAKE V ENOM-1. ANALGESIC ANDANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES. RUPPELT,BM, ET AL., MEM INST OSWALDO CRUZ RIO DE JANEIRO 86 : 203-205 (1991) (DEPTFARM ACOL CCS -ICB RIO DE JANEIRO BRA ZIL) ANTIMA LARIAL EXPERIM ENTAL CHE MOTH ERAP Y USING NATURA L PRODUCTS . BRANDAO ,M: ET AL., CIENC CULT 37 7: 1152-1163(1985) ( DEPT PARA SITOL INST CIEN BIOL BR AZIL) ISOLATION O F DITERPE NES A S ANTITUM OR AGE NTS FRO M PLA NTS. ITOKA W A,H: PATENT -JAPAN K OKAI TO KKYO K OHO-01149,779 : 6PP-. (1989) ( KIRIN BREW ERY CO LTD JAPAN) PLANTS WITH A REPUTATION AGAINST SNAKEBITE. MARTZ,W : TOXICON 30 10: 1131-1142 (1992) ( INST LEGAL MEDCHRIST IAN-ALB RECH TS UN IV KIEL 2300 GER MA NY) ANTISNA KE VE NOM B OTANICALS FROM E THNOM EDICINE. SELVA NAYAHG AM,ZE , ET AL., J HERBS S PICES M ED PLA NTS 2 4:45-100 (1994) ( FORENSIC SCI DEPT MADRAS 600 004 INDIA) AM AZ ONIAN ETHNO BO TA NICA L DICTIO NARY. DUKE,J A: B OO K : 181- (1994 ) ( USA) ANTIVIRAL AC TIVITY OF SOUT H BRAZILIAN M EDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS. SIM OES,CM O., ET AL., PHYTOME DICINE 6 3: 205-214(1999) (DEPT PHA RM SCI HEA LTH SCI CENT UNIV F ED SA NTA CAT ARINA FLORIAN OPOLIS BR AZIL) ANT IULCE R AC TIVIT Y OF T HE C RUDE EXTRA CT FROM THE LEA VE S OF CA SE ARIA SLYV ES TRIS . SERTIE ,JAA , ET A L.,PHARM ACEUT ICAL BIOL 38 2: 112-119 (2000) (DEPT FAR MACO L LAB FAR MAC T OXICOL PROD NAT CIEN BIOME D UNIV SAO PAULOSAO P AULO BRA ZIL) ETHNOB OTANY IN THE S EARCH F OR VAS OACTIVE HERBA L MEDICINES . SLISH,DF, ET AL., J ETHNOPHA RMAC OL 66 2: 159-165(1999) (DEPT BIOL SCI PLATTSBURGH STATE UNIV PLATTSBURG NY 12901 USA) EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CASEARIA SYLVESTRIS (FLACOURTIACEAE) ON ACTIONS OF SNAKE AND BEE VENOMSAND ON ACTIVITY OF PHOSPHOLIPASES A2. BORGES,MH: ET.AL., COMP BIOCHEM PHYSIOL SER B 127B 1: 21-30 (2000) (DEPTGENE T BIOQUUIM UNIV FED UBE RLANDIA UBE RLANDIA BRA ZIL) NEU TRA LIZA TION OF P ROT EA SE S FR OM BOTHROP S S NAK E V ENO MS BY TH E A QUE OUS EXTRA CT FROM CAS EA RIASYLV ES TRIS (FLAC OUR TIAC EA E). BO RGE S,M H ET AL., TO XICON 39 12: 1863-1869 (2001)(DE PT G ENE TICA BIOQ UIMIC A UN IVFEDER AL UBE RLANDIA UBE RLANDIA BRA ZIL) PHARMACOLOGICAL ASSAY OF CASEARIA SYLVESTRIS. I. PREVENTIVE ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY AND TOXICITY OF THE LEAFCRUDE EXTRA CT. BASILE,AC. ET AL., J ETHNOPHA RMAC OL 30 2: 185-197 (1990) (DEPT PHA RMAC OL INST CIEN UNIV SA O PAULOSAO P AULO SP 05508 BRAZIL) ANTITUM OR SUBS TA NCE S FROM S OUTH A ME RICA N PLANTS . ITOKA W A,H ., ET AL., J PHARM ACOB IO DYN 15 1: S-2-. (1992) ( TOKYO COLL PHARM TOK YO 192-03 JAPAN) HIGH ER P LAN TS W ITH B IOLO GICA L ACTIVIT Y - PLA NTS OF P ERN AM BUC O. I. CHIA PP ETA ,ADA , ET A L., REV INST ANT IBIOT UNIVFED PERNAM BUCO RECIFE 21 1/2: 43-50 (1983) (NO ADDRESS GIVEN) A SURV EY OF ME DICINAL PLANTS OF MINAS GERAIS , BRAZIL. HIRSCHMAN N,GS ET A L., J ETHNOPHA RMAC OL 29 2: 159-172(1990) (INST INV EST CIENCIA S SA LUD FA C CIENC IAS Q UIM AS UNCION PARA GUA Y) J Nat Prod 2002 Feb;65(2):95-9
against degradation caused by B. jararacussu venom, when this Novel bioactive clerodane diterpenoids from the leaves and
venom was incubated with C. sylvestris extract. W e also observed twigs of Casearia sylvestris.
that this extract partially increased the time of plasma coagulation caused by B. jararacussu, B. moojeni and B. neuwiedi venoms. C.
Fractionation of a methanol extract of the leaves and twigs of sylvestris extract did not induce prote olysis in any substrate assayed. Casearia sylvestris, as directed by activity against KB cell cytotoxicity,led to the isolation of three novel clerodane diterpenoids,casearvestrins A-C (1-3). The structures of 1-3 were deduced from Comp Biochem Physiol B 2000 Sep 1;127(1):21-30
one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments, including relative Effects of aqueous extract of Casearia sylvestris (Flacourtiaceae)
stereochemical assignm ents based on R OE SY correlatio ns and on actions of snake and bee venoms and on activity of
CO SY coupling constants. All three com pounds displayed pro mising pho spholipases A(2).
bioactivity, both in cytotoxicity assays against a panel of tumor cell lines and in antifunga l assays via the growth inhibitio n of Asperg illus The crude a queous extract from the leaves of C asearia sylvestris, a plant found in B razilian open pastures, was assayed for its ability toinhibit phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity and some biological Phytochemistry 1998 Nov 20;49(6):1659-1662
activities of bee and several snake venoms, and of a number of Acetylated DN A-dam agin g cle rodane diterpenes from Casearia
isolated PLA(2)s. The extract induced partial inhibition of the PLA(2) sylvestris.
activity of venoms containing class I, II and III PLA(2)s. W hen tested against the purified toxins, it showed the highest efficacy against In addition to the known diterpene casearin G (1), two new cleroda ne class II PLA(2)s from viperid venoms, being relatively ineffective diterpe ne asearins type , casea rin S (2) and casearin T (3), w ere against the class I PLA(2) pseudexin. In addition, C. sylvestris extract isolated from an acetylated bioactive CH(2)Cl(2)/MeOH extract from significantly inhibited the myotoxic activity of four Bothrops crude leaves of Casearia sylvestris. The diterpene s 1-3 exhibited m oderate venoms and nine purified myotoxic PL A(2)s, including Lys-49 and but selective activity towards the DNA-repair deficient yeast Asp -49 variants. The extract was able to inhibit the anticoagulant Saccharom yces cerevisiae mutants R AD 52YK and RS 321. T he activity o f several isolated PLA(2)s, w ith the exception of pseudexin.
structures of 1-3 were established on the basis of NMR spectroscopic Moreover, it partially reduced the edema-inducing activity of B.
mo ojeni and B. jararacussu venoms, as w ell a s of m yotoxins M jTX-IIand BthTX-I. The extract also prolonged the survival time of mice Toxicon 2001 Dec;39(12):1863-9
injected with lethal doses of several snake venoms and neutralized Neutralization of proteases from Bothrops snake venoms by the
the lethal effect induced by several purified PLA(2) myotoxins. It is aqueous extra ct from Cas earia sylvestris (Flac ourtiaceae ).
concluded that C. sylvestris constitutes a rich source of PLA(2) Aqueous extract from Casearia sylvestris leaves, a typical plant fromBrazilian open pastures, was able to neutralize the hemorrhagicactivity caused by Bothrops asper, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothropsmoojeni, Bothrops neuwiedi and Bothrops pirajai venoms. It alsoneutralized two hemorrhagic metalloproteinases from Bothrops aspervenom. Proteolytic activity on casein induced by bothropic venomsand by isolated proteases, including Bn2 metalloproteinase from B.
neuwiedi venom, was also inhibited by the C. sylvestris extract indifferent levels. The alpha- fibrinogen chain was partially protected An Acad Bras Cienc 1999;71(2):181-7
Search for antifungal a nd antican cer com pounds from native

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 1991;86 Suppl 2:203-5
plant species of Cerra do and Atlantic Forest.
Pharmaco logical screenin g of plants recommen ded by folk
medicine as anti-snake venom--I. Analgesic and
Bioactivity-guided fractionation of several bioactive extracts obtained anti-inflammatory activities.
from Cerrado and Atlantic Forest plant species led to the isolation of potent DNA-damaging piperidine 1-5 and guanidine alkaloids 6-9 from W e have observed that several plants used popularly as anti-snake Cassia leptophylla and Pterogyne nitens respectively, two common venom show anti-inflammatory activity. From the list prepared by Leguminosae from Atlantic Forest. By means of biotechnological Rizzini, Mors and Pereira some species have been selected and approach on Maytenus aquifolium, a species from Cerrado, moderate tested for a nalgesic activity (numb er of contortions) and DNA-damaging sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloid 10-11 was isolated.
anti-inflam ma tory activity (Evans blue dye diffusion--1% solution) Bioassay-guided fractionation on Casearia sylvestris, a medicinal according to W hittle's technique (intraperitoneal adm inistration of 0.1 plant species found in Cerrado and Atlantic Forest, led to the isolation N-acetic acid 0.1 ml/10 g) in m ice. Previous oral administration of a of clerod ane diterpenes 12-1 3 which showed effect on D NA . In 10% infusion (dry plant) or 20% (fresh plant) corresponding to 1 or 2 addition, we have reported several interesting potent antifungal g/kg of Apuleia leiocarpa, Casearia sylvestris, Brunfelsia uniflora, iridoids: 1 beta-hydroxy-dihydrocornin (14), 1 Chiococca brachiata, Cynara scolymus, Dorstenia brasiliensis, alpha-hydroxy-dihydrocornin (15), alpha-gardiol (16), beta-gardiol Elephantopus scaber, M arsypianthes chamaedrys, M ikania glom erata (17), plumericin (18), isoplumericin (19), 11-O-trans-caffeoylteucrein and Trianosperma tayuya demonstrated analgesic and/or (20); ester derivative: 2-methyl-4-hydroxy-butyl-caffeoate (21), amide anti-inflammatory activities of varied intensity.
N-[7-(3',4'-m ethylenedioxyp henyl)-2Z, 4Z-heptadienoyl] pyrro lidine(22) and triterpene viburgenin (23).
J Ethnopharmacol 1990 Sep;30(2):185-97
Pharmaco logical assay of Casearia sylvestris. I: Preven tive

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1991 Mar;39(3):693-7
anti-ulcer activity and toxicity of the leaf crude extract.
Structures and cytotoxic activity relationship of casearins, new
clerodane diterpenes from Casearia sylvestris Sw.
An ethanol extract of the leaves of Brazilian Casearia sylvestris, given orally, inhibited gastric secretion in pylorus-ligated ra ts. At a Casearins G-R, new cytotoxic clerodane diterpenes have been prophylactic dose of 57.5 mg/kg, the extract showed a reduction of isolated from the leaves of C asearia sylvestris Sw. (Flaco urtiaceae).
gastric juice m ore e ffective than misoprostol (500 microgram s/kg). In Their structures have been elucidated by spectroscopic methods and reducing hydrochloric acid output, the extract was less effective than chemical conversions, and their structure-activity relationships have misoprostol, cim etidine (32.0 m g/kg) and atropine (5.3 mg/kg). W ith the extract, the pH of the stomach contents was not significantlydifferent from that of controls. Stress-induced lesions produced by Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1990 Dec;38(12):3384-8
restra int and water im me rsion were significantly prevented by the New antitumor principles , casearins A-F , for C asearia sylvestris
extract for all levels of severity when comp ared with the controls. The Sw . (Flacourtiace ae).
extract appeare d more e ffective than misoprostol in suppressing light lesions, was equivalent to cim etidine and misoprostol for mo dera te New antitumor clerodane diterpenes, named casea rins A-F, have lesions, and less effective than cim etidine a nd misoprostol for se vere been isolated from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris Sw.
lesions. Toxicological experiments indicated a low acute toxicity, (Flacourtiaceae). These structures have been completely elucidated confirmed by subchronic daily testing. The oral LD50 value of greater by two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, circular dichroism than 1840 mg/kg w as over 32 times higher than the antiulcerogenic spectroscopy, X-ray analysis, and chemical evidences.

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