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been detected at concentrations in the low µg l-1 range in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents. For most active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), very little fate data has been published at these low concentrations. Our experiments aimed to improve our knowledge by studying the fate of a �-blocker, propranolol hydrochloride, in laboratory batch tests and in a laboratory STP simulation. Standard regulatory batch tests, described by OECD, require the test substance to be present at 10-100 mg l -1. The batch tests covered this range and in addition, using [14C]propranolol, API concentrations typical y monitored in STP effluents. The results from these two approaches suggest that while standard batch tests indicate limited degradation, simulations demonstrated extensive removal. The possible reasons for these differences wil be presented. WEPO22/003
The effects of scale on predicting the fate of pharmaceuticals in the environment
Q.-T. Liu, Andrew M. Riddle
AstraZeneca, BRIXHAM, United Kingdom
A group of organic substances (including pharmaceuticals, pesticides and polar compounds) have been used to explore approaches to predict the
environmental fate of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). APIs represent a wide diversity of substances with different physico-chemical
properties, which in turn determine their fate and transport in the environment. Relative to many other substances, the available data on
environmental API concentrations is currently limited. In this study, physico-chemical data for twenty APIs and several reference compounds were
col ected. Al substances were plotted on a chemical partitioning map based on their log(Kow) and Henry’s Law constants. Multimedia models were
used to predict the fate of each API. The results for the APIs were compared with the reference compounds whose fate and transport characteristics
have previously been established by measurement. Partitioning predictions indicate that half of the APIs studied tend to accumulate in al three
phases. With the predominant emissions of APIs arising from sewage treatment plants to surface waters, the models indicate that some APIs are
likely to remain in the aquatic phase or are transferred to soil from sludge spreading on land.
The fate of selected human pharmaceuticals during wastewater treatment
O. Jones, Nick Voulvoulis, John Lester
Imperial Col ege London, LONDON, GREATER LONDON, United Kingdom
Pharmaceutical substances have been detected in sewage effluents as wel as receiving waters in many parts of the world. They display a variety of
removal efficiencies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) but there has been comparatively little work into the actual methods of elimination and
consequently their fate and behaviour during sewage treatment and fol owing disposal is not clear. Consequently further investigation is required in
order to assess the significance of pharmaceutical residues in terms of their persistence and potential environmental impact. An understanding of
their partitioning behavior between the solid and aqueous phases is also necessary in order to assess the fate and removal of these compounds.
Therefore, a comparison between the concentrations of some of the main pharmaceutical groups found in sewage effluents was made in order to
direct attention to the chemicals of most concern. A series of experiments was then conducted to ascertain an understanding of the binding behavior
of five drug substances sorbing to the solid phase in a lab scale activated sludge plant (Husmann unit). For comparison uncontaminated river
sediment and hydrous iron oxide were also used as substrates. Al the compounds tested partitioned more readily to the sludge than sediment or iron
oxide. Partitioning to the solid phase correlated roughly with predicted log Kow values. A period of initial sorption was fol owed by a phase of re-
equilibration and the net absorption of the selected drugs (with the exception of Mefenamic acid and Ibuprofen) after five hours of mixing was minimal.
Occurrence of antibiotics in influent, effluent, activated and surplus sludge in three municipal sewage treatment plants (STP), South-West
R. Alexy1, F. T. Lange2, A. Schöl 1, M. Metzinger2, M. Wenz2, K. Kuemmerer1
1University Hospital, IUK, FREIBURG, Germany 2DVGW-Technologiezentrum Wasser, KARLSRUHE, Germany Within a project funded by the Federal Environmental Agency, Germany, three composite samples were col ected daily from STPs of varying size. The samples were analysed for different antibiotic agents. The mixed daily samples distributed over one week were combined to a composite sample before analysis. Al analytical methods are based on automated solid-phase extraction fol owed by HPLC combinated with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS-MS).
11 different active substances were identified in the water samples as wel as in the sewage sludge of the three STPs. The measured concentrations lay within a range of up to 1.2 �g/l in the aqueous samples and up to 1.7 �g/kg in sludge. In al water samples at least three representatives of macrolides (azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin and roxithromycin) were present. In addition, two sulfonamides (sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazol), one fluoroquinolone (ofloxacin), one nitroimidazole (metronidazol) and one lincosamide (clindamycin) were found, as wel as trimethoprim and chloramphenicol. In accordance with other surface water investigations, no ß-lactam antibiotics and no tetracyclines were detected. Results of the sludge analysis show that some antibiotics, e.g. the fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, the tetracycline doxycycline as wel as some macrolides such as azithromycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin have the tendency to adsorb. WEPO22/006
Occurrence of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in river water, agricultural waste water and sewage treatment plant effluent in
A.S. Seino, Shigeki Masunaga
Yokohama National University, YOKOHAMA-SHI, Japan
In recent years, pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment has come to receive much attention in Europe and North America due to their potential to
increase antibiotic resistance in microorganism. Almost no data, however, has been reported from Japan. In this study, we wil report the levels of
human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment in Japan. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to detect those
compounds. The results indicated that some pharmaceuticals were detected in the ng/L level. In the river water, the concentrations of human
pharmaceuticals in the urban area were higher than those in the suburban area while the pharmaceuticals mainly used for veterinary treatment were
found in higher concentration in the suburban area than in the urban area. Human pharmaceuticals were also detected in the sewage treatment plant
effluent. In agricultural waste water, some antibiotics for veterinary use were detected in high concentrations up to �g/L level, which indicated possible
ecological effect in the some limited area.
Determination of sorption of steroid estrogens to activated sludge – implications for free concentrations in the activated sludge tank and
removal of steroid estrogens with excess sludge
M. Hansen1, H. R. Andersen1, F. Ingerslev1, F. Stuer-Lauridsen2, J. Kjølholt2, B. Hal ing-Sørensen1
1Danish Uni. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, COPENHAGEN, Denmark Abstracts - 290
SETAC Europe 14th Annual Meeting


– fortbildung –schwerpunkt Aggressivität, Agitiertheit, Weglaufdrang Wenn Verhaltensprobleme die Betreuung von Demenzpatienten erschweren Prof. Dr. med. Doris Bredthauer forderndes Verhalten (syn: Verhaltens­störungen, psychiatrische Begleitsymp­ligten einen hohen Stressfaktor. Die Ver­haltensauffälligkeiten sind der häufigste Grund für eine Heimeinweisung. Doch Alter


Yttrium-90 radiation synovectomy in knee osteoarthritis:a prospective assessment at 6 and 12 monthsDimitrios Chatzopoulosa, Efstratios Moralidisc, Pavlos Markoudand Vassilios MakrisbObjective To assess the outcome of yttrium-90 radiation(P = 0.850). The probability of a favourable therapeuticsynovectomy at 6 and 12 months in patients withresult was inversely related to the severity of radiog

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