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Microsoft word - ipexercisesheeInterActive Physiology Exercise Sheets
Below is a table display showing you the eight modules and topics covered in the IP ExerciseSheets, which begin on the next page.
Neuromuscular JunctionSliding Filament TheoryContraction of Whole Muscle Ion ChannelsMembrane PotentialThe Action Potential Ion ChannelsSynaptic TransmissionSynaptic Potentials and Cellular Integration Intrinsic Conduction System and CardiacAction PotentialCardiac CycleCardiac Output Factors that Affect Blood PressureBlood Pressure RegulationAutoregulation and Capillary Dynamics Pulmonary VentilationGas ExchangeControl of Respiration Glomerular FiltrationEarly Filtrate ProcessingLate Filtrate Processing Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance Introduction to Body FluidsWater HomeostasisAcid-Base Homeostasis Endocrine System ReviewBiochemistry, Secretion and Transport ofHormonesThe Actions of Hormones on Target CellsThe Hypothalamic-Pituitary AxisResponse to Stress The Muscular System: Neuromuscular Junction What insulates each muscle cell? _________________________ Synaptic vesicles in the axon terminal of a motor neuron contain what neurotransmitter? _________________________ An action potential in the axon terminal of a motor neuron opens what type of ion channels? _________________________ By what means of membrane transport does the neurotransmitter leave the Binding of neurotransmitter to the receptors on the motor endplate open what type of ion channels? _________________________ Opening of these channels leads to _______________ of the motor endplate.
How is the neurotransmitter removed from the synaptic cleft? As a result of question 6, an action potential is propagated along the _________________ of the muscle cell and down the _______________ The result of this action potential releases what ion from the terminal a. What effect did molecule “X” in the quiz have on the muscle contraction? c. What drug did molecule “X” act like? _______________ a. What effect did molecule “Y” have on the muscle contraction? c. What drug did molecule “Y” act like? _______________ a. What effect did molecule “Z” have on the muscle contraction? c. What drug did molecule “Z” act like? _______________ The Muscular System: Sliding Filament Theory a. The thick filament is composed of what molecule? Flexing the head of this molecule provides what is known as the The cross bridge (myosin head) contains binding sites for what two molecules? Three molecules make up the thin filament.
a. Which molecule has a binding site for myosin cross bridges? b. Which molecule covers this binding site? _________________________________________________ c. Which molecule has a binding site for calcium ions? What molecule must bind to the cross bridge in order for it to disconnect with Hydrolysis of the molecule in question 4 returns the myosin molecule to the _________________________ confirmation.
Binding of the cross bridges sequentially prevents _____________________ Name three roles for ATP in the contraction of muscle.
What molecule is connected to the Z line? _________________________ Which of the following shorten during contraction? (may be more than one) a. What is the name of the condition in which muscles become rigid after The Muscular System: Contraction of Whole Muscle Which of the following contract in an all or none fashion? The development of tension in a muscle, in response to a stimulus above threshold, is called a _______________________________.
Identify the three phases of a muscle twitch from the following definitions: Sarcomeres shorten _______________________________ Sarcomeres return to resting length __________________________ Sarcomeres at resting length _______________________________ b. In temporal summation, you must ______ (↑or↓) the time interval between Below is a list of the five phases of temporal summation. Put in the correct In the Motor Unit Summation section, how many motor units were required tolift the weights when: a. the weight was 160? ______________________ b. the weight was 80? _______________________ b. voltage when recruitment was obvious? ______ V c. voltage when all motor units were recruited? ______ V a. In the Length-Tension Relationship experiment, at what degree of stretch was the maximum tension developed? _______________________________ b. What would congestive heart failure be an example of? What structures in the cell membrane function as ion channels? Ion channels are selective for specific ions. What three characteristics of the ions are important for this selectivity? Channels can be classified as either active or passive channels. A sodium channel that is always open would be classified as a/an __________channel.
Would sodium ions move into or out of the neuron through these channels? Voltage-gated potassium channels open at what voltage? __________ mV Acetylcholine (ACh) and GABA are neurotransmitters that open chemically-gated channels. What ions pass into the cell when these channels areactivated? Ion channels are regionally located and functionally unique. List all the areason the neuron and the type of potential dependent on the following types ofion channels: From the quiz, place an “X” by the characteristics of voltage-gated sodiumchannels.
Important for resting membrane potential Name two channels (active or passive) through which chloride ions could passinto the cell through.
a. The Japanese puffer fish contains a deadly toxin (tetrodotoxin). What type of channels does this toxin block? _______________________________ b. What potential would this toxin block? ___________________________ c. What specifically would cause death? ____________________________ Record the intracellular and extracellular concentrations of the following ions(mM/L): Excitable cells, like neurons, are more permeable to ___________ than to___________.
How would the following alterations affect the membrane permeability to K+? Use arrows to indicate the change in permeability.
a. An increase in the number of passive K+ channels ___________ b. Opening of voltage-gated K+ channels ___________ c. Closing of voltage-gated K+ channels ___________ a. What acts as a chemical force that pushes K+ out of the cell? ___________ b. What force tends to pull K+ back into the cell? _____________________ When the two forces listed above are equal and opposite in a cell permeable only to K+, this is called the _________________________ potential for K+ In an excitable cell, also permeable to Na+ and Cl–, the gradients mentioned in question 4 would both tend to move Na+ ___________ the cell.
Would the gradients in question 4 promote or oppose the movement of Cl– into the cell? Since the neuron is permeable to Na+ as well as K+, the resting membrane potential is not equal to the equilibrium potential for K+, instead it is What opposes the movement (leakage) of Na+ and K+ ions? ______________ What will happen to the resting membrane potential of an excitable cell if:(Write pos or neg to indicate which way the membrane potential wouldchange.) ↑ extracellular fluid concentration of K+ ___________ ↓ extracellular fluid concentration of K+ ___________ ↑ extracellular fluid concentration of Na+ ___________ ↓ number of passive Na+ channels ___________ open voltage-gated K+ channels ___________ open voltage-gated Na+ channels ___________ a. The action potential changes the membrane potential from _______ mV (resting) to _______ mV and back again to the resting membrane b. This results from a change in membrane permeability first to _______ then to _______ due to the opening of what type of ion channels? a. Where is the density of voltage-gated Na+ channels the greatest? b. What areas of the neuron generate signals that open these voltage-gated channels? __________________________________________ c. Opening of these channels causes the membrane to __________________ (voltage change).
a. If the membrane reaches the trigger point, known as __________________, what electrical potential will be generated? __________________________________________ b. During the depolarization phase, voltage-gated __________ channels open What are the two processes that stop the potential from rising above +30 mV? a. The opening of voltage-gated K+ channels cause the membrane to b. Does K+ move into or out of the cell? __________________ c. If the membrane potential becomes more negative than –70 mV, this is d. This potential is caused by what characteristic of K+ permeability? __________________________________________ a. After an action potential, the neuron cannot generate another action potential because _______ channels are inactive. This period is called the b. During the ______________________ period, the cell can generate another action potential but only if the membrane is ___________ (more or a. Conduction velocity along the axon is increased by what two characteristics? b. Conduction along a myelinated axon is called __________________________ conduction.
a. Name the disease whose symptoms include loss of vision and increasing muscle weakness: __________________________(from the quiz section) b. What does this disease destroy? ________________________________ c. How does this stop an action potential? List four neurotransmitters that bind to ion channels, these neurotransmitters are called ___________________________-acting neurotransmitters.
a. The binding of ACh opens ion channels in the dendrites or cell body that permits both _______ and ____________ to move through them.
b. Which ion would move into the cell? ______________ out of the cell? c. Which ion has the greatest electrochemical gradient? ______________ d. The net movement of these two ions would do what to the cell? e. This would be called an _____________________________ postsynaptic potential, or ____________________.
a. An inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) causes a neuron to b. An example of a neurotransmitter that causes an IPSP is ______________.
c. What type of ions move into the cell in response to this neurotransmitter? a. Norepinephrine binds to a receptor that is separate from the ion channel.
This is known as a/an ______________________________ - acting b. Norepinephrine is known as the ___________________________messenger.
c. The receptor is coupled to the ion channel by a ___________________.
a. This activates an enzyme which induces the production of a b. An intracellular enzyme is activated and ____________________ the ionchannel.
c. As a result of this sequence of events, what channels are closed? d. What does this do to the neuron? ______________________________ Name three neurotransmitters that can only act indirectly.
Which of the four neurotransmitters mentioned in question 1 can also actindirectly? Which one of the four neurotransmitters mentioned in question 1 can only act directly? ______________________ The Nervous System II: Synaptic Transmission What channels in the presynaptic neuron open up in response to an action The presence of what ion inside the cell causes the synaptic vesicles to a. What is the name for the chemicals stored in the synaptic vesicles? b. What do these chemicals diffuse across? _________________________ c. Where do these chemicals bind to receptors? ______________________ What type of gated channels do these chemicals open? ________________ Name two ways these chemicals can be removed from the synaptic cleft.
The response on the postsynaptic cell depends on two factors: Name the two types of cholinergic receptors and indicate where these arefound.
Indicate where the following three adrenergic receptors are found: Autonomic nerves innervate what three things? The most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS is Two major inhibitory neurotransmitters in the CNS are: Name a drug that alters synaptic transmission in the following ways: a. blocks the action of the neurotransmitter at the postsynaptic membrane b. blocks the reuptake of the neurotransmitter at the presynaptic membrane c. blocks the release of the neurotransmitter ___________________ and The Nervous System II: Synaptic Potentials and Cellular Integration Enhanced postsynaptic potentials are due to increased _______ entering the terminal as a result of ____________________________________.
Presynaptic inhibition is due to decreased _______ entering the terminal as a result of ____________________________________.
a. Synaptic potentials are also known as ______________ potentials.
b. They _____________ as they travel away from the synapse.
a. Increasing the number of action potentials on an axon in a given period of time would cause __________________________ summation.
b. Increasing the number of synapses from different neurons would cause The magnitude of the EPSPs may be reduced (thus affecting their ability to generate and their action potential) by adding _______________________ potentials, or ____________________s.
Inhibitory synapses would have the maximum effect if located where? From the quiz, how many impulses did it take to cause an action potential: a. From the axon the furthest away from the cell body? ___________ b. From the axon located on the cell body? ___________ Pulses from how many neurons were required to stimulate the postsynaptic Compare action potentials and synaptic potentials: Intrinsic Conduction System and Cardiac Action Potential List the functions for the following parts of the intrinsic conduction system: c. AV bundle (bundle of His) ____________________________ d. Purkinje fibers ____________________________ On an ECG, what do the following wave forms reflect? b. QRS complex ____________________________ A left bundle branch block would have a wider than normal _____________.
How do the waves of depolarization, generated by the autorhythmic cellsspread to the muscle cells? Name the three channels essential for generating an action potential. Whichway do the ions move? (Circle into or out of)? a. ________________ channels into / out of the cell b. ________________ channels into / out of the cell c. ________________ channels into / out of the cell The pacemaker potential is due to a __________ efflux of ______ ions com- pared to a normal influx of ______ ions.
Threshold for the SA node is at ______ mV. What channels open causing The reversal of membrane potential causes the ______ channels to open causing the ________________ of the membrane.
Gap junctions allow what cations to pass into the cardiac contractile cellscausing the opening of voltage gated sodium channels? State the voltage-gated channels responsible for the following stages of theaction potential in cardiac contractile cells.
a. Depolarization _____________________________ c. Repolarization _____________________________ The Cardiovascular System, The Heart: Cardiac Cycle Valves open in response to __________________________ on their twosides.
List the chambers/vessels that the four valves connect: a. Ventricular filling occurs during ___________ ventricular __________.
b. Blood flows through the __________ or __________ valves into theventricles.
During Ventricular Systole, what closes the AV valves? During Ventricular Systole, what opens the semilunar valves? During Isovolumetric Relaxation, what closes the semilunar valves? During Isovolumetric Relaxation, what opens the AV valves? Looking at the ventricular volume graph, the stroke volume is During the four phases listed below, state whether the AV and semilunar valvesare opened or closed: The Cardiovascular System, The Heart: Cardiac Output Write the normal values (include correct units) for the following: a. HR (heart rate) = ___________________________ b. SV (stroke volume) = ___________________________ c. EDV (end diastolic volume) = ___________________________ d. ESV (end systolic volume) = ___________________________ Given the values for HR and SV, calculate cardiac output: Explain how the following factors affect HR, SV, and CO by placing arrows (↑, ↓,or ↔ for no change) under them.
Why would stroke volume increase with an increase in the sympatheticnervous system or an increase in calcium? Why would stroke volume increase when heart rate slows down? If stroke volume is 75 ml/beat and heart rate is 80 beats/min, how many of the soda bottles would equal the correct volume (from the quiz)? __________ The Cardiovascular System, Blood Vessels: Factors That Affect BloodPressure What are the three main factors that influence total peripheral resistance(TPR)? Name three hormones that act as vasoconstrictors.
Name two hormones that directly increase blood volume.
Track the effect on blood pressure by reducing venous return. Go through allthe steps.
Use arrows in the spaces for questions 6 through 10.
↓ in hematocrit will result in ____ blood viscosity and ____ blood pressure.
↑ in fatty tissue will result in ____ total vessel length and an Arteriosclerosis will result in ____ vessel elasticity and an ____ bloodpressure.
Excessive sweating will result in a short term ____ in blood volume An ↑ in epinephrine will result in ____ vessel diameter and an ____ in bloodpressure.
The Cardiovascular System, Blood Vessels: Blood Pressure Regulation a. Short term mechanisms for regulating blood pressure include regulating what three things? b. Long term mechanisms will regulate __________________________.
Two major arterial baroreceptors are located where? Using up and down arrows, show the effect of increased blood pressure (BP) onthe impulses sent to the brain, the effect on the parasympathetic (PNS) andsympathetic (SNS) nervous systems and the resulting change in blood pressure.
↑BP → ____ impulses →____ PNS and ____ SNS → ____ BP As a result of these changes in the PNS and SNS, list two effects on the heart andone on blood vessels.
Similar to question 3, show the effect of decreasing blood pressure.
↑BP → ____ impulses → ____ PNS and ____ SNS → ____ BP In addition to effects on the heart and blood vessels, what hormones were released from the adrenal gland? _________________________________ a. What cells in the kidney monitor low blood pressure? _________________ b. What enzyme is released as a result of low blood pressure? _____________ c. What does this enzyme act on in the blood? _________________ a. The main effect of aldosterone is: _______________________________ b. How does this increase blood volume? ____________________________ a. What other hormone will increase water reabsorption from the kidney? b. What is the major stimulus for this hormone? ______________________ The Cardiovascular System, Blood Vessels: a. What regulates the flow of blood into true capillaries? ________________ b. If all sphincters are closed, blood is ___________ to the venules through Use arrows to show whether high or low levels of the following would cause thefeeder arterioles to dilate and the sphincters to relax: Physical factors also act as regulatory stimuli. How would the following affectarterioles? a. Decreased blood pressure ____________________ b. Increased blood pressure ____________________ Name three structural characteristics of capillaries which allow for passage ofmaterials out of the capillaries.
a. Diffusion accounts for the passage of _________________________.
b. Non-lipid soluble molecules move by _________________________.
c. Water-soluble solutes, such as amino acids and sugars, move through Bulk fluid flows cause _____________ at the arterial end and ________________ at the venous end of the capillary.
a. In a capillary, what is equivalent to hydrostatic pressure? b. Why is hydrostatic pressure low in the interstitial fluid? c. Net hydrostatic pressure tends to move fluid ______ the capillary.
a. Osmotic (or Colloid Osmotic) pressure in the capillaries is _____________ compared to the interstitium.
b. Net osmotic pressure tends to move fluid _________ the capillaries.
Given a net hydrostatic pressure of 34 mmHg and a net osmotic pressure of 22 mmHg, the force favoring filtration would equal _____ mmHg.
Indicate which of the following which move through the capillary walls bydiffusion and which move through fenestrations and/or clefts: The Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation a. The relationship between pressure and volume is known as _________ Law.
b. Indicate the relationship with arrows below Mark “I” for the muscles that control inspiration and “E” for the muscles whichcontrol forceful expiration.
____ External oblique and rectus abdominus Intrapulmonary pressure ____s (↑ or ↓) during inspiration.
a. What pressure is always negative and helps to keep the lungs inflated? b. It is most negative during _____________________.
a. If transpulmonary pressure equals zero, what will happen to the lungs? b. This is known as a _____________________.
a. When the bronchiole constricts, what will happen to resistance? Name two other important factors that play roles in ventilation: For 8 through 10 fill in constrict or dilate, then ↑ and ↓ arrows: Histamine will ____________ bronchioles → ____ resistance →____ airflow Epinephrine will ____________ bronchioles → ____ resistance → ____airflow Acetylcholine will ____________ bronchioles → ____ resistance → ____airflow will (↑ or ↓) ___ compliance making it __________ to inflate the A decrease in surfactant will result in a ____ (↑ or ↓) in compliance.
The atmosphere is a mixture of gases. Write down the percentages for: Calculate the partial pressures of the following gases at both atmosphericpressures: What is the atmospheric pressure on the top of Mt. Whitney? ___________ Calculate the partial pressure of O2 on the top of Mt. Whitney. ______mmHg a. Why does more CO2 than O2 dissolve in liquid when both gases are at the same pressure? b. Name the law that explains this. _____________________ Efficient external respiration depends on three main factors - list them.
What three factors cause the partial pressures of gases in the alveoli to differfrom pressures in the atomosphere? When airflow is restricted so that the partial pressure of O2 is low and CO2 ishigh, what happens to the: Internal respiration depends on three factors - list them.
The planet Pneumo has a total atmospheric pressure of 900 mmHg. Oxygenand carbon dioxide each constitute 30% of the atmosphere.
a. What is the partial pressure of oxygen on the planet Pneumo? ________ b. Which gas would be found in the highest concentration in your blood? The Respiratory System: Control of Respiration a. Where is the inspiratory center located in the medulla? _______________ b. Where is the expiratory center located in the medulla? ________________ What is the most important stimulus controlling ventilation? ___________ What ion directly stimulates the central chemoreceptors? _____________ Arterial Po2 must drop below what to stimulate the peripheral If a person hyperventilates what will happen to the following in the blood? If a person hypoventilates what will happen to the following in the blood? a. What does lung hyperinflation stimulate? _________________________ b. The effect on inspiration is _________________________.
c. What is this reflex called? _________________________ Dust, smoke, and noxious fumes will stimulate receptors in airways.
a. Name the receptors. _________________________ Name four of the six factors that probably increase ventilation during exercise.
The Urinary System: Glomerular Filtration 1. What force drives filtration at the glomerulus?________________ 2. Glomerular filtration is a process of ___________________ driven by the _____________________________ of the blood.
3. Common components of the filtrate are divided into four categories 4. Blood pressure in the glomerulus is about _____ mmHg.
5. What two pressures oppose filtration and what are their values? 6. What is the normal net filtration pressure? _____ mmHg 7. With a glomerular filtration rate of 125 ml/min, how much plasma would be filtered per day? _____ in 24 hours 8. In an exercising individual the afferent arteriole will dilate or constrict (circle one) to avoid excess fluid loss.
9. Two mechanisms that provide autoregulatory control over renal 10. High osmolarity (or high Na+ and Cl–) in the ascending loop of Henle will cause afferent arterioles to dilate or constrict (circle one)by releasing _______________________.
11. In periods of extreme stress, the sympathetic nervous system will override autoregulation. An increase in sympathetic flow to the kidney will result in what two important effects that will aidmaintenance of blood pressure? The Urinary System: Early Filtrate Processing1. What are the two reabsorption pathways through the tubular cell barrier? 2. How can we cause water to diffuse from the lumen into the interstitial space? 3. Transport of what ion could cause the diffusion in question 2? 4. Summarize reabsorption in the proximal tubule.
5. What percent of the filtrate is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule? _________% 6. The simple squamous cells of the thin descending loop are permeable to __________________ but impermeable to ________________.
7. The ascending limb of the loop of Henle is permeable to _____________________ but impermeable to ____________________.
8. What is the role of the loop of Henle? 10. From the quiz section, what does furosemide do? 11. If you increase furosemide, what would happen to the following? (↑ or ↓) The Urinary System: Late Filtrate Processing 1. Name the two types of cells in the late distal tubules and cortical collecting 2. a. Aldosterone is stimulated by an increase or decrease in what ions? b. What does aldosterone increase in the basolateral membrane? 3. What does antidiuretic hormone (ADH) increase in the luminal membrane? 4. In dehydration and overhydration, what would be the levels of: a. ADH? ______ dehydration ______ overhydration (↑ or ↓) b. Aldosterone? ______ dehydration ______ overhydration (↑ or ↓) 5. Describe what moves out of the tubule and what the osmolartity would be in 6. a. By the medullary collecting duct, only _____% of the filtrate remains.
b. Under the following conditions, report the levels of ADH and subsequenturine osmolarity and flow rate: 7. a. Urine with a “high normal osmolarity” and containg RBC’s and protein b. Urine with a very high osmolartiy and glucose would indicate: c. Urine with a very low osmolarity and high volume would indicate: 8. An increase in plasma potassium levels would lead to what changes in the Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance: Introduction to Body Fluids 1. a. Where are fluids absorbed? ____________________ b. Where are excess fluids and electrolytes lost?____________________ 2. Name four of the six functions of water.
3. a. The amount of water in the body depends on the amount of b. From the CD, list the person with the highest and lowest percentage of waterand give the percentage.
4. List the three fluid compartments and the percentage of total body water in 5. Give an example of each of the following solutes: 6. List the major extracellular and intracellular cations and anions a. Extracellular cations: _______________ anions: _________________ b. Intracellular cations: ________________ anions: ________________ 7. Within a fluid compartment, the total number of ____________________ must be equal to the total number of _________________________.
8. Name four of the seven functions given for electrolytes: 9. Osmosis: When more solute particles are added to one side of a container with a semipermeable membrane, which way will the water move? 10. What happens to a patient’s red blood cells when the following solutions are a. Hypotonic solution _______________________________ b. Hypertonic solution _______________________________ c. Isotonic solution _______________________________ Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance: Water Homeostasis1. Below are listed the four examples of disturbances in water homeostasis.
Indicate if there is an increase (↑), decrease (↓), or no change (↔) in volumeand osmolarity. Give an example of each.
2. What are the four primary mechanisms to regulate fluid homeostasis? 3. Answer the following questions on antidiuretic hormone (ADH): a. What is the major stimulus? _______________________ b. What is the direct effect of the hormone? _______________________ c. What effect will this have on plasma volume and osmolarity?_______________________ d. What effect will this have on urine volume and osmolarity?_______________________ 4. List three ways dehydration leads to increased thirst: 5. Answer the following questions on the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System.
a. What enzyme is released from the kidney in response to decreased b. What enzyme converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II? ______________ c. What are two effects of angiotensin II? d. How does aldosterone cause more sodium to be reabsorbed in the kidney? e. As a result, what happens to blood volume and blood pressure? _______ 6. a. A decrease in blood volume and blood pressure will lead to a/an ______________ in the sympathetic nervous system (SNS).
b. This will result in a decrease (↓), and increase (↑), or no change (↔) in 1. ______ Afferent arteriolar constriction 7. a. Diabetes insipidus is due to ______________________________.
Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Balance: Acid-Base Homeostasis 1. List the three important buffer systems in the body: 2. Write the equation showing the relationship of CO2 and H2O levels with CO2 + H2O ↔ ___________ ↔ ___________ 3. A decrease in respiration will result in _____ CO2 and will shift the equation to the _______, resulting in an increase in _____ ions, making the plasma 4. When body pH is decreased, what are the three compensatory renal 5. a. Normal arterial pH is ___________ to ___________.
b. What is the pH in alkalosis? ________________ c. What is the pH in acidosis? ________________ 6. With ketoacidosis, show what happens to the following: b. ______ (Left or right) shift of the carbonic acid/bicarbonate system 7. With metabolic alkalosis, show what happens to the following: 8. With respiratory acidosis, show what happens to the following: 9. With respiratory alkalosis, show what happens to the following: Endocrine System: Endocrine System Review Hormones act at specific target organs because these organs contain __________ specific for the hormones.
Growth hormone, secreted by the _____ _______ gland, stimulates growth of bones and muscle by activating intermediary proteins called __________ (hormone) from the anterior pituitary stimulates secretion of cortisol from the ______ ________ (gland). The anterior pituitary consists The parafollicular or C-cells of the ____________ gland produce __________, a peptide hormone that lowers plasma calcium levels.
Hormones secreted by the pancreatic islets of the pancreas include ___________ from the _ cells and _______________ from the _ cells.
Which of these hormones raise blood glucose levels? Specialized muscle cells in the heart produce _________ (hormone), which increases excretion of _______ (electrolyte) by the kidneys.
___________ (hormone) promotes the final conversion of vitamin D to __________ (hormone) produced by G-cells in the pyloric antrum stimulates One ventral hypothalamic hormone (__________) is essential for the stress response and another (___________) inhibits release of prolactin.
___________ (hormone) is a stimulus for sperm production in the male and maturation of ovarian follicles in the female.
________, secreted by the pineal gland, helps regulate body activities with The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex primarily produces the hormone ___________, which acts on the _________ (organ) to increase ___ _______ ________ (gland) is a modified sympathetic ganglion producing the amine hormones known as _______________. This category of amine hormones includes both __________ and ______________ (two The ___________ (organ) produces a steroid hormone called ____________ in the interstitial cells and a peptide hormone called Large follicles in this gland (__________) contain a protein colloid called ______________ from which the hormones _______ and ______ are made.
These hormones regulate many metabolic functions and are important for nervous Nuclei in the ventral hypothalamus produce two hormones that are stored in the posterior pituitary. Name the two nuclei that produce these hormones and name the two hormones, one of which is important for water balance.
Endocrine System: Biochemistry, Secretion and Transport of Hormones Place the following hormones into one of the three categories of hormones (peptides, amines or steroids): T4 (thyroxin), estradial, norepinephrine, insulin, aldosterone, glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone, T3 (triiodothyronine), epinephrine, testosterone and vasopressin (ADH).
Peptide hormones are synthesized as large precursor hormones called ______________. The hormones (or prohormones) are stored in _______ ________ and released from the cell by ___________. Do peptide hormones require a carrier in the blood stream? Catecholemines are produced in the _________ of the adrenal gland and are classified as ___________ hormones since they are derived from ___________. Stimulation of the chromaffin cells causes an influx of ________ ions, which causes the vesicles to merge with the plasma membrane and release the hormone by __________. Are catecholemines water-soluble Thyroid hormones include two molecules called _____and ____. T3 consists of two ________ molecules plus ___ iodine molecules and is (more or less) abundant than T4. Are carriers required for the transport of thyroid All steroid hormones are derived from ____________, which steroid hormone is produced is determined by the _________ present in the cell. The common precursor molecule for all steroid hormones is _______________.
Steroid hormones enter the blood stream by __________ and __________ (do or do not) require a carrier. The rate of secretion of steroid hormones is (faster or slower) than catecholemines because steroid hormones are not Preganglionic sympathetic fibers trigger the release of ___________ and __________ (hormones) from the ________ _______ (gland), this is an example of neural regulation of hormone secretion.
Two examples of hormonal regulation of hormone secretion include: 1) the negative feedback of T3 & T4 to decrease _____ levels; and 2) the negative feedback of cortisol which decreases both ______ and _____ levels.
Besides increased levels of plasma glucose and amino acids (humoral regulation), increased levels of both _______ (hormone) and the __________ nervous system increase plasma insulin levels.
Some hormones are released in rhythmic 24 hour patterns know as _____________ rhythms. _____________ is a hormone where stressful stimuli can override this pattern and increase the plasma hormone levels. In contrast, _______ hormones (amine hormones) are an example where large amounts of the hormones are bound to carrier proteins in the plasma forming a large circulating reservoir. Thus, acute changes do not produce large changes in the plasma level of this hormone.
The _______ and _________ are the major organs that metabolize hormones. The type of hormone determines how fast they are metabolized.
_________ and ____________ are rapidly metabolized, while __________ and _________ take longer to metabolize.
Endocrine System: The Actions of Hormones on Target Cells The receptor is activated by the input signal that is the ______________.
This signal causes a biochemical change in the cell. Name three of the five possible changes listed. _________________ Water soluble proteins such as __________ and ______________ bind to receptors located where on the cell? __________________ -What is bound to the G protein in the inactive state? ________ In the active -What catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cAMP? _________ _________ -What is known as the first messenger? _________Second messenger? -A molecule of cAMP activates ________ ________ __, which can -A single molecule of a hormone can have a large effect on the cell due to this -What is the enzyme that inactivates cAMP? _________________ -Insulin decreases plasma glucose, amino acids and fatty acids by stimulating the conversion of them to their storage form. Name these storage forms.
- Conversion to the storage form is known as _________ metabolism.
-After a meal, high levels of glucose, amino acids and fatty acids lead to a/an (decrease or increase) in insulin secretion.
-The autonomic nervous system also regulates insulin secretion. What effects would the sympathetic and parasympathetic system have on insulin secretion? -Insulin travels in the blood and binds to what type of receptors on the cell -What is the approximate half-life of insulin? _________ -What hormone increases plasma glucose levels? _________ This hormone breaks down the storage forms and this is known as __________ metabolism.
-Type (1 or 2) diabetes is characterized by a resistance of the target cells to insulin. Plasma insulin levels are normal or high.
-In type 1 diabetes, the lack of insulin and glycogenolysis in the liver leads to - With the increase in filtration of glucose at the kidneys the carriers become ________ and glucose appears in the urine, also known as ___________.
-Glucose acts as an _________ __________ leading to increased urine flow.
-Increased lipolysis produces an increase in _______ ______ which when - The presence of these in plasma and urine is known respectively as -Lipid soluble hormones such as _________ and __________ hormone bind to receptors located _______________.
-Once the hormone binds to the receptor, the ___________ dissociates from -The hormone receptor complexes act as ____________ _________.
-The receptor-hormone complex then binds to ______.
-The mRNA produces _________________ that catalyze biochemical Cortisol is classified as a ________ hormone. Name 4 major actions of These actions are important for the stress response.
The main function of thyroid hormones is: ______________________.
Endocrine System: The Hypothalamic – Pituitary Axis The anterior pituitary is composed of __________ tissue. Name the six classic hormones whose functions are well known.
TRH, GNRH, CRH etc. are known as ____________ hypothalamic hormones which regulate the function of the _________ pituitary. These hormones are released into capillary beds and carried directly to the pituitary by the __________ ________ ________ located in the __________________.
_____________ and ________________, the posterior pituitary hormones are synthesized in the ____________ and _______________ nuclei of the hypothalamus. They are stored in the axon terminals located in the __________ pituitary. Similar to neurotransmitters, an ________ ________ in the neuron causes their release.
In negative feedback, the target hormone feeds back to alter the release of the anterior or hypothalamic hormones thus (increasing or decreasing) its own Give an example of a hormone that has negative feedback mainly to the Give an example of a hormone that has negative feedback to both the anterior pituitary and the ventral hypothalamus. ____________ Prolactin is unique in that the main ventral hypothalamic hormone regulating its secretion (___________), inhibits its release.
____________ (hormone) increases prolactin release. Very high levels of this hormone during pregnancy actually block the effect of prolactin on milk _________ hormones are necessary for the release of __________ hormone.
This is an example of modulation of a hormone by a target hormone of Suckling of an infant causes milk letdown by stimulating what hormone? Changes in osmolarity detected by chemically sensitive neurons in the hypothalamus will alter what hormone’s level? ______________ Cortisol release is synchronized by the light/dark cycle and has a 24 hour pattern of secretion known as a _____________ rhythm. Levels are highest Besides controlling levels of T3 and T4, TSH also promotes __________ of the thyroid gland. T3 and T4 are carried in the blood stream bound to _________ ________ because they are (hydrophilic or lipophilic).
T3 and T4 enter the target cells by __________ and bind to receptors located ______________. T3 and T4 are synthesized from ___________ and Which of the following would be symptoms of hypothyroidism also known as Lack of dietary iodine would cause (primary or secondary) hypothyroidism and the patient would probably get an iodine-deficient _________.
Graves’ disease is the most common cause of primary ___________________. The body secretes _________ __________ ____________, which mimics the action of TSH and thus may cause a ___________ as well as high levels of thyroid hormones.
What two body systems work together to provide well coordinated, generalized, nonspecific responses to combat stress? _______________ and Increased levels of what three hormones indicate that an individual is In the nervous system’s response to stress, ____________ and exert many effects on the body. Choose the correct response in the pairs listed.
↑ or ↓ blood flow to digestive system ↑ or ↓ plasma levels of glucose, fatty acids etc In response to stress, the hypothalamus increases the release of CRH, which increases ________ from the anterior pituitary and ___________ from the adrenal cortex. These hormones prolong the response to stress provided by the Cortisol enhances ____________________ (in vessels) to help maintain blood pressure and also (increases or inhibits) the inflammation and immune Besides cortisol, the adrenal cortex releases _______________, which promotes salt and water retention, which helps maintain blood volume and ____________ (posterior pituitary hormone) also aids in the stress response by promoting water retention and at high levels it is a potent _______________. Both of these help maintain blood pressure.
Epinephrine is a (lipophilic or hydrophilic) hormone. Thus it (does or does not) require a protein carrier and the receptors at the target cell are located _______________. Epinephrine is synthesized from ______________ and has a very short half-life of ______.
_______________ is a condition in which there is hypersecretion of catecholamines by a tumor in the adrenal medulla. Which of the following symptoms would be present in a patient with this condition? Cortisol is a (lipophilic or hydrophilic) hormone. Thus it (does or does not) require a protein carrier and the receptors on the target organ are located _____________. Cortisol is synthesized from _____________ and has a Hypercortisolism is better known as ___________ __________, which is due to a hypersecreting tumor in the anterior pituitary. What hormone is being hypersecreted? _________________. Hypercortisolism from all other causes, such as glucocorticoid drugs, is known as __________ Primary adrenal insufficiency is better known as __________ _______.
What two hormones are deficient? _____________ and _______________ The following symptoms would be characteristic of which disease? Low blood pressure, decreased plasma sodium and hypoglycemia The following symptoms would be characteristic of which disease? high blood pressure, poor wound healing and hyperglycemia Classify the following as either part of the rapid response (R) to stress mediated by the sympathetic nervous system or the prolonged (P) response of the endocrine system: maintains gas exchange _____
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